Lifeline University of Toronto by mikeholy


									Lifeline UTM Blood and Stem Cell Society
Lifeline is dedicated to raising awareness of the importance of blood and stem cell donations
both on campus and the surrounding region. Our main goal is to encourage students and their
families to become life-long supporters of blood donation. The society will aid Canadian Blood
Services, OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Transplants, and associated groups with the
advertisement, facilitation and maintenance of temporary blood donation clinics and stem cell
registration at the University of Toronto Mississauga Campus. The group will also hold
informational and promotional events on a regular basis.

Membership is open to all members of the public. Only members of the University may be
elected or appointed as executives of the Society unless otherwise stated in the constitution.

What is Canadian Red Blood Services?
   •   MANDATE: To manage a safe, secure, and accessible supply of blood and blood products
       for Canada (except Quebec)
   •   National, independent, not-for-profit charitable organization
   •   Founded in 1998, taking over from the Red Cross
   •   Also manages the OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network
   •   Over 40 permanent collection sites
   •   Over 15,000 mobile clinics/year
   •   Collect around 900,000 units of blood annually
   •   Serves 650 health care facilities
   •   4500 employees with annual budget close to one billion.
   •   Estimated 17,000 volunteers contributing 264, 000 hours / year

What is the Purpose of Lifeline?
   •   MANDATE: To raise awareness about blood donation and to recruit and retain blood
       donors on the UTM campus.
   •   Lifeline is divided into two groups:
           • Executive Members
           • General Members
   •   General Members:
           • Oversee the organization of events
           • Build connections with other organizations on campus
           • Please see Constitution for all the descriptions of each executive member
   •   General Members:
           • Recruit and help retain donors by participating in events.
           • Give their input in order to create new events and improve old ones.
           • Ideas for projects can be brought up at any time during a meeting or simply by
                contacting one of the Execs
           • Help Executives organize events
General Information for Possible Donors and Future Members
What is Blood?
  • Specialized cells suspended in plasma
  • Constantly circulating throughout body
  • Carries oxygen and nourishment to cells and removes waste products
  • Supports body’s immune system and capacity to heal itself

Components of Blood:
  • Whole blood contains 4 main elements:
                • Red blood cells – carry oxygen to tissue
                • Platelets – used in coagulation (clotting)
                • Plasma – maintains blood volume and blood pressure, and prevents
                    excessive bleeding
                • White blood cells – fight infection
  • These components may be transfused separately or together to treat various
     conditions. Each donation of whole blood is separated into the above mentioned four

Blood Types and Patient/Donor Compatibilities
Blood Type % of Blood Type Amongst all Patient Types Compatible with Patient Types Compatible with
(Donor)     Canadians                       the Red Blood Cells of Donor the Plasma of Donor
                                                                         (Rh not indicated)

A+            36                          A+, AB+                        A, O
A-            6                           A-, A+, AB-, AB+               A, O

O+            39                          O+, A+, B+, AB+                O

O-            7                           All Blood Types                O

B+            7.6                         B+, AB +                       B, O
B-            1.4                         B-, B+, AB-, AB+               B, O

AB+           2.5                         AB+                            All Blood Types

AB-           0.5                         AB-, AB+                       All Blood Types

Blood Types
   •   There are four major blood groups A, O, B, and AB divided into Rh Positive and Rh
       Negative types: A (Rh Positive); A (Rh Negative); O (Rh Positive); O (Rh Negative); B
       (Rh Positive); B (Rh Negative); AB (Rh Positive); and, AB (Rh Negative).
   •   The group you belong to depends on the presence or absence of proteins and sugars
       called antigens on the surface of your blood cells as well as the proteins called antibodies
       in the watery part of your blood
   •   15% of all Canadians are Rh negative
   •   The most common blood type in Canada is O Rh positive ~39% of the population has it
   •   AB Rh negative is the rarest form of blood ~1% of Canadians have it
   •   O- is the universal blood donor
   •   AB is the universal blood recipient
   •   O and A blood groups are always in high demand but all are needed
   •   There is no ‘best’ blood type

