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AP CHEMISTRY Summer Assignment AP Chemistry is a difficult course. It is not all about memorization; however, having these items memorized is essential for success in learning the concepts covered in the course. Make flashcards, have your friends and family quiz you, take the lists with you on vacation, or do whatever it takes to get this information firmly planted in your head. Do not wait until the night before school begins. The first day test will cover six areas of memorization: 1. Polyatomic Ions (including name, symbol and charge) 2. Variable Valences (Charge) for Transition Metals 3. Rules for Naming Acids 4. Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds 5. The Solubility Rules 6. Determining Oxidation Numbers Rules for Determining Oxidation Number Oxidation Number: A number assigned to an atom in a molecular compound or molecular ion that indicates the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms. 1. The oxidation number of any uncombined element is O. 2. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion equal the charge on the ion. 3. The more electronegative element in a binary compound is assigned the number equal to the charge it would have if it were an ion. 4. The oxidation number of fluorine in a compound is always –1 5. Oxygen has an oxidation number of –2 unless it is combined with F, when it is +2, or it is in a peroxide, when it is –1. 6. The oxidation state of hydrogen in most of its compounds is+1 unless it combined with a metal, in which case it is –1. 7. In compounds, the elements of groups 1 and 2 as well as aluminum have oxidation number of +1, +2, and +3, respectively 8. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is O. 9. The sum of the oxidation number of all atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion. Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds 1. Balance Charges (charges should equal zero) 2. Cation is always written first ( in name and in formula) 3. Change the ending of the anion to -ide Solubility Rules 1. All compounds containing alkali metal cations and the ammonium ion are soluble. 2. All compounds containing NO3, ClO4, ClO3, and C2H3O2- anions are soluble. 3. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg2+. 4. All sulfates are soluble except those containing Hg2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, or Ba2+. 5. All hydroxides are insoluble except compounds of the alkali metals, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. 6. All compounds containing PO43-, S2-, CO32-, and SO32- ions are insoluble except those that also contain alkali metals or NH4+. Variable Valences for Transition Metals Chromium +2, +3 Manganese +2, +3 Iron +2, +3 Cobalt +2, +3 Copper +1, +2 Lead +2, +4 Mercury (This one is weird) Hg2+2 , Hg+2 Tin +2, +4 Gold +1, +3 Rules for Naming an Acid 1. When the name of the anion ends in –ide, the acid name begins with the prefix hydro-, the stem of the anion has the suffix –ic and it is followed by the word acid. -ide becomes hydro _____ic Acid Cl- is the Chloride ion so HCl = hydrochloric acid 2. When the anion name ends in –ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ous, followed by the word acid. -ite becomes ______ous Acid ClO2 - is the Chlorite ion so HClO2. = Chlorous acid. 3. When the anion name ends in –ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ic, followed by the word acid. -ate becomes ______ic Acid ClO3 is the Chlorate ion so HClO3 = Chloric acid. Review writing chemical formulas (also known as nomenclature). a. Go to the following links to review writing formulas: http://members.aol.com/profchm/naming.html http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/Nomenclature.html http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Nomenclature/Nomenclature.html b. Go to the following links to practice writing formulas. Try at least 10 from each page. Read the directions at the top of the page before trying. http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/newlechelp/namingcs.html (Formulas to names.) http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/homework/hwnaming.html (Formulas to names.) http://proton.csudh.edu/homeworkcs/hwstocknamingcsn7.html (Don't forget to use Roman numerals when using the Stock System.) http://proton.csudh.edu/homeworkcs/hwnamestoformulascsn7.html (Names to formulas) Concept Questions (Answer all of the following questions.) 1. Describe how a meter is divided into smaller units of measure. In table form, name each piece and give a mathematical expression to show what part of a meter it is in both fractions and decimals. 2. Describe how meters are grouped together to make larger units of measure. In table form, name each group and give a mathematical expression to show how many meters it is. 3. How are volume units related to length? 4. Name and describe the use of two common devices to measure volume. 5. How does mass differ from weight? Give two examples of each. 6. Exactly what does temperature measure? 7. Describe three or more advantages of the Celsius scale over the Fahrenheit temperature scale. 8. Why are measurements not exact; that is, why are they uncertain? 9. When you multiply or divide numbers, how do you determine the number of significant figures? 10. Describe how to use a conversion factor to change from one number to another. 11. Describe three ways that an element is different from a compound. 12. In addition to direct decomposition, name two other chemical tests that might help to identify a substance. 13. How does a solution differ from a mixture? 14. Briefly describe the process of distillation, fractional distillation, and fractional crystallization. What are the main uses of each? 15. Cite, in your own words, the four main postulates of Dalton's atomic theory. 16. Describe an implication of the Law of Conservation of Mass. 17. State the Law of Definite Proportion (or Constant Composition). Why might some compounds seem not to conform to this law? 18. State the Law of Multiple Proportions. How is this law important in determining chemical formulas? 19. How does a scientific law differ from a civil law? 20. Where are electrons located in an atom? What is an electron's relative mass? 21. Describe how the atomic nucleus was discovered. 22. In a table, describe the particles that compose an atomic nucleus. Include the name, charge, mass, and location of each particle. 23. Define an isotope. List 3 isotopes of carbon. 24. How is an anion formed from an atom? How is a cation formed? 25. Why can't you buy a bottle of chloride ions? 26. How is an ionic bond formed? 27. Describe how the modern relative atomic mass system has developed. 28. If the atomic mass of a hydrogen atom was 100 amu, calculate the relative atomic mass of C, He, S, and Rb 29. Describe how the mass spectrometer works. 30. Define empirical formula. 31. Why must the formulas of ionic compounds be written as empirical formulas, rather than the molecular formula? 32. Convert 6.58 grams of ammonium chloride to moles 33. Convert 2.18 moles of silicon dioxide to grams. 34. To find the limiting reactant for a reaction you must compare 2 quantities; what are they? 35. How does theoretical yield differ from actual yield? 36. Describe how percent yield is determined? Be sure to describe the information you need to know in order to perform the calculation.
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