Cape Town enviroWORKS_Dec08 by thevo

VIEWS: 206 PAGES: 32

									Biannual Environmental Newsletter of the City of Cape Town
Published by the City of Cape Town Environmental Resource Management Department, in partnership with City Transport, Spatial Development, Solid Waste, Town Planning and Parks. Volume 2/08 December 2008

Putting policy into practice
Local government has many excellent environmental policies and strategies, but without a firm commitment to implementation, these have little value – and sustainability is a mere pipe dream … Hence the ‘new’ Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy (IMEP), which instead of being a freestanding policy, will be integrated with every City function.
ape Town has its own social, economic and environmental challenges, and sustainable development in our unique context means development that delivers environmental, social and economic services to all in a balanced manner, without threatening the viability of the natural, built and social systems upon which these services depend. This is why the Department of Environmental Resource Management (ERM) has recommended a new City of Cape Town environmental agenda, under which all relevant and appropriate existing policies and by-laws are to be amended to incorporate environmental principles, goals and issues. Core elements of the environmental agenda are also to be incorporated into the City’s Five-Year Plan (IDP), City scorecards, key performance indicators and annual budgets. ERM has also recommended that See page 32


the city use financial incentives and disincentives to drive environmental behaviour change, and make sure that those who deplete resources pay for doing so.

1–2 Putting policy into practice 2 Message from Councillor Marian Nieuwoudt 3 Message from Piet van Zyl Message from Osman Asmal 4–5 News and staff 6–7 Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB) 8 Urban spatial planning 9 Environmental Management Systems 10–11 Transport 12 Solid waste 13 Air quality 14–19 Environmental education 20 Event greening 21 Sustainable livelihoods 22–25 Biodiversity 26–27 City greening 28–30 Energy and climate change 31 What’s new on our website

Cape Town in the long term
We can talk about sustainability, write about sustainability and even believe that we set an example of sustainability, but researchers note that unless the metro includes the following in its long-term development strategy, our city will never actually be sustainable … •	 Clearly defined development parameters •	 Focus on city densification as opposed to urban sprawl •	 Priority attention to transport and accessibility •	 A radical shift away from ‘business as usual’ •	 Protect and manage ecologically healthy and functional open spaces >

Cape Town’s natural heritage is more likely to be preserved, thanks to the City’s new environmental agenda, which ensures that all policies and by-laws incorporate environmental principles, goals and issues.

32 New publications


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

•	 Integrate the Biodiversity Network with long-term City development plans •	 Provide quality open spaces and build communities •	 Focus on corridors and connectivity

Always keeping IMEP in mind
Instead of IMEP being a free-standing and independent environmental policy, every City policy, proposal or report will now need to comply with IMEP principles. Every report tabled to Council or relevant portfolio committees will carry an IMEP compliance table (shown below).

Does your report result in any of the following (tick if yes): Loss of or negative impact on natural space and/or natural vegetation, rivers, vleis or wetlands? An increase in waste production or concentration, pollution or water usage? Loss of or negative impact on the city’s heritage, cultural and scenic resources? Development or any construction within 500 m of the coastline?

Does your activity comply with the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA)? Yes



Does your report complement and support the City’s approved IMEP strategies (tick if yes)? Biodiversity Strategy and Biodiversity Network Environmental Education and Training Strategy Integrated Waste Management Strategy

 

Coastal Zone Management Strategy Heritage Management Strategy Invasive Species Strategy

 

Energy and Climate Change Strategy Air Quality Management Plan


Do the activities/actions arising from your report: Enhance Cape Town’s unique environmental assets?


Negatively impact on Cape Town’s unique environmental assets?



uring these past few months, Cape Town has stepped up its focus on building a greener city. Not only greener in terms of renewable energy and energy efficiency (see page 28), but also greener in the more ‘traditional’ sense – trees!

As part of Arbor Month, we have planted more than 700 trees, and by the time the Soccer World Cup kicks off, we will have planted at least 2010 trees. Greening is not simply about making our city and our communities look better for beauty’s sake. A city filled with indigenous trees absorbs more greenhouse gases, encourages us to feel pride in our unique biodiversity, provides better public open spaces and therefore better neighbourhoods and communities, and offers an outlet for recreation and relaxation – creating the kind of city we all want to live in. Of course renewable energy and energy efficiency are also particularly important, which is why as a City we’re proud of our Smart Living guide (see page 19). We have updated this handbook during the last few months, and look forward to seeing more residents and visitors live the ‘smart’ way as we build a sustainable future together. With best wishes

Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt Mayoral Committee Member: Planning and Environment


ur directorate, together with the rest of the City, is particularly proud that Cape Town was recently named as a ‘2020 Global Sustainability Center’ by the Ethisphere Institute. The Ethisphere Institute, based in New York City, recognises the cities that plan for sustainable growth of their population and economy, while considering the environment and future generations. Hundreds of cities were considered, and this is a tremendous honour for Cape Town. Global Sustainability Centres are large, international cities that have demonstrated a strong, dedicated commitment to long-term sustainability without sacrificing economic potential and quality of life. The other top ten cities are Toronto, Hyderabad, Singapore, Abu Dhabi, New York, London, Frankfurt, Curtiba and Melbourne. The Ethisphere Institute, which is dedicated to the research and promotion of profitable best practices in governance, business ethics, compliance and corporate social responsibility, says the cities were chosen because they are large, cosmopolitan and economically significant centres that are preparing for the future, today. To determine which cities qualified, the Institute considered several factors including economies and populations – qualifying cities had to have a population over 600 000. Cultural activities, universities and international acclaim were also taken into account to make sure the global sustainable centres were relevant and significant around the world. They also needed a plan in place to shift to an environmentally sustainable path so that by 2020 they will be sustainability role models. Cape Town has received acclaim for its energy plan to help meet the growing energy needs of the city. This includes aiming to have 10% of homes using solar power by 2020, as well as to have 10% of the city’s energy consumption coming from renewable sources in the same timeframe. Among Cape Town’s strengths is it being a top tourist destination in the world. We would like to thank everyone in Cape Town, whether or not you work for the City of Cape Town, for your contribution to making our city a place to be proud of.