What It Takes To Give
  • On average, 4.6 units of blood are required per patient
  • In 2004/2005 Canadian Blood Services collected approximately 850,000 units of
       whole blood
  • Giving blood only takes about one hour
  • Average person has about 5 – 6 Litres of Blood
  • Normal collection is one unit (450 mL)
  • How often you are eligible to donate:
                   • Plasma – 1 week
                   • Platelets – 2 weeks
                   • Red blood cells – 56 days
  • Identification: Identification with full name and picture such as a driver’s license.
  • Age: Between 17 and 71 birthday (regular donor), or between 17 and 61 birthday (first-
       time donor).
  • Weight: At least 50 kg (110 lbs)
  • Frequency: Interval between whole blood donations is 56 days
  • You should be in good health and feel well
  • You should have had something to eat and had adequate sleep
  • You must also meet hemoglobin (iron) requirements (test done at clinic)
  • At the time of donation, you will be asked a number of questions to determine your

Uses of Blood
   • Platelets – cancer patients, hemophiliacs, etc.
   • Red cells – anemia patients, cancer patients, trauma patients etc.
   • Plasma – serious burns, shock, cancer, bone marrow therapy, etc.

How Much Blood Is Needed…
  • Fractured hip/Joint replacement – 2 to 5 units
  • Auto accident/Gunshot wound – up to 50 units
  • Cancer treatment – up to 8 units per week
   •   Bleeding ulcer – 3 to 30 units
   •   Brain surgery – 4 to 10 units
   •   Cardiovascular surgery – 2 to 25 units
   •   Liver transplant – up to 100 units

The Donation Process
    • Photo identification is presented to the receptionist.
    • First time donors will be given a “First Time Donor” sticker to inform nurses to be more
    • Iron levels are checked when there is an available nurse.
    • A series of questions are provided on the back of the donor’s information printout to
        check eligibility.
    • The donor must read the information presented about testing for diseases, HIV
        symptoms, etc.
    • A nurse takes the donor into a private room where more questions are asked about the
        donor to further check eligibility.
    • Temperature and blood pressure are measured in the room.
Lastly, a ‘Yes, use my blood,’ or ‘No, don’t use my blood’ sticker is available for donors to put
on their information sheet in private, without the nurse present

About Stem Cells
   • Stem cells are blood forming cells that are sometimes called "hematopoietic" or
      "progenitor" cells.
   • They are immature cells that are capable of developing into any of the cells present in the
      bloodstream: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and other blood components.
   • Patients who have a disease that inhibits their ability to produce these cells will need a
      transplant of healthy stem cells from a donor.

There are two stem cell products that OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network donors can
provide; stem cells from the bone marrow and stem cells obtained from the circulating blood. A
third stem cell product can be obtained from the umbilical cord blood after a baby is born and
then stored in a Cord Blood Bank.

Bone marrow is the soft, jelly-like tissue that is found in the hollow centres of bone. Bone
marrow can be likened to the factory that produces stem cells which are the building blocks of
blood itself. Donors donating bone marrow will undergo a surgical procedure where the stem
cells are collected from the pelvic bones.

A small number of stem cells are also released into the circulating (peripheral) blood. There
are drugs available that can be given to a donor to dramatically increase the release of the stem
cells into the circulating blood so they can be collected directly from the blood stream.

Donors may be asked to donate either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells depending on
which product is considered to be the best choice for the patient.
Diseases Treated By Stem Cells
A variety of diseases and disorders are treated with stem cell transplants including:
• Specific forms of cancer:
       • Leukemias
       • Lymphomas
       • Myeloma
• Bone marrow deficiency diseases caused by abnormal red blood cell production, such as
   thalassemia or sickle cell disease
• Aplastic Anemia which is the lack of normal blood cell production
• Immune system disorders (immunodeficiencies)
• Metabolic Disorders

How Does Matching Work?
When an individual joins the OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network, a sample of the
registrant's DNA is extracted. This material is used to identify a number of the registrant's
Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) which are then stored our database for patient searches.
Human leukocyte antigens are genetic markers found on the proteins of white blood cells. These
markers are inherited from our parents and a number of antigens have been identified as
important when matching donor and patient. Obviously, the closer the match between the patient
and donor, the better the outcome will be for the patient.

Sometimes, when a perfectly matched donor cannot be found within a suitable timeframe, the
transplant physician will choose to select a "mismatched" donor. What this means is that a less
perfectly matched donor may be selected to provide a donation for a patient.
The patient's transplant physician will first look for a compatible donor in the patient's family
and will arrange for testing of appropriate relatives. In general, the most likely family members
to match will be the siblings. However, chances of finding a compatible donor in the family are
less than 30% and the remainder of patients will rely on a volunteer from the OneMatch Stem
Cell and Marrow Network to help.

