Docstoc

BIOMES

Document Sample
BIOMES Powered By Docstoc
					         BIOMES
Large groups of ecosystems that
 share the same type of climax
         communities.
AQUATIC BIOMES

• Marine
• Mixed waters
• Freshwater
MARINE BIOMES

• Different parts of the ocean have different
  abiotic and biotic factors:
• Abiotic
  – Salinity
  – Depth
  – Light availability
  – Temperature
MARINE BIOMES

• Biotic
  – BIOMASS: Living material
     • Mostly microscopic
     • Many marine creatures depend on different types
      of biomass.
MARINE BIOME PHOTIC ZONE
 • Shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate
 • Along coastlines
 • EX: Bays, shores, beaches, estuaries, coral
   reefs
PHOTIC ZONE ORGANISMS

• Plankton-Basis for most marine food
 chains
  – Phytoplankton
     • Algae


  – Zooplankton
     • Small crustaceans
MARINE BIOME-APHOTIC ZONE
 • Deeper water that does not receive sunlight
 • Deep ocean areas




           Umbrella Mouth Gulper Eel
APHOTIC ZONE ORGANISMS

• Chemosynthetic bacteria
• Octopus                     Fangtooth fish
• Squid
• Deep sea fish
  – Some are bioluminescent
MIXED WATER AQUATIC BIOME

• ESTUARY
  – Coastal body of water, partially surrounded by
    land, in which fresh and salt water mix.
  – Where rivers join oceans.
  – Salinity ranges based on river flow
  – May contain salt marsh ecosystems
ESTUARY PLANT LIFE

• Smooth cordgrass
• Salt marsh hay
• Eelgrasses

                     Salt Marsh




      Sea Grass
ESTUARY ANIMAL LIFE

• Developing snails, crabs and shrimp
• Estuaries provide a habitat for young
 organisms to develop. As they reach
 adulthood, they move out into the ocean.




                  Shrimp
FRESHWATER BIOMES
• Lakes, ponds, rivers, etc.
• BIOTIC FACTORS
  – Fish, frogs, bacteria, etc.
  – Aquatic plants, algae
• ABIOTIC FACTORS
  – Light
     • More light at top, less light at bottom
  – Temperature variations
     • Colder at bottom, warmer at top
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES

• Tundra
• Taiga
• Desert
• Grassland
• Temperate/Deciduous Forest
• Tropical Rain Forest
TERRESTRIAL BIOME QUALITIES




• Earth’s curvature causes the sun’s rays to
  strike the equator more directly than the
  poles.
• As you move from the equator to the
  poles, or vice versa, the climate changes.
TERRESTRIAL BIOME QUALITIES

• As latitude changes, climate changes.
• Latitude and climate are abiotic factors
 that affect plant and animal life.
TUNDRA




• Closest to north and south poles
• Treeless
• Long summer days
• Very short winter days
TUNDRA
• Temperature does not rise above freezing
  for long
• Only very top layer of soil thaws in
  summer
• Underneath top layer is PERMAFROST
PLANTS OF TUNDRA

• Shallow-rooted grasses
• Dwarf shrubs
• Lack of nutrients in soil and cold
  temperatures limit plant growth
  Arctic Willow      Bearberry         Caribou Moss
ANIMALS OF TUNDRA
• Large animals
  – Caribou
  – Reindeer
• Small mammals      Arctic Fox

  – Lemmings
                      Weasel
  – Weasels
  – Arctic foxes
  – Snowshoe hares
                                  Snowy Owl


ANIMALS OF TUNDRA

• Birds
  – Snowy owls
  – Hawks
• Insects (found during summer)
  – Mosquitoes
  – Blackflies
TAIGA

• South of tundra
• Also called boreal or coniferous forest
• Usually warmer and wetter than tundra
• Long, severe winters
• Short, mild summers
• Topsoil is acidic and mineral poor
• Many coniferous trees
PLANTS OF TAIGA