Piet van Zyl Executive Director: Strategy & Planning

ince the last edition of Enviroworks (May 2008), the Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy (IMEP) Review has been approved by Council. The Policy forms the foundation for an environmental management strategy for the City of Cape Town and was originally adopted in 2001, with the review approved in June this year. In line with Council’s commitment to IMEP, the Environmental Resource Management Department has initiated working discussions with a number of City departments including Housing, Specialised Technical Services, Community Services and Finance. Interviews with various departments have indicated that in the past issues of the environment have been poorly integrated into other Departments work. The review of IMEP will ensure that there is a more holistic approach where environmental considerations are integral to City policies across all departments. Together with the Finance Directorate a process plan is being formalised that will define the greening of the City’s procurement process. In partnership with the Specialised Technical Services Department, and the Health, Finance and Transport Directorates, the City has made its first major impact in terms of ‘greening’ the procurement process. The City’s tender for large vehicles was amended to include various environmental efficiency specifications that would result in better performing vehicles from a financial, as well as environmental perspective. A motivation is currently being prepared for the greening of the offices at 44 Wale Street, the head office of the Environmental Resource Management Department. The creation of an environmentally efficient office through retrofitting and refurbishing will be in line with the commitments made by the City through the IMEP Review, such as the City’s commitment to reduce its own resource consumption and improve resource efficiencies by at least 30% within a 24 month period. The City also releases its draft Green Building Guidelines during this quarter. The City continues to build on work initiated around greening of the City’s office buildings and facilities and looks forward to being a leading stakeholder through its actions. Best regards


Osman Asmal Director: Environmental Resource Management


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

news and staff

BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT MANAGER: JULIA WOOD •	 Nature	Reserve	Management •	 Biodiversity	Strategy	Co-ordination •	 Monitoring	&	Evaluation •	 Protected	Area	Status •	 Alien	Invasive	Species	Co-ordination Tel 021 511 2041 or e-mail ENVIRONMENTAL AND HERITAGE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ACTING MANAGER: CLIVE JAMES •	 Environmental	Impact	Assessments •	 Heritage	Resource	Management •	 Local	Heritage	Improvement	Projects •	 Outdoor	Advertising	and	Signage	Control •	 Environmental	Monitoring	of	EIA	and	HIA	Conditions	and	Outdoor	 Advertising Tel 021 400 3620 or e-mail ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS MANAGER: KEITH WISEMAN •	 Environmental	Review	Coordination •	 Heritage	Resource	Management •	 Environmental	Management	Systems	&	Audit	Protocol •	 Environmental	Law,	Monitoring	&	Enforcement Tel 021 487 2283 or e-mail ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY AND PARTNERSHIPS ACTING MANAGER: GREGG OELOFSE •	 Environmental	Policy	&	Strategy	 •	 Environmental	Performance	&	Information •	 Strategic	Co-ordination	(Poverty	Alleviation	&	Extended	Public	 Works Programme) •	 Project	&	Partnership	Development •	 Coastal	Co-ordination	&	Coastal	Zone	Management •	 Strategy	Development	&	Coordination	 Tel 021 487 2239 or e-mail CAPACITY BUILDING, ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING MANAGER: VACANT •	 Environmental	Education •	 Training •	 Communication	&	Advocacy		 •	 Sustainable	Livelihoods •	 Public	Awareness •	 Greening MAJOR PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS MANAGER: STEPHEN GRANGER •	 Table	Mountain	National	Park	Liaison/Partnership •	 2010	World	Cup:	Environmental	Workstream/Green	Goal •	 ICLEI	(Local	Governments	for	Sustainability)	Liaison/Partnership •	 Local	Action	for	Biodiversity Tel 021 487 2236 or e-mail RESOURCE CONSERVATION MANAGER: VACANT •	 Energy	&	Climate	Change						 •	 Clean	Development	Mechanism	 •	 Renewable	Energy	Projects •	 Cleaner	Production	&	Sustainable	Procurement Tel 021 487 2319

What are ERM’s
NINE STAFF MEMBERS have embarked on an Environmental Education (EE) Learnership, where they will learn to implement environmental learning programmes in their individual work contexts. Each of these staff members have changed careers, from a technical field to an environmental education field, and will benefit from the programme that enables them to make a meaningful contribution to environmental change through education. The EE Learnership, taught by WESSA (Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa), is equivalent to a first-year university course. BELOW: Front, left to right: Lewine Walters, Esmay Swarts, Paul Arends, Velile Dingaan, Haricharan Ramblass, Gaynor Daniels, Sally Hey, Patrick Dowling; Back, left to right: Lindie Buirski, Joint Xingashe, Mlindazwe Gxakuma, Jerome September, Sandra Hustwick, Alexander Forbes.

When Cape Town looks significantly more elegant in 2010, it’ll be partly due to the work of intern Abigail Joustra, with Lorraine Gerrans of Green Goal 2010 (see page 18). Joustra was involved with the 2010 Green Goal Mouille Point Student Landscape Design Competition (held in January), where landscape design and architecture students from the University of Cape Town and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology produced conceptual designs to landscape and furnish the Mouille Point Promenade and beachfront area. Joustra collected competition entries and organised the judging and awards ceremony. The winning designs will be sent to the appointed consultants on the Mouille Point Promenade upgrade project, for incorporation into the final design. A new 2010 project, in which Joustra was also involved, is the beautification and decoration of Cape Town. “We are compiling a discussion document on the beautification and decoration of the city for the 2010 events, and aim to identify key areas and issues that need to be addressed,” says Joustra. “This includes both infrastructure upgrades, tree planting and identifying ways to decorate the city with banners and other displays during the event.”


interns up to this year?
Chances for bikes in Cape Town
hat can we do to get more bicycle traffic in Cape Town? Why is so little being done to promote bikes as transport – and what is the best ‘first step’ to get more commuters onto bikes? These are some of the questions occupying the minds of ERM interns Martin Krings and Abigail Joustra. Krings, who is from Germany, arrived in Cape Town to see road congestion, air pollution, lack of access by the urban poor and energy shortages … and wondered why one of the obvious solutions, bicycles, was being given little attention. “The need for more extensive bike use in Cape Town is obvious, but bikes are a rare picture in the city,” he says. “The idea of our study is therefore to assess the overall chances and obstacles for bicycle traffic as one of the elements of public transport in Cape Town,” he adds. Together with Joustra he is undertaking a qualitative assessment of relevant stakeholders’ experiences, attitudes toward, and opinions about biking in Cape Town, and will use this research as a foundation for a pilot project. Is Cape Town ready for a bike rental system such as the Paris Velib (above), which put 20 000 bikes onto the streets almost overnight.


‘Smart living’ goes corporate
Although it’s true that ‘smart living’ starts at home, it continues at work.


What are the chances of an energy efficiency learning network working in Cape Town? When intern Martin Krings is not planning to get more bikes on the road, he’s thinking about other ways in which to reduce Cape Town’s carbon footprint … Energy Efficiency Networks have been successful in Europe – where 15 to 20 businesses meet regularly to share ways in which to reduce their carbon emissions. A local pilot project, which is gaining support from the City’s Electricity Department, would include the top 20 energy consumers in Cape Town and will give the energy efficiency network the spark it needs.

ore than 400 staff members at businesses around Cape Town have participated in ‘smart living’ training workshops, which aim to encourage corporates to conserve resources both at home and at work. Participating businesses were the Spur, Fairfield Tours, the Vineyard Hotel and the Handy Man. Each group received a copy of the SMART Living Handbook and attended workshops on changing environmental behaviour patterns. The City also assisted the participating businesses to develop or review their environmental policies and establish environmental committees or forums.

