"Week 1: Orientation to the human body"
2009-2010 Honors Anatomy & Physiology Course Outline Mrs. Donelson Weddington High School Science Week 1: Review safety, equipment, and the scientific method Laboratory safety: locate safety equipment in the classroom; identify procedures for emergencies and dangerous situations; state procedures for cleaning up spills of different types of chemicals; locate and describe Material Data Safety Sheets and their purpose. Lab equipment: identify the assortment of lab equipment used in conjunction with anatomy & physiology lessons; describe how equipment is used, safety procedures that accompany it, and how to properly clean it. The Scientific Method: state the steps in the scientific method; describe how to apply a hypothesis to a problem or question; identify dependent and independent variables; state the controls and constants in an experiment; demonstrate how to utilize the scientific method to solve a problem or answer a question; successfully compose a lab report containing all components associated with an experiment. Week 2: Orientation to the human body Overview of Anatomy & Physiology: Define; Explain the relationship Functional Order - Atoms to organisms: Name the levels of structure; name the organ systems and their functions; classify organs and identify structures on a diagram. Life Functions: List functions necessary to maintain life; list survival needs of human body. Homeostasis: Define and explain the importance; define negative feedback and its role in normal body function. Anatomical Positions and Directional Terms: describe and demonstrate knowledge of anatomical positions; use proper technology to describe body directions; locate major body cavities and identify their organs. Week 3: Basic Chemistry Overview Composition of Matter & Energy: Clearly differentiate between matter & energy; list major energy forms and how they are used in the body; differentiate among atoms, elements, subatomic particles. Molecules & Compounds: recognize how chemical reactions require interaction of electrons in chemical bonds; explain how molecules are related to compounds. Chemical Bonds & Reactions: Differentiate between ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds; contrast synthesis, decomposition, and displacement reactions. Biochemistry: Organic & Inorganic: distinguish between organic & inorganic compounds; differentiate between a salt, an acid, and a base; list how salts/ions are involved in body functioning. Week 4: Cells & Tissues Anatomy of a cell: Define cell, organelle, and inclusion.; identify regions of a cell on a model or diagram; Cell physiology: list structures of a cell and describe organelles and their functions; briefly describe DNA replication, mitosis, and roles of DNA and RNA. Types of tissues & their characteristics: name four major tissues types and subcategories; give chief locations in the body; describe process of tissue repair; Development of cells & tissues (Specifically Cancer): define neoplasm and distinguish between benign and malignant neoplasms; significance of amitotic tissues Week 5: Skin & Body Membranes Integumentary System (skin): list important functions of integumentary system and explain how they are accomplished; recognize and name structures on a model or diagram; name the layers of skin and describe characteristics of each; differentiate between degrees of burns; name factors determining skin color; summarize characteristics of types of carcinoma/melanoma. Development of skin & body membranes: List the functions of membrane types and give locations; compare structure of major membrane types; list aspects of skin aging. Week 6: The skeletal system Overview of bones: identify the subdivisions of the skeleton; list functions of the skeletal system; name four main kinds of bones; identify major anatomical areas of long bones; explain the role of salts in bone density/flexibility; describe process of bone formation and remodeling; name and describe various types of fractures. Axial Skeleton (skull, vertebral column, thorax): identify bones of skull on diagram or model; describe how the skull changes and differs from infancy to adulthood; name parts of the vertebra and explain how the different sections of vertebra differ; discuss importance of intervertebra discs and spinal curvatures; differentiate between scoliosis, lordosis, and kyphosis. Appendicular skeleton (Limbs, Pelvic Girdle): identify bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and attached limbs on a diagram or model; describe important differences between a male and female pelvis; name categories of joints and compare difference in movement of each; identify causes of bone and joint problems. Week 7: The Muscular System Muscle Types & Functions: compare and contrast structure and functions of three types of muscle tissue and where they are found in the body; explain the role of endomysium, perimysium, epimysium, tendon, and aponeurosis. Skeletal Muscle: describe the initiation of an action potential; cell contraction; define graded response, tetanus, isotonic and isometric contractions, and muscle tone; name and locate major muscles of human body. Muscle movements: define origin, insertion, prime mover, antagonist, synergist, and fixator; identify and demonstrate specific body movements; explain the importance of exercise in muscle health. Week 8: The Nervous System Structure & Function: state the function of neurons/neuroglia; describe structure of a neuron and its anatomical regions; describe the composition of gray matter and white matter; list and classify functional properties of neurons; describe events leading to nerve impulses; define reflex. Central Nervous system: identify and indicate functions of regions of the human brain on a model or diagram; name the three meningeal layers and state their functions; discuss the function of cerebrospinal fluid and blood-brain barrier. Compare signs of different cerebral diseases and dysfunctions; list important functions of the spinal cord and describe its structure. Peripheral Nervous system: describe structure of a nerve; identify cranial nerves by their number and their name; describe origin and fiber composition of