Once the transplant physician has determined that no suitable related donor is available, a request
will be made to the OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network to coordinate the search for a
donor. A patient search involves the Canadian network as well as all international donor
registries. Today, Canadian patients have access to over 11 million donors. Even with this many
donors and the best efforts of everyone involved a donor cannot always be found.
Every patient's search is different - some patients have many donors available because they have
inherited common antigens and their markers are inherited in a common combination of alleles.
In fact these markers occur with different frequencies in different ethnic groups. For example,
markers common in Caucasians might be rarely found in the Asian community and vice versa.
So, while not always the case, patients are more likely to find a donor in their own ethnic
community - that is why it is so important to have as many Canadians from diverse ethnic
communities as possible join.
With a sufficiently large and diversified network we can give more hope to patients in Canada
and around the world.
The Stem Cell Transplant
Certain diseases and disorders destroy bone marrow or cause it to function abnormally. Given
that bone marrow produces blood, the life of a person with malfunctioning bone marrow is at
risk. Treatment can involve replacing the patient's bone marrow through a stem cell transplant
using donated bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cells or cord blood. You may be more
familiar with the term bone marrow transplant as opposed to stem cell transplant, but the same
stem cells are found in our peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. The source of the stem
cells selected depends on the patient's needs.

To prepare for a transplant, the recipient is usually given high doses of radiation, chemotherapy,
or both, to destroy the diseased marrow. Patients who receive a stem cell transplant must remain
isolated in a sterile room until the transplant has been successful and their new bone marrow has
produced sufficient white blood cells to protect their system against surrounding bacteria.

A stem cell transplant is not the only solution for diseases such as leukemia and other cancers
that result in the abnormal functioning of bone marrow. Treatments such as chemotherapy,
radiotherapy and specialized medications are tried first to attempt to stop the disease. However,
in some cases, these treatments do not work, and the only way to save a patient is to replace their
stem cells with those from a person in good health.

Myths About Stem Cell Donation
There are some myths about stem cell donation and we hope that reading the following will help
to dispel them.

Myth: Stem cells are taken from the spinal cord.

Fact: The donor's spinal cord is unaffected in the collection of stem cells. For a bone marrow donation, the
collection of the stem cells is taken from the iliac crest which sits at the back of the pelvic bone. The day-
procedure (operation) takes place under general anaesthesia.

Myth: All stem cell donations involve surgery.

Fact: Some donations involve surgery and some do not. Canadian Blood Services may ask donors to give
stem cells from their bone marrow or peripheral blood. Where bone marrow donation is a surgical
procedure, peripheral blood stem cell donation is a non-surgical procedure done in an outpatient clinic.
Peripheral blood stem cell donation involves removing a donor's blood through a sterile needle in one arm.
The blood is passed through a machine that separates out the stem cells used in transplantation. The
remaining blood is returned through the other arm. The patient's doctor will decide what type of donation is
best for the patient.
Myth: Stem cell donation is painful.

Fact: Canadian Blood Services facilitates two types of procedures - stem cell donation from bone marrow
or peripheral blood stem cell donation. For bone marrow donation, the collection of stem cells is taken from
the iliac crest and this type of procedure is done under general anaesthetic so the donor experiences no pain.
For peripheral blood stem cell donation, the collection is a non-surgical procedure done in an outpatient
clinic and does not involve anaesthetic. The donor does not experience pain during either procedure.

Myth: Stem cell donation involves a lengthy recovery process.

Fact: Bone marrow donors can expect to feel some soreness in their lower back. There have also been
reports of donors feeling tired and having some discomfort walking for a couple of days or longer. Most
donors are back to their usual routine in a few days. Some may take a few weeks before they feel
completely recovered.
Peripheral blood stem cell donors report varying symptoms including headache, bone or muscle pain,
nausea, insomnia and fatigue. These effects disappear shortly after donating.

Myth: If I donate stem cells, they cannot be replaced.

Fact: The body replaces the stem cells within six weeks. After donating, most donors are back to their usual
routine in a few days.

Myth: I come from a large family, so if I ever need a stem cell transplant, I should have no problem finding
a match within my family.

Fact: The requirements for finding a match are so precise that fewer than 30% of those in need can receive
a transplant from someone in their own family. That is why we maintain the OneMatch Stem Cell and
Marrow Network - a network of Canadians who are ready to donate to any patient in need.

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