For more information, e-mail Grace Stead on

How much paper do you use each week?
Samornay Alkaster and Alicia Ndlovu are two interns working closely with Gregg Oelofse (Environmental Policy and Strategy) to conduct a resource survey within the City. The survey will eventually include water and electricity, but right now the team is investigating how much paper City employees use, and what for …


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

local action for biodiversity

Cape Town pioneers next phase of international biodiversity project

ICLEI invites local governments to join LAB
Under the auspices of ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability), 21 pioneer local governments from around the world – including Cape Town – have been participating in the urban biodiversity project Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB). As the three-year pioneering phase of LAB draws to a close, ICLEI and IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature) are now initiating a new phase in which many more local governments will benefit from cooperation, exchange, knowledge transfer, the availability of guiding and training material, relations with the scientific community and targeted advocacy efforts. Cities globally are now invited to join a new LAB project starting in March 2009. LAB was pioneered in 2006 with the aim of improving


Cape Town commits to Global Biodiversity Practise
OPPOSITE: LAB’s 21 pioneering local governments from all corners of the globe. biodiversity management at local government level. LAB is an ICLEI initiative in partnership with the IUCN, Countdown 2010, the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and RomaNatura. South Africa is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot and a world leader in planning and managing biodiversity. Cape Town has been host to the ICLEI Africa Secretariat, the LAB project’s operational centre since its inception in 2006. Says Stephen Granger, Chair of the LAB Steering Committee and Manager of Major Programmes and Projects (ERM): “LAB will raise the profile of biodiversity in cities by launching five new biodiversity projects in each of the 21 LAB cities by June 2009. This amounts to 100 new biodiversity projects in urban areas around the world – a substantial benefit to the planet’s resources.” LAB’s goals include facilitating the sharing of lessons (challenges, successes, views, experiences) between local governments from around the world with the aim of improving biodiversity management; and raising the profile of biodiversity, both within local governments (for example by helping to make various departments and councillors aware of its importance) and of local government (for example by showcasing a local government through its achievements in biodiversity management). LEFT: Elisa Calcaterra (IUCN Countdown 2010) with Deputy Mayor Grant Haskins and Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt from Cape Town after they signed the Countdown 2010 Declaration.

n September, the second international LAB Workshop in Durban saw the signing ceremony for the Durban Commitment, a groundbreaking international commitment that forms part of the LAB project process and which was developed and founded by the 21 pioneers themselves. The Durban Commitment is a commitment and model by local government, for local government and the communities they serve, to protect and enhance biodiversity at the local level. It recognises that biodiversity is the variety of life on earth on which human wellbeing is dependent, and that it provides ecosystem services that underpin all of our communities’ needs. In addition, the signatories will entrench their commitment to global biodiversity by becoming a formal partner of Countdown


2010 and signing its declaration. The following are the five steps in the LAB project process, which participant cities follow:

1 2 3 4 5

ASSESS: Prepare a Biodiversity Report to assess the state of biodiversity in the city COMMIT: High-level political commitment to biodiversity targets

PLAN: Prepare a Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (LBSAP) indicating priorities over 10 years COMMIT: Political commitment to the LBSAP

DO: Implementation of five new biodiversity interventions within the city

For more information, contact Kate Berrisford, Local Action for Biodiversity, ICLEI Africa Secretariat, on 021 487 2070, e-mail or visit


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

urban spatial planning

Dense cities = better neighbourhoods
The City is preparing a densification strategy that aims to protect our valuable natural resources and biodiversity, as well as create a city that’s safer, has improved public transport, and offers more housing choices for different income groups and lifestyles.
e all want a city that’s efficient, safe and sustainable, and that offers high-quality public spaces and access to good public transport, services and recreation. And this is only possible in a city that’s dense and compact. Cape Town, at the moment, is quite the opposite – it has undergone fast and continuous low-density development, better known as urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is a threat to the long-term sustainability of Cape Town. As a city grows outwards, good agricultural land is destroyed, along with valuable biodiversity, natural areas and scenic views. A sprawling city also means long travel distances to work as well as places of education, recreation or other services. Public transport is not viable in spread-out cities, as the population densities are too low and there are not enough potential passengers; however, because spread-out cities rely on private vehicles, there’s always traffic congestion and poor air quality. Cities like Cape Town, where a large proportion of the city is designed on a ‘one plot, one house’ model, don’t offer many choices of housing types and living environment. Low-density cities seldom have a vibrant sense of neighbourhood and community; they’re also less safe. And on top of it all, low-density cities are more expensive and inefficient when it comes to delivering services and providing infrastructure; they waste resources and limit access to opportunities and facilities.


What is densification?
Densification simply means making more efficient use of our limited urban space – in other words, finding space for more people to live and work in Cape Town. We can do this by sub-division and consolidation, and by building townhouses, second dwellings (‘granny flats’) or second storeys, semi-detached houses, double-storeys, low-rise apartments and where appropriate, higher-rise flats (see above).

Why do we need to densify?
•	 Density helps make better neighbourhoods. •	 Density offers more housing choices and accommodates different kinds of lifestyles. •	 Density makes better use of the City’s limited resources and cuts infrastructure costs. •	 Density helps protect the environment. By concentrating people in the urban environment, natural spaces and habitats are conserved. •	 Density makes neighbourhoods more safe, as there are more ‘eyes and ears’ on the streets; criminals prefer quiet, desolate places. •	 Density supports more transport options, because there are enough people to make public transport viable. •	 Density offers a better lifestyle for people who can’t drive, such as elderly, very young or disabled people. •	 Density builds communities, with better access to schools, work, parks and services.

For more information, contact Norah Walker on e-mail or visit


environmental management systems

To comply … or not to comply
Both compliance and non-compliance with environmental legislation has its risks, whether its resource loss or development delays. The City’s new Environmental Management Systems and Audit Unit is set to manage these risks.


he environment of the Western Cape is probably its greatest economic and social asset, and this places a special responsibility on local government to preserve it. From economic development to tourism, conferencing to quality open spaces, the natural environment is what makes the city the special place it is. And of course, the City’s mandate is also to provide services and infrastructure on a significant scale to the citizens of Cape Town. One of the strategic goals of Cape Town is to be a sustainable city. This shows a commitment to ensure that developments meet the needs of the present generation without compromising those of the future generation – which is why the City must always act or conduct its business in a way that complies with environmental legislation (e.g. our Bill of Rights as well as the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) and local by-laws). Non-compliance with environmental legislation, procedures and guidelines can result in significant impacts and liabilities,

with associated penalties. Yet, compliance can result in delays and other impacts, particularly where complex decisions are required, objections are received from affected communities, or in cases where insufficient skills and resources are available. Ultimately, these risks and impacts can be managed by the establishment of an Environmental Management System (EMS). The EMS provides the core structure by which	the	industry	and/or	environment	 interaction is managed, and enables organisations to come to grips with the environmental obligations in a structured manner. In order to achieve this, the City has created the position of Head: Environmental Management Systems and Audit. Funding from National Treasury has been obtained for the development of a broader Environmental Compliance Strategy, and includes funding for the training of City staff in relevant aspects of environmental legislation and compliance, including environmental auditing and Environmental Management Systems (EMS). The City has also appointed

the service provider for the preparation of an Aspects and Impacts Register. ERM is implementing a number of strategic environmental projects in order to improve the City’s compliance and ensure the sustainability of service delivery. These include the development of an Aspects and Impacts Register for Utilities Departments (Electricity Services; Solid Waste Services and Water and Sanitation as a start), and the appointment of a service provider to assist in the formulation of an Environmental Compliance Strategy for capital programmes and project planning. The City has also identified a shortage of EMS and audit skills among its own staff, and is providing training to Water and Sanitation, Solid Waste, Electricity and ERM staff. This will form an important milestone in the development of the City’s Environmental Compliance Strategy. BELOW: Our built and natural environments are the city’s greatest assets, and it is local government’s duty to care for them.