• Trees
  – Fir
  – Hemlock
  – Spruce
  – Birch
  – Aspen



                  Spruce Tree
ANIMALS OF TAIGA
• Large mammals     Vole
  – Elk
  – Red deer
  – Moose
• Small mammals
  – Weasels
  – Red squirrels    Red

  – Voles            Deer

• Migratory birds
DESERT

• Arid region with sparse plant life
• Less than 25 cm of precipitation annually
• Vegetation varies greatly with amount of
 rainfall
DESERT PLANT LIFE

• Areas with more rainfall produce shrubs
 and drought-resistant trees
  – Mesquite trees
DESERT PLANT LIFE

• Areas with less rainfall produce little to no
  plant life
  – Little rain: Creosote bush
  – No rain: Barren landscape, sand dunes




          Creosote Bush
DESERT PLANT LIFE

• Plants found in the desert possess
 adaptations to conserve water
  – Cactus: Thick, waxy coating




     Saguaro cactus
DESERT ANIMAL LIFE
                                        Kangaroo Rat

• Small mammals
  – Kangaroo rat
  – Most forage at night, staying underground during the
    day
• Many carnivores
  –   Coyotes
  –   Hawks
  –   Owls
  –   Snakes
  –   Lizards


                         Coyote            Rattlesnake
GRASSLAND

• Large communities with rich topsoil,
  grasses and small plants
• Receive between 25 and 75 cm of rainfall
  annually
GRASSLAND


• Dry season with little rainfall discourages
  forest formation
• Few trees are found near water sources
• Higher biological diversity than deserts
• Also known as savanna, prairie, steppes,
  etc.
PLANT LIFE OF GRASSLAND
• Dominated by grasses
• Many wildflowers
  – Sunflowers, coneflowers      Cone Flowers

• Some trees, near water sources
• Ideal for growing of cereal grains
  – Oats
  – Rye
  – Wheat
ANIMAL LIFE OF GRASSLAND
• Grazing animals           Bison

  – Bison
• Large mammals
  – Deer                    Elk

  – Elk
• Small mammals
  – Prairie dogs
  – Jack rabbits           Hare
ANIMAL LIFE OF GRASSLAND

• Insects
                     Monarch larva
• Birds
• Reptiles


                     Adult monarch
TEMPERATE FOREST

• Also known as deciduous forest
• Precipitation ranges from 70-150 cm
  annually
• Dominated by broad-leaved hardwood
  trees that lose their leaves annually.
• Rich top layer of soil
PLANTS OF TEMPERATE FOREST

• Trees
  – Maple
  – Oak
  – Birch
  – Elm
  – Ash

                 Oak Tree
ANIMALS OF TEMPERATE FOREST

• Deer
• Squirrels
• Mice
• Rabbits
• Bear
                Kodiak Brown Bear
• Birds
  – Blue jays
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

• 200 to 600 cm of annual rainfall
• Warm temperatures
• Wet weather
• Lush plant growth



    Temperate Rain Forest
                             Tropical Rain Forest
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

• More species of organisms than any other
  biome
• Average temperature = 77° F
DIVISIONS OF RAIN FOREST



• CANOPY-Living Roof
  – 25-45 meters high
  – Tree tops
  – Monkeys pass through canopy
  – Birds live on the fruits and nuts of the trees
DIVISIONS OF RAIN FOREST

• UNDERSTORY
 – Air is still, humid and dark
 – Vines grow
 – Ants harvest leaves and bring them to the
   ground
 – Plants include ferns, shrubs and dwarf palms
 – Birds, bats, insects, tree frogs, chameleons
   and snakes
DIVISIONS OF RAIN FOREST

• GROUND
 – Moist forest floor
 – Leaves and organic material decay quickly.
 – Great competition for nutrients
 – Rodents, jaguar, ants, termites, earthworms,
   bacteria, fungi present

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:11/5/2012
language:English
pages:41