AP CHEMISTRY Summer Assignment by HC12110503583

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									                        AP CHEMISTRY Summer Assignment
       AP Chemistry is a difficult course. It is not all about memorization; however, having
these items memorized is essential for success in learning the concepts covered in the
course. Make flashcards, have your friends and family quiz you, take the lists with
you on vacation, or do whatever it takes to get this information firmly planted in your
head. Do not wait until the night before school begins.

The first day test will cover six areas of memorization:
1. Polyatomic Ions (including name, symbol and charge)
2. Variable Valences (Charge) for Transition Metals
3. Rules for Naming Acids
4. Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds
5. The Solubility Rules
6. Determining Oxidation Numbers

Rules for Determining Oxidation Number
Oxidation Number: A number assigned to an atom in a molecular compound or
molecular ion that indicates the general distribution of electrons among the bonded
atoms.
1. The oxidation number of any uncombined element is O.
2. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion equal the charge on the ion.
3. The more electronegative element in a binary compound is assigned the number
equal to the charge it would have if it were an ion.
4. The oxidation number of fluorine in a compound is always –1
5. Oxygen has an oxidation number of –2 unless it is combined with F, when it is +2,
or it is in a peroxide, when it is –1.
6. The oxidation state of hydrogen in most of its compounds is+1 unless it combined
with a metal, in which case it is –1.
7. In compounds, the elements of groups 1 and 2 as well as aluminum have oxidation
number of +1, +2, and +3, respectively
8. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is O.
9. The sum of the oxidation number of all atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge
of the ion.
Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds
1. Balance Charges (charges should equal zero)
2. Cation is always written first ( in name and in formula)
3. Change the ending of the anion to -ide
Solubility Rules
1. All compounds containing alkali metal cations and the ammonium ion are soluble.
2. All compounds containing NO3, ClO4, ClO3, and C2H3O2- anions are soluble.
3. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag+, Pb2+,
or Hg2+.
4. All sulfates are soluble except those containing Hg2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, or Ba2+.
5. All hydroxides are insoluble except compounds of the alkali metals, Ca2+, Sr2+, and
Ba2+.
6. All compounds containing PO43-, S2-, CO32-, and SO32- ions are insoluble except
those that also contain alkali metals or NH4+.
Variable Valences for Transition Metals
Chromium +2, +3
Manganese +2, +3
Iron +2, +3
Cobalt +2, +3
Copper +1, +2
Lead +2, +4
Mercury (This one is weird) Hg2+2 , Hg+2
Tin +2, +4
Gold +1, +3

Rules for Naming an Acid
1. When the name of the anion ends in –ide, the acid name begins with the prefix
hydro-, the stem of the anion has the suffix –ic and it is followed by the word
acid. -ide becomes hydro _____ic Acid
Cl- is the Chloride ion so HCl = hydrochloric acid
2. When the anion name ends in –ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with
the suffix –ous, followed by the word acid.
-ite becomes ______ous Acid
ClO2
- is the Chlorite ion so HClO2. = Chlorous acid.
3. When the anion name ends in –ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with
the suffix –ic, followed by the word acid.
-ate becomes ______ic Acid
ClO3
 is the Chlorate ion so HClO3 = Chloric acid.
Review writing chemical formulas (also known as nomenclature).
        a. Go to the following links to review writing formulas:
       http://members.aol.com/profchm/naming.html
       http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/Nomenclature.html
       http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Nomenclature/Nomenclature.html
       b. Go to the following links to practice writing formulas. Try at least 10
       from each page. Read the directions at the top of the page before
       trying.

       http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/newlechelp/namingcs.html (Formulas to
        names.)
       http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/homework/hwnaming.html (Formulas to
        names.)
       http://proton.csudh.edu/homeworkcs/hwstocknamingcsn7.html
        (Don't forget to use Roman numerals when using the Stock System.)
       http://proton.csudh.edu/homeworkcs/hwnamestoformulascsn7.html
        (Names to formulas)


Concept Questions (Answer all of the following questions.)

   1. Describe how a meter is divided into smaller units of measure. In table form, name
       each piece and give a mathematical expression to show what part of a meter it is in
       both fractions and decimals.
   2. Describe how meters are grouped together to make larger units of measure. In table
       form, name each group and give a mathematical expression to show how many meters
       it is.
   3. How are volume units related to length?
   4. Name and describe the use of two common devices to measure volume.
   5. How does mass differ from weight? Give two examples of each.
   6. Exactly what does temperature measure?
   7. Describe three or more advantages of the Celsius scale over the Fahrenheit
       temperature scale.
   8. Why are measurements not exact; that is, why are they uncertain?
   9. When you multiply or divide numbers, how do you determine the number of significant
       figures?
   10. Describe how to use a conversion factor to change from one number to another.
   11. Describe three ways that an element is different from a compound.
   12. In addition to direct decomposition, name two other chemical tests that might help to
       identify a substance.
   13. How does a solution differ from a mixture?
14. Briefly describe the process of distillation, fractional distillation, and fractional
    crystallization. What are the main uses of each?
15. Cite, in your own words, the four main postulates of Dalton's atomic theory.
16. Describe an implication of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
17. State the Law of Definite Proportion (or Constant Composition). Why might some
    compounds seem not to conform to this law?
18. State the Law of Multiple Proportions. How is this law important in determining
    chemical formulas?
19. How does a scientific law differ from a civil law?
20. Where are electrons located in an atom? What is an electron's relative mass?
21. Describe how the atomic nucleus was discovered.
22. In a table, describe the particles that compose an atomic nucleus. Include the name,
    charge, mass, and location of each particle.
23. Define an isotope. List 3 isotopes of carbon.
24. How is an anion formed from an atom? How is a cation formed?
25. Why can't you buy a bottle of chloride ions?
26. How is an ionic bond formed?
27. Describe how the modern relative atomic mass system has developed.
28. If the atomic mass of a hydrogen atom was 100 amu, calculate the relative atomic
    mass of C, He, S, and Rb
29. Describe how the mass spectrometer works.
30. Define empirical formula.
31. Why must the formulas of ionic compounds be written as empirical formulas, rather
    than the molecular formula?
32. Convert 6.58 grams of ammonium chloride to moles
33. Convert 2.18 moles of silicon dioxide to grams.
34. To find the limiting reactant for a reaction you must compare 2 quantities; what are
    they?
35. How does theoretical yield differ from actual yield?
36. Describe how percent yield is determined? Be sure to describe the information you
    need to know in order to perform the calculation.

								
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