For more information, contact Linda Ndlela, Head: Environmental Management Systems and Audit, on 021 487 2840, or e-mail



Volume 2/08 • December 2008


Cape Town to implement Integrated Rapid Transit System

n August 2008, the City of Cape Town approved the initial phase of an ambitious integrated rapid transit system that will change the face of public transport. The decision was prompted by the recognition that the current fragmented and unplanned public transport services are unsustainable – creating daily hardship for thousands of residents, especially poorer communities living far from the centre of economic activity, and hampering economic growth and development. As a host city for the 2010 FIFA World CupTM, Cape Town has contractual obligations to meet in terms of transport. Funding made available to cities for this event will be used to fund the initial phase of the system to ensure a lasting legacy for Cape Town commuters from the major investment in infrastructure ahead of the World Cup. The initial phase of the transport system includes a service between the Cape Town CBD and the airport, throughout the inner city and surrounding areas, and through to the Green Point Stadium precinct, with


an extension up the Atlantis Corridor to include the communities of Mamre, Atlantis, Doornbach and Du Noon. This will be expanded in the full Phase 1 to include Century City and Montagu Gardens and four more links from the airport to areas such as Bellville, Strand, the southern suburbs and Table View via Century City. After building on the requirements for 2010, the priority will be to link the densely populated Metro Southeast, which includes Mitchells Plain and Khayelitsha, to destinations across the Peninsula. Within a period of 10 to 12 years, the City’s vision is to establish an integrated rapid transit network across the city that will place over 75% of the population within 500 m of a high-quality public transport system.

in the Peninsula, many thousands also travel by bus and minibus taxi. The disadvantages of the current public transport services are: •	 They are concentrated in the morning and afternoon peak hours, with limited services during the day or late in the evening. •	 There are no scheduled services and there is no integrated ticketing system between the various modes. •	 There are major safety issues, with especially women and children feeling vulnerable when they use public transport. •	 Regulation and law enforcement are inadequate. •	 There is no integrated planning of public transport services. Part of this transformation process is to draw lessons from successful examples in countries ABOVE: Unlike the current bus system, the rapid transit vehicles will be articulated, and operate in dedicated lanes.

Why the need for change?
In Cape Town a large percentage of the population relies on public transport. While rail is the backbone of commuter transport


in South America and Asia, and increasingly in North America and Europe, for Bus Rapid Transit Systems. Cape Town is one of four South African cities implementing these road-based systems that prioritise public over private vehicles and offer commuters a fast, modern, comfortable, safe and affordable way to move around the city. Finally, growing congestion on roads and concerns around air quality and long-term sustainability mean that change is inevitable if our cities are to meet the needs of residents in the coming decades.

Bike-commuter lanes proposed alongside BRT route


What is Bus Rapid Transit?
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility with segregated right-of-way infrastructure, rapid and frequent operations, and excellence in marketing and customer service. BRT has virtually all the performance and comfort of a modern rail-based transit system, but at a fraction of the cost – typically four to 20 times less than a tram or light rail transit system and ten to 100 times less than a rail system. The BRT was successfully implemented in Latin American cities, such as Curitiba, Bogotá and Sao Paulo, and now there are similar systems in Brisbane, Los Angeles, Ottawa, Rouen, Beijing, Delhi, Jakarta, Nagoya and Taipei. The most defining feature of BRT is its focus on customer service. Dedicated median busways provide customers with dramatically reduced travel times. Because the vehicles move quickly in peak hour, more people are encouraged to switch from private car-use to public transport, which makes the whole system far more viable. The dedicated lanes also reduce operating costs so that fares are quite affordable. Special attention is also given to safety and security through the presence of security personnel and the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras.

he City of Cape Town is to build a route between Cape Town Station and Milnerton that is dedicated to public transport as well as bicycles. The proposed route forms part of the City’s vision for improving the travel times and safety of public transport passengers and cyclists, especially on heavily congested routes. It is expected that this will save 10 to 15 minutes travel time during peak periods for public transport passengers, and will provide cyclists with a safe route. The proposed public transport route (busway) and bicycle way will run between Cape	Town	railway	station	and	the	R27/Milner	Road	intersection	in	Paarden	Eiland. The location of the bus way and cycle way together with landscaping in the disused rail siding through Paarden Eiland will also result in an attractive environmental improvement of this area. The City is also planning to construct cycle lanes on Koeberg Road and the R27 as far as Blaauwberg Road and beyond. It is estimated that 5 000 public transport passengers per hour in the peak direction would immediately benefit from these improvements during peak periods, and it is hoped that the demand for public transport, rather than for private car travel, will increase in future.

RIGHT: In early 2008, consultants, including highly respected international experts with experience in delivering BRT systems, were contracted to develop the operational and business plans for the Cape Town system. Two of these experts were Enrique Peñalosa (left), economist and former Mayor of Bogotá, Colombia; and Oscar Edmundo Diaz (back), Institute for Transport Development Policy pictured here with Gail Jennings (right), Enviroworks. While mayor, Peñalosa promoted a city model giving priority to children and public spaces and restricting private car use, building hundreds of kilometres of pavements, bicycle paths, pedestrian streets, greenways and parks.


