Cuban Immigration by i33O8b

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									Cuban Immigration
Sierra Wright
History of Cuban
Immigration
   There have been 4 distinct waves of
    Cuban immigrants to the US
    – 1959-1962
    – 1965-1974
    – 1980
    – 1989-2009
First Wave (1959-1962)
   Because of the rise of Fidel Castro
        In 1959, the number of Cubans in the United States was estimated to be 124,000.
        Many Cubans who were unhappy with politics at home fled to the United States.

   Primarily upper and upper-middle
    class families in professional and managerial occupations
        Fled to protect their assets
        Others followed their families to the U.S. so that they would not be separated.
   Operación Pedro Pan
        More than 14,000 Cuban children arrived alone in the U.S.
        Their parents feared that their children were going to be sent to Soviet bloc countries
         to be educated so they decided to send them to the States
   About 215,000 Cubans immigrated to the U.S.
        Second Wave (1965-1974)
   Departure programs administered
    by the U.S and Cuban governments.
     Called “freedom flights”
     Brought middle and working class Cubans to
      the United States.
               Third Wave (1980)
• Mariel boatlift
   – Marielitos, what the immigrants were called, came from every
     aspect of Cuban society (upper class, middle class, poor)
   – Wanted to escape communist tyranny
• Fidel Castro sent 20,000 Cubans directly from prison
   – Also sent mentally ill people from Cuban mental institutions
   – To clean up Cuba and “poison” the US.
      • They were labeled "inadmissible" by the US government and sent
        back to Cuba.
Fourth Wave (1989-2009)
  Began after the collapse of
   Communism and the tightening of the U.S. embargo
   in 1992.
     Approximately 33,000 Cubans immigrated to the US due
      to trade relations with the Soviet Union.
  Balseros, or rafters, floated to Florida on “boats” that
   they created.
  Immigrants who won the lottery system the US &
   Cuban governments agreed upon in 1994.
  “Wet foot, dry foot” policy
     States that anyone who fled Cuba and got into the United
      States would be allowed to pursue residency a year later
      but anyone who was caught in the water would be sent
      back.
     History of Cuban Immigrants
   Virtually all Cuban immigrants have been admitted under a special
    parole power that immediately grants them full legal status.
   Until 1985, there was no quota for Cubans entering the United States.
   It was officially assumed that anyone arriving in the United States
    from Cuba was a refugee and were automatically granted refugee
    status.
   The Attorney General has the power to guarantee permanent
    residency to any Cuban who has been in the United States for a year
     • Includes those who have overstayed their visas.
   Out of 33,000 Cubans, nearly 31,000 were detained at Guantanamo
    Bay.
     • In 1995, the U.S. Attorney General announced that the Cubans in
        Guantanamo would be permitted to enter the United States if they
        had no criminal history.
     • In 1996, these Cubans were officially admitted as parolees.
           The perception of these parolees was that most would
            contribute to the U.S. economy since they were generally
            educated, professional, and highly motivated.
     • The U.S. government surpassed their annual limit of 20,000
        immigration visas.
Refugee Center (Miami, FL)
               Cubans in the US
 According to pewhispanic.org, Cubans
  are older, have a higher level of education,
  higher median household income and
  higher rate of home ownership compared to the
  rest of the Hispanic population in the US.
 There was an estimated 1,448,684 Cubans in
  the U.S. in 2004.
       In 2006, Cubans made up
        about 4% of the Hispanic population
                    Cubans in the US
   More than two-thirds of Cubans (68%) live in Florida. The state with the next highest
    concentration of Cubans is New Jersey, followed by New York, California, and Texas.
   More than a third of all Cubans (37%) were born in the United States. Among the
    approximately Cubans who are foreign born, 30% entered the United
    States before 1980, 12% entered between 1980 and 1990 and 21% entered after
    1990.
   Among Cubans in Florida, 70% are foreign-born.
        About 31% entered
         before 1980
        14% entered between 1980 and 1990
        26% entered after 1990.
   The median age of Cubans is 41, compared to the median age of other Hispanics
    (27).
        The median age of Cubans who entered the United States before 1980 is 63.
        The median age of Cubans who entered the US between 1980 and 1990 is 50
         and is 38 for those who entered after 1990.
        Cubans in Florida have a higher median age (42) than
         Cubans elsewhere in the country (38).
        One of the characteristics of the Hispanic population is that Latinos tend to be
         younger than the rest of the U.S. population. But this is not the case with
         Cubans.
         Among Cubans, 29% are under 25, compared with 46% among all Hispanics and
         31% among non-Hispanic whites. About 27% of Cubans in Florida are under 25,
         compared with 32% outside Florida.
                   Cubans in the US
   About 60% of Cubans are U.S. citizens, over twice the rate of other
    Hispanics (26%) and
    higher than for non-Hispanic, foreign-born whites (56%).
        About nine out of
         every 10 Cubans who arrived before 1990 are U.S. citizens.
        Among those who
         arrived between 1980 and 1990, 60% are citizens.
        Among those who arrived