peripheral nerve roots; name the four major nerve plexes; describe the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system; describe causes and consequences of several congenital nervous system disorders. Week 9: Special Senses Eye and Vision: identify the eye structure and list the functions on a model or diagram; compare and contrast rod and cone functions; trace the pathway of light through the eye to the retina; discuss the importance of reflexes of the eye. Hearing and balance: identify the structures of the external, middle, and internal ear; explain how sound sources are localized; describe how equilibrium organs help maintain balance. Chemical senses – taste and smell: describe the location, structure, and function of the olfactory and taste receptors; name the four basic taste sensations and factors that modify them. Week 10: The Endocrine System Hormone function: define hormone and target oran; describe how hormones bring about effects in the body; explain how endocrine glands are stimulated; describe the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands. Major Endocrine Organs: identify the major endocrine glands and tissues on a diagram; list hormones produced in the glands and their functions; describe the functional relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland; describe major pathologic consequences of hyper or hypo secretion of hormones. Week 11: The Blood Composition & Function: Describe the composition and volume of whole blood and plasma; list and describe functions of various cells found in blood; identify and describe systolic and diastolic aspects of blood pressure. Hemostasis: describe blood-clotting process; name factors that may inhibit or enhance the blood- clotting process. Blood Groups: describe the ABO and Rh blood groups; explain basis for transfusion reactions. Blood Disorders: describe the various blood disorders that can increase in frequency with age; explain the physiology behind jaundice seen in newborns. Week 12: The Cardiovascular System The Heart: describe location of heart in body and identify anatomical areas on model or diagram; trace pathway of blood through the heart; compare pulmonary and systemic circuits; name functional blood supply of heart; describe the information that can be obtained from an electrocardiogram; explain effects of various stimuli on heart rate. Blood Vessels: compare and contrast structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries; identify major arteries and veins and regions supplied; discuss features of circulations within the body; describe hypertension, atherosclerosis and their related health consequences; describe exchanges across capillary walls. Week 13: The Lymphatic System Lymphatic Vessels & organs: describe the functions of lymph nodes, tonsils, the thymus, Peyer’s patches, and the spleen; describe the protective functions of skin and mucous membranes. Body defenses : explain importance of phagocytes and natural killer cells; describe the inflammatory process. The immune system: name the branches of the immune response; compare and contrast the development of B & T cells and their roles; list the antibody classes; describe ways in which antibodies act against antigens; distinguish between active and passive immunity; describe immunodeficiencies, allergies, and autoimmune disease. Week 14: The Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology: name the organs forming the respiratory passageways; identify elements of the respiratory system on a diagram or model; describe the mechanisms, structure, and function of the respiratory system. Breathing mechanism , Volume & Capacity: Explain how the respiratory muscles cause volume changes leading to air flow; describe non-respiratory air movements; describe the process of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues; name the brain areas involved in respiration. Respiratory Disorders: describe the symptoms and probable causes of COPD and lung cancer; describe normal changes in function as we age. Week 15: The Digestive System Anatomy: name the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory digestive organs and identify each on a diagram or model; know the overall function of the digestive system; describe the composition and function of saliva; name the deciduous and permanent teeth and describe the basic anatomy of a tooth; explain how villi aid in the digestive process. Functions: describe how food in the digestive tract are mixed and moved along the tract; describe the function of local hormones in the digestive process.; list major enzymes or groups produced by the digestive organs and/or accessory glands; name the end products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion; state the function of bile. Nutrition & Metabolism: list six major nutrient categories; describe metabolic roles of the liver; recognize sources of carbs, fats, and proteins in cell metabolism; explain importance of energy balance in consequences of imbalance; list factors that influence metabolic rate and temperature regulation. Week 16: The Urinary System Kidneys, Nephrons, & Urine formation: describe the location of kidneys in the body; identify the regions; describe the function of a nephron, urine formation, filtration, etc; explain water balance in the body and abnormal urinary components. Ureters, Bladder, & Urethra: describe the general structure and functions; compare the course and length of the male urethra vs the female urethra; define micturition; describe control of internal and external sphincters. Week 17: The Reproductive System Male Anatomy & Functions: identify the organs involved in the reproductive system on a diagram or model; name the endocrine and exocrine products of the male reproductive system Female Anatomy & Functions: identify the organs involved in the reproductive system on a diagram or model; name the endocrine and exocrine products of the female reproductive system Pregnancy & Embryonic Development: describe the process of implantation; distinguish between embryo and fetus; list major functions of the placenta; list agents that can interfere with normal fetal development. Week 18: Final Project presentations, Final Review, & Exam