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

solid waste

Turn your waste into worth
In Cape Town, there’s no such thing as waste. For almost any item you throw away, there’s someone else waiting to use it. And now all you need to do is to register on and find out who wants what.


he City of Cape Town has launched a new, free online system for waste generators and waste users to exchange waste. IWEX (Integrated Waste Exchange) is available to businesses, individuals, institutions, schools, NGOs or community groups – anyone and everyone, in fact. Operating on the principle that ‘one person’s garbage is another person’s gold’, IWEX facilitates the re-use of waste, thereby conserving energy, minimising resource use and reducing the pressure on landfill space. More than 80% of the waste we currently generate in Cape Town goes to landfill, so its potential economic value can never be realised. From July 2006 to June 2007, Cape Town disposed of 2,8 million tons of waste, and this figure is increasing by more than 6% per year! The City of Cape Town has only three landfill sites still in operation – Vissershok, Coastal Park and Bellville South. These are filling up fast, with two of them having only enough space for another ten years or less. A new regional landfill site is planned for the City of Cape Town, but this will be situated over 40 km further away than the current sites, considerably increasing the costs to dispose of the waste. In addition, when we send waste to landfill, we can end up contaminating groundwater and the natural environment. IWEX is an efficient, cost-effective way to avoid these environmental impacts and increased costs by conserving energy, minimising resource use and reducing the need for landfill space. SOME OF THE TYPES OF WASTE THAT ARE AvAiLABLE ON iWEX Acids Metal sludges Alkalis Metals Batteries Motor oils/greases Builder’s rubble Oils and waxes – food and other Carpets Paints/coatings Cartridges Paper/cardboard Pesticides/herbicides/agricultural Chemicals chemicals Compostable wastes Pharmaceutical wastes Plastics/composite packaging Computers/electronics (e-waste) (e.g. Tetrapak) Dyes/Inks Solvents Fluorescent tubes/CFLs Textiles/leather Furniture Tyres/rubber Glass White goods (e.g. stoves, fridges, etc.) Industrial/other equipment Wood

•	 IWEX can turn your fixed costs for waste storage, transport and disposal, into savings. •	 IWEX can give your company a competitive edge in the sustainable use of resources. •	 IWEX can unlock a market for your unwanted materials. •	 IWEX can uncover a supplier of materials who offers the perfect input material for your business, at a competitive price, lowering raw material or input costs. •	 IWEX can improve your company’s environmental and social responsibility image.

The IWEX Catalogue
Once you have logged onto the IWEX site, you’ll be able to click on a specific type of wanted material to see if someone wants the specific material you have to offer. Once you have found the customer for your specific material in the catalogue, you’ll be able to get the contact details of the customer. In the table on the left are examples of the types of ‘waste’ available for exchange. All you need to do is to register, and ‘advertise’ your unwanted ‘waste’ or list the waste materials you would like to obtain. The waste is then posted onto the IWEX Catalogue, which is updated daily. Available waste must be based in Cape Town, although waste collectors may be from any part of the country.

For more information on IWEX, contact Dorah Mulidzi on 021 400 4529 or e-mail


air quality

Air pollution feels the sting in Cape Town
Residents can breathe more easily since the addition of seven new ‘Green Scorpions’ to the City Health team.
“Good morning Cape Town! You’re listening to Good Hope FM … “It is time to rise and shine. It’s cold outside, and the brown haze hasn’t budged at all! That’s 24 consecutive days of smog. At this rate we will break last year’s record – 167 days with pollution exceeding internationally accepted levels …”


ix members of the City’s Specialised Health Services (Air Quality) and one member of the Noise Control Unit attended a three-week Environmental Management Inspectorate (EMI) certificate course at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology recently. The course was presented by various lecturers under the auspices of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. The EMI is a network of environmental enforcement officials sourced from different government departments (national, provincial or municipal). The inspectorate, known as the ‘Green Scorpions’, was created in terms of the National Environmental Management Act, No 107 of 1998 (NEMA). EMIs must monitor compliance with and enforce the specific environmental legislation they have been mandated to enforce in their designations by the Minister or relevant provincial Member of the Executive Council (MEC). The EMIs will be able to perform their duties once they have been appointed by the MEC, which is likely to be in mid 2009. “We as municipal officials will have to be appointed by the MEC and not by the Minister of Environmental Affairs,” says Dave Arnott of the City’s Air Quality Unit. “Should we be successful in obtaining the certificate, we will be empowered to enforce any authorisation issued under the mandated legislation, including permits, licences (listed activities) and EIA authorisations (records of decision pertaining to air quality).” The ‘Green Scorpions’ have a range of powers that may be used in routine inspections (such as entering premises to ascertain

City Health’s Air quality Management Unit has produced a DVD for high schools, businesses and anyone who’s interested, about the causes of poor air quality in Cape Town, what the City is doing about it, and how we can all help … The DVD is narrated by DJ Suga from Good Hope FM, Ravi Pillay, Manager: Air quality, Specialised Health Services, and Cllr James Vos. compliance, and siezing of evidence), investigation (inspection and/or	removal	of	articles	or	substances),	and	enforcement	(search	 and seizure of premises, containers, vessels and vehicles). “With the establishment of the EMI, we as environmental enforcement officials will for the first time be part of a national network sharing intelligence and experience, and will have standardised training and procedures,” says Arnott. “Being part of the national EMI network, we will break through the traditional barriers of separation between various levels of government and government institutions, as we are charged with the protection of different aspects of the environment. “This may include involvement and interaction with park rangers; air quality officers; and marine, coastal enforcement, pollution and waste enforcement officials.


Reduce, re-use, recycle Buy local produce Walk, cycle or take public transport Be energy efficient Keep your car in good working order

For more information, contact Niel Rossouw on 021 590 1419 or e-mail


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

environmental education

YES Programme celebrates 10th anniversary on World Environment Day
YES has traditionally been a weeklong event held at a central venue during World Environment Week in June, but in late 2007 it expanded to a year-long programme that takes place across the whole city. The YES team from ERM works with a wide range of partners (more than 130 organisations) to present interactive, curriculum-based lessons and activities to learners. YES focuses on all aspects of sustainable development by linking themes to major commemorative days and weeks. Key themes are wetlands, air quality, water and sanitation, waste, GIS, biodiversity, energy and climate change, heritage, tourism, marine and coastal management, sustainable transport, and HIV and Aids.


he hugely successful Youth Environmental School (YES) Programme, which started in 1999 with 2 000 learners, has increased its reach to more than 60 000 learners in the decade since its inception. And if there’s any doubt about its extraordinary success, simply page through this issue of Enviroworks to learn more about its programmes and projects. The 10th anniversary celebration was

held at the River Club in Observatory, where the very first YES programme was hosted as part of the Cape Metropolitan Festival of the Environment in 1999. YES is an ongoing, extensive, integrated youth capacity-building programme, achieving the goals of environmental education and awareness through a variety of projects, activities, resources and opportunities. YES is open to all schools (learners and educators) in Cape Town.

ABOVE: Representatives from various organisations recognised for their outstanding contribution to environmental education were (back, from left) Weston Barwise, Debra Michaels, Ally Ashwell, Lucille Boonzaaier, Rene Simpson, Daphne Kayster, Irene Toerien, Pakama Matotie, Lindie Buirski, (front, from left) Brian Foster, Thembi Nomkala, Dawn Glover, Andreas Groenewald, Anton Fortuin, Nikki Hoal and Andrea Gordon. RIGHT: Lindie Buirski (centre) was presented with an award for her inspiration and dedication to the YES Programme since its inception. With her are Daphne Kayster (Metrorail) and Esmay Swart (YES team).