         after 1990 18% are citizens.
   The center of the Cuban community is in Miami
   Towards the end of the 19th century Cubans, especially musicians,
    began to settle in places such as New Orleans, Louisiana.
   Cubans played an influential role in the jazz music that New Orleans
    is now known for.
        Cuban communities, such as "Little Havana,” in Miami, Florida, were
         established
   Many Cubans settled in Key West once a railroad was built in
    Florida.
Identity
 Cubans are more likely than other Hispanics to identify
 themselves as white.
     In the 2004 Census data, about 86% of Cubans said they
     were white, compared with 60% among Mexicans, 53%
     among other Central and South Americans and 50%
     among Puerto Ricans.
 Hispanics who identify themselves as white have higher
 levels of education and income and than those who don’t.
 The Pew Hispanic Center’s 2006 National Survey of Latinos
 asked respondents whether they considered the United
 States or their country of origin to be their real homeland.
         More than half (52%) of Cubans said they considered
         the U.S. their
         real homeland
         More than Mexicans (36%), Central and South
         Americans (35%), and Puerto Ricans (33%).
                          Language
   More than two-thirds (69%) of Cubans under 18 speak a language other
    than English at home.
      – About the same as other Hispanics (67%).
   Among those 18 and older, about 89% of Cubans speak a language other
    than English at home,
      – A higher rate than among Hispanics (80%).
   Among native-born Cubans, almost two-thirds (64%) speak a language
    other than English at home.
   About 12% of Cubans under 18 speak English less than very well.
      – Compared with 20% among other Hispanics.
   Among Cubans 18+, 49% speak English less than very well.
      – Higher than among other Hispanics (46%).
   About 40% of foreign-born Cubans under 18 speak English less than very
    well.
      – More than among other Hispanics (20%).
   Among Cubans 18 and older who entered before 1980, 48% speak English
    less than very well.
      – Among those who entered between 1980 and 1990, 68% speak English
        less than very well
      – Among those who entered after 1990, 82% speak English less than
        very well.
Economic Characteristics
   The median household income for Cubans is
    $38,000
      Higher than for other Hispanics ($36,000) but
       lower than for non-Hispanic whites ($48,000).
   Native-born Cubans have a higher median income
    ($50,000) than non-Hispanic whites ($48,000).
      Among foreign-born Cubans, those who arrived
       before 1980 have the highest median income
       ($38,000).
      Cubans who arrived between 1980 and 1990
       have a lower median income ($30,000)
       compared with those who arrived in 1990 or
       later ($33,000).
      Cubans living outside Florida ($44,000) have a
       higher median income than those living in
       Florida ($36,000).
Economic Characteristics
   Poverty rates for Cubans are generally lower than for other
    Hispanics.
      About 13% of Cubans under 18 are in poverty compared to
        the rate for other Hispanics (27%).
      About 11% of Cubans between 18 and 64 are in poverty
        compared to other Hispanics (17%)
      Older Cubans (65+) have higher poverty rates (24%) than
        other Hispanics (18%) or non-Hispanic whites (7%).
      The poverty rate is higher among foreign-born Cubans ages
        17 and younger (21%) and 65 and older (24%) compared
        with those who are native born (12% ages 17 and younger,
        11% ages 65+).
           For Cubans ages 18 to 64, the poverty rate is 10% for
             native-born and 11% for those who are foreign born.
   About 61% of Cubans own their home compared to all other
    Hispanics (47%).
      Among non-Hispanic whites, about three quarters (74%)
        own their own home.
      Foreign born Cubans have a higher rate of home ownership
        (62%) than those who are native born (58%).
      Among foreign-born Cubans, the highest rate of home
        ownership is among those who entered before 1980 (72%).
                     Education
•   One out of four (25%) Cubans 25 and older is a college graduate
      – more than twice the rate of other Hispanics (12%)
      – lower than among non-Hispanic whites in the same age group (30%).
•   Among native-born Cubans 25+, 39% are college graduates
      – compared with 22% among foreign-born Cubans.
•   Cubans 25 and older who entered the U.S. between 1980 and 1990 have the
    lowest graduation rate among foreign-born Cubans (13%)
      – Compared with 24% for those who entered the US before 1980
      – 26% for those who entered the US after 1990.
•   Almost half (49%) of all Cubans 25 and older are high school graduates
      – Higher than for other Hispanics in the same age group (47%)
      – Lower than non-Hispanic whites (59%).
•   Among native-born Cubans 25 and older, 54%
    are high school graduates.
      – Higher rate than among foreign-born Cubans (48%)
                     Sources
 http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/23.pdf
 http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuba-
  immigration.htm
 http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rafters.htm
 http://www.cal.org/co/cubans/IMMI.HTM
 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R40566.pdf
 http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/cubanimmigration.ht
  ml
 http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/cubaimmigration.ht
  ml
 http://hispanic.cc/how_cubans_come_to_america.htm

								
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