For more information about the YES Programme, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail


Cape Town youth take charge of their future
At the City’s third Youth Conference on Sustainable Development in August, learners from secondary schools in Cape Town made recommendations on the power of choice and how to start living smartly.

The modern Ms Cape Town’s a saver She makes sure that nothing is lost She gets off her arse, Saves all paper and glass And turns kitchen waste into compost! MONDALE HigH SCHOOL: `BECOMiNg A RECYCLiNg HOME’

he conference, with the theme of ‘Smart Living’, focused not on the negative impact of our lifestyles, but instead promoted positive actions that support sustainable living. The schools presented solution-oriented projects based on the Smart Living themes of water, energy, waste and biodiversity, using posters and or presentations. Opening the conference, Cllr Grant Haskin, Deputy Mayor of the City of Cape Town, said he hoped schools would “use the conference as a platform to share their ideas and initiatives, address their concerns, and take responsibility for their lifestyles, so that there is a future for the generation that will follow”. Some of these ideas and initiatives included Bishops’ plan to set up a car-pool system for parents; using a GPS to map routes; and the use of solar laptop chargers. Already the four kitchens


at the school have been centralised to form one more efficient kitchen, and the swimming pool is solar heated. The learners have also reduced their use of paper through an online syllabus and electronic work. Macassar High School learners are concerned about the sandmining activities in their neighbourhood, which contribute to loss of biodiversity. There is no rehabilitation, no monitoring, and illegal selling of topsoil, the learners say, so they have implemented and monitored a rehabilitation project at the Mac Sand Mining site. In particular, they are monitoring the indicator species of Pelargoniums (wilde malva), Helicharysum (kooigoed), Chrysanthemoides monilifera (bitou), Carpo Brotus Spp (sour fig), Condropelatium tectorum (thatching	reed/restio/dektriet),	and	P. rigida (gonnabos). Mondale High School conducted a waste audit among 120 households in Portland, Mitchells Plain, with an excellent response from 85 households. They have subsequently raised awareness about the recycling of organic household waste through composting, worm gardens and organic vegetable gardening – and came up with the ‘inspiring’ limerick above. Read it and you’ll never forget to recycle again. The Youth Conference is part of the City’s commitment to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and falls under the banner of the City’s YES Programme.

Bishops Diocesan College: Going for Green – energy consumption at Bishops Somerset College: Rehabilitation of the school dam and river Mondale High School (pictured right): ‘Becoming a recycling home’ Macassar High School: Loss of Biodiversity in the Macassar Sand Dunes as a result of sand mining Bishops Diocesan College: What a Waste – a recycling journey Mpetha High School (pictured above): Oscar Mpetha Energy Murals ABOVE: Maarten de Wit from UCT handing the African Corridors Game to Monique Peterson, Joretha Houlies, Navelle Abrahams and Garreth le Roux from Mondale High School and Lindie Buirski from the City of Cape Town.

For more information, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

environmental education



his winter, learners from 11 schools took the stage with dramatic stories to tell about waste management, water conservation, energy efficiency and biodiversity conservation at the City’s first ever YES Drama Festival. Held in the Arena Theatre at the Artscape Theatre Complex, the environmental drama festival was designed to explore the messages in the Smart Living Handbook, which encourages people to live smartly and sustainably by making wise choices about their environment and

resources. And never before has sustainable living looked so stylish, so glamorous, and so possible. In preparation for this festival, schools attended creative workshops at the Artscape Theatre Complex on script-writing, acting and technical stage skills. The Smart Living Handbook was used as a resource for the schools to develop their scripts and explore solutions to environmental challenges particularly relevant to the community in which they live and go to school. Schools were asked to focus

ABOVE: Learners from Scottsdene High were awarded Most Promising Production at the Yes Drama Festival with their play, ‘Cholera...not gorilla!’ They were also the winners of the Best Novice award at the Artscape High Schools Drama Festival with this play. OPPOSITE TOP: ‘Biodiversity’ by learners from Malibu High. Benefit Gaabusi (left) won the Best Performer award. OPPOSITE BOTTOM: Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt with the winners.


AND THE WINNERS WERE … Most Promising Production – Scottsdene High Best Supporting Performer – Yandisa Magagana (Simanyene) Best Performer (joint award) – Benefit Gaabusi (Malibu High) and Nonceba quku (Isilimela) Best Script – St Cyprian’s Judges Award – Table View in recognition of a script that explored the environmental issues particularly well Best Production – Immaculata The following two schools were chosen to join the Artscape High Schools Festival – St Cyprian’s and Scottsdene (Immaculata was already entered) The following two schools were chosen to perform at the Youth Conference on Sustainability – Malibu High and Chris Hani The judges asked that Islamia College receive a special letter congratulating them on their efforts and commitment.

on one of the four themes presented in the handbook. The 11 participating schools (by invitation only) were Chris Hani Secondary, Immaculata (RC) Secondary, Isilimela Comprehensive, Islamia College, Malibu High, Rhodes High, Scottsdene High, Simanyene High, St Cyprian’s, Table View High and Tuscany Glen High. The five judges were Abduraghmaan Adams, a theatre and film actor, playwright, director and drama educator; Ina Bruce, Curriculum Advisor for the subject Dramatic Arts at the Western Cape Education Department; Luke Ellenbogen, resident director and lighting designer for Theatre for Africa; Dr Glenda Raven of the C.A.P.E. Bioregional Programme, an environmental educationist and trainer; and Mzwakhe ‘Sticks’ Mdidimba, the Indigenous Arts Manager for Artscape.

For more information, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail For more information on the YES Programme and to download a copy of the Smart Living Handbook, visit


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

environmental education

Putting knowledge into action
Hout Bay schools waste no time in making their planet a more beautiful place.
ine schools from Llandudno and Hout Bay celebrated World Environment Day in June by showing off their knowledge of the environment and sustainable living, and exhibiting artworks they had made with recycled materials. After weeks of preparation, the six primary and three high schools put their knowledge to the test as they competed for first place in the Sentinel Schools EnviroQuiz, organised by the Sentinel News newspaper and the 3Rs environmental awareness group. Since the beginning of May, learners had been studying the City of Cape Town’s Smart Living Handbook as well as articles written by Hout Bay-based environmentalists, such as Guy Preston, on topics such as sustainable living, waste management, biodiversity and water. Llandudno, Ambleside, Oranjekloof, Hout Bay International, Kronendal and Sentinel primary schools entered the quiz. But it was Llandudno Primary that walked off with the first prize in the junior quiz; Ambleside was the runner-up. In the senior quiz, Hout Bay International won first; runnerup was Hout Bay High. Contestants in the EnviroArt competition, in which schools were challenged to make sculptures or useful items from waste materials, really wowed the judges, but it was Oranjekloof’s huge plastic mural and book artwork that won them first place in the junior art section. They won R1 000, with joint runners-up Dominican Grimley and Llandudno Primary each taking home R500. Hout Bay High won first place in the senior section. In her opening speech at the event, Chantal Erfort, the quizmaster and Acting Editor of Cape Community newspapers (which publishes Sentinel News), told the learners that “the future of our beautiful planet depends on the knowledge you arm yourself with, but more importantly, how you put that knowledge into action”.


Top left: Hout Bay High, Sentinel High, Hout Bay International, Ambleside, Dominican Grimley and Llandudno schools all participated in the inaugural Sentinel News Enviroquiz in May 2008. Left: The Enviroquiz also promotes recycling initiatives at school in Hout Bay, and learners exhibited art-fromwaste at the quiz evening.


smart living

Never too late to live smartly
Think you’re too old to learn? Too set in your habits to change your ways? This is an extract from the Smart Living Handbook, which the learners (left) studied for their enviroquiz …
Conduct a mini audit of water use in your home (page 84)
How much water is your household using? Where do you use the most water in your home? Are there areas where you could make water savings? Increase your knowledge and awareness of water use in your home through the exercise below.

Activity Average litres of water used per activity (litres) 1,5 litres 1–3 80–150 80 4 6–21 0,25 18 single basin 36 double basin 17–45 80 40 Number of times activity done each day 3 times a day Total water used by a person each day (litres) 1,5 litres x 3 times a day = 4,5 Number of people in the Total household water household consumption per day 4 people 4,5 litres x 4 people = 18

Example: Wash hands and face Wash hands and face Bath 5-minute shower Teeth cleaning (tap on) Toilet flushing Drinking (cup) Washing dishes (hand) Dishwasher Washing machine (one 3 kg load) Hand washing (1 tub load)

Leaking/dripping tap 30–60 (1 drop/ second each day) Food garden (per m2 per day) 4 Cooking (meal for 5 people) Using the garden hose for an hour 3 600

Think about where you use the most water every day. Explore this chapter for helpful advice on better water choices you could be making. Work out what your consumption breakdown looks like. This will make you see where your biggest areas of water use are and will help you to make choices about where water efficiency improvements can be made in your home. Often as much as 35% to 50% of household water is used for non-essential purposes, such as watering gardens and filling pools.

For more information about the Smart Living Handbook, e-mail To download your own copy, visit


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

event greening

2010 FiFA World Cup aims to score ‘green’ goals
Energy conservation and climate change Minimise the event’s carbon footprint

1. Determine the carbon footprint of the 2010 event 2. Identify and implement carbon offset project(s) in Cape Town/ Western Cape 3. Energy-efficient technologies in stadiums and training venues, at fan parks, PVAs and other facilities 1. Identify alternative sources of water to irrigate the Green Point Common 2. Install water-saving devices in the stadium and training venues 1. Operational waste minimisation in the stadium, fan parks, PVAs and training venues 2. Green Goal branding of recycling bins and waste minimisation signage 3. Recycling drop-off centres in the CBD and Atlantic Seaboard 1. Develop bicycle and pedestrian facilities 2. Develop public transport infrastructure 3. CBD bicycle services 4. Eco-taxis 1. Indigenous gardening training programme for Urban Park staff 2. Biodiversity showcase garden at Green Point Urban Park 3. Student landscape design competition for Mouille Point beachfront and promenade 4. City beautification and tree planting campaign 1. Green Point Urban Park and ECO Centre 2. Undertake and monitor Green Review for Green Point and Athlone stadiums 3. Cape Town green map 4. Green Goal volunteers and training programme 5. Green Goal soccer club competition 6. Soccer and environment educational poster and guide 7. Green Goal short films 8. Anti-littering and waste recycling campaign 9. Drink tap water campaign 10. Green procurement for 2010 FIFA World CupTM events 11. Green building handbook and toolkit 12. Greening of 2010 FIFA World CupTM events 1. Code of responsible conduct for visitors 2. Environmental accreditation system for accommodation sector: GreenStaySA 3. Responsible tourism awareness and training 1. Green Goal workshop series 2. Green Goal brand development and activation 3. Briefing for potential Green Goal funders 4. Green Goal marketing and communication 5. Green Goal Ambassadors 6. Green Goal project website and online media resources 7. Green Goal 2010 exhibition 8. Green Goal 2010 awards

he Host City Cape Town is implementing an official 2010 FIFA World CupTM greening programme to make the soccer world cup as environmentally responsible as possible. The programme, called Green Goal 2010, is supported by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), FIFA and the Local Organising Committee (LOC) in collaboration with the host cities. It draws on Germany’s 2006 FIFA World CupTM experience, in which the organisers focused on reducing the event’s greenhouse gas emissions by increasing energy efficiency and using renewable energy wherever possible. Host City Cape Town has developed an action plan to implement the Green Goal programme, with indicators, milestones, budgets, potential partners, timelines and targets for 41 projects in nine target areas. The action plan focuses on stadium and citywide greening initiatives, carbon reduction and offset, water conservation, sustainable transport, integrated waste management, biodiversity awareness raising, green procurement processes, responsible tourism and environmental awareness and communication. The themes and projects are elaborated in the table on the right. The action plan was developed following a series of workshops and discussion forums with experts, stakeholders and interested parties from government, the private sector and civil society. The workshop series was sponsored by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, a Host City Green Goal contributor.


Water Minimise the use of potable water and promote conservation of water resources integrated waste management Reduce, re-use and recycle waste

Transport, mobility and access Promote energy efficient and universally accessible means of transport that also minimise air pollution Landscaping and biodiversity Promote indigenous landscaping and enhance biodiversity

‘green’ building and sustainable lifestyles Promote environmental awareness, sustainable lifestyles and environmentally efficient building practices

Responsible tourism Promote responsible tourism for 2010 and beyond green goal communication Communicate the Green Goal message to residents and visitors

For more information, contact Lorraine Gerrans on 021 400 5465 or e-mail

Monitoring, measurement and reporting Monitor, measure and report on progress with the implementation of Green Goal

1. Procedures and methodologies 2. Targets and baseline studies 3. Annual reports and legacy report


sustainable livelihoods

Orchid growers find paradise
ince its launch, the Londolozani Orchid Legacy Project has evolved and is on its way to becoming a fully-fledged Sustainable Livelihoods initiative. Although the number of project beneficiaries has decreased, the level of ownership has increased and the project is set to benefit many poor people directly. Two of the women working on the project have put their entrepreneurial skills to work and as a result a new project has emerged, called the Umyezo Plant Project (‘umyezo’ means paradise). Umyezo grows and markets South African and African orchids (many of our indigenous orchids are endangered). Initial training in orchid propagation methods was conducted by Michael Tibbs of the Cape Orchid Society and The Exotic Plant Company (TEPC). ABOVE: Joyce Dladloti and Nikiwe Madalane from the These dramatic changes came about shortly after a project evaluation, Londolozani Orchid Legacy Project holding up one of which taught some significant lessons. To ensure sustainability, for example, the orchids they have propagated. the transport costs needed to be reduced; hence the project is moving from the Helderberg Nature Reserve to the College of Cape Town’s Gugulethu Campus, much closer to where the participants live. Project participants needed more specific training. The ladies will now be trained to hand-pollinate and germinate the seed pods in partnership with Erica Primary School in Belhar, where an orchid project teaches primary school learners about orchid growing. The Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening Programmes Unit is conducting research on the role of social capital in the creation of sustainable livelihoods, working with the Siyazama Community Allotment Gardening Association (SCAGA) as a case study. The latter is an initiative of Abalimi Bezekhaya, a partner in the Aachen-CCT LA21 Partnership. This food gardening project addresses current challenges facing the poor, particularly food insecurity. It enables poor people, especially women, to produce good-quality, organic vegetables close to where they live, in this way saving on travelling costs as well as food purchase costs. The vegetables they produce are not solely for consumption, though; the urban farmers also sell their vegetables at local markets, thus finding a way to fund their other household requirements. RIGHT: One of the women who works at SCAGA, previously known as the Powerline Project on marginal city-owned land in Khayelitsha.


Both programmes are part of ERM’s newest unit for Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening Programmes, which aims to improve the quality of life of Cape Town’s most vulnerable communities. The Sustainable Livelihoods approach addresses many of the millennium developments goals by creating an enabling platform for people to benefit from Cape Town’s environmental resources, and not only make a living wage, but also create a sustained quality of life.

For more information, contact Jacques du Toit, Head: Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening Programmes, on 021 487 2229 or e-mail


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

biodiversity management

Clearing up the crime and grime
New facilities, better roads, committed fieldworkers and international partnerships are all helping to draw more visitors to the False Bay Ecology Park.
really love my work here,” says False Bay Ecology Park field worker Felicia Rochelle Meyer. “I love my group, and I always go home feeling like I’ve done something.” Felicia is one of seven field workers who’re participating in a programme run by the Cape Town Environmental Education Trust, under contract to the City. Based in Zeekoe	 lei,	they	work	on	alien-clearing,	 v as well as general facilities maintenance, building, tiling and litter clean-ups, and receive lifeskills training at least once a week. “It all started with the hyacinths,” says Elizabeth Abrahams, who has worked on alien-clearing contracts at the Park for many years. When the time came for the City to select workers for this new programme, “they liked us old hyacinth workers,” she laughs, ‘’as we had already shown what we could do.” “It’s true these are alien plants, but they put work into our hands and therefore


ABOVE: (from left) Fieldworkers Jonathan Marthinus Fisher, Ricardo Fortune, Crystal April, Berenice Joyce Zimri, Felicia Rochelle Meyer, Elizabeth Abrahams and Grant Abraham Revell (in front). TOP: Luqmaan Jabaar gets to work clearing hyacinths from the vlei.

food on the table,” she adds, showing a keen understanding of the economic value of environmental work. The team members all cite hyacinthclearing as their favourite work activity, especially when the weather is hot, but add that there is nothing like the adrenalin rush of fire-fighting. “It’s quite an experience,” says Grant Abraham Revell. The fieldworkers, along with the Park’s four new visitor control officers, have without doubt made a positive impact on the area. The visitor control officers patrol the area on foot and by quad bike, and have already arrested 12 people for illegal activities within the Park. The number of people who visit the Park has grown enormously, thanks to this increased safety and improved cleanliness. From July to September, over 16 000 people visited the park (10 000 to ‘braai’ and picnic), compared to 17 000 visitors over the whole of the previous year.


A platform to make a difference
Every year, before the winter rains, the False Bay Ecology Park team lowers the water level of Zeekoevlei to flush out contaminated and polluted water, as well as enable litter clean-ups resulting mainly from dumping in and adjacent to the Lotus and the Little Lotus Rivers. This autumn the team found a veritable ‘shopping list’ of discarded items: two fridges; 18 parts of motor vehicles; four shopping trolleys; four baths; one washing machine; plus enough rubbish to fill 9 000 black bags. oung adults from the United Kingdom are gaining a new perspective on their own life circumstances by volunteering at False Bay Ecology Park and its neighbouring communities. Platform2 is a programme that enables 18–25 year old volunteers for ten weeks in a number of developing countries including South Africa, Ghana, India and Peru. It is aimed at young adults who are culturally or financially disadvantaged, and would not otherwise have had the chance to volunteer their time and enthusiasm. Based at the Park, the 12 volunteers from Platform2 participate in conservation work with the fieldworkers, and spend one day a week at a community project. Four weeks into the programme, the volunteers are still talking about how different Cape Town compares to their expectations. They were pleasantly surprised to find electricity and good accommodation, but are horrified by the living and learning conditions of young children in the nearby community. Julie Anne Lennox: “It makes us so sad to see what is almost normal here – children who are so disadvantaged they might never have improved lives.” “Back home, children in those situations would make national news,” says Laura Brumford. “But we still love your country,” says Ishfaq Kahn. “We’ll go home and promote the project, pass on our new skills, and re-think our own situations at home.” The programme is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Christian Aid, Islamic Relief and British Universities North America Club (BUNAC).


The Park, on the other hand, has made a positive impact on its workers. “When I started off working here, I was just all for myself,” says Grant. “Here, I’ve learned to work with others, and nature – and have learned to give back to the community.” The 1 200 hectare False Bay Ecology Park includes the Cape Flats Wastewater Treatment Works, the Rondevlei Nature Reserve,	the	Zeekoevlei	Nature	Reserve,	 the Coastal Park Landfill Site, and a contiguous coastal strip. The craft and culture centre of the Cape Flats Development Association (Cafda), adjacent to Rondevlei, is integral to the vision of the Park. The Park is home to one of the most important wetland bird habitats in South Africa.

LEFT: (from left) Volunteers Emma Corbett, Sara Webb, Kirstie Arrol, Harmieda Begum, Iftikaar Hussain, Laura Brumford, Julie Anne Lennox and Ishfaq Khan.

Did you know that there are more than 23 ‘user-groups’ who enjoy the False Bay Ecology Park? There’s something for everyone, from cycling, picnicking and walking to sailing, power-boating, model aircraft flying, fishing and birding. To find out if the Park caters for your particular pastime, telephone 021 706-2404.

For more information, contact Joanne Jackson, Head: Project Development and Partnerships, on 021 487-2184 or e-mail


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

biodiversity alien invasive species

New plan to control invasive alien species
Invasive alien species are one of the biggest threats to the loss of biodiversity in Cape Town – a fate the City’s new Alien Invasive Species Strategy hopes to counter.
lthough there are many initiatives to conserve and manage the unique biodiversity within the boundaries of Cape Town, critical areas are being lost at a faster rate than conservation measures can counter. The biggest threats are land transformation and invasive alien plant species. Although the City covers an area of only 2 400 km2, it contains nine of the 24 of South Africa’s critically endangered ecosystems (as defined by the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act of 2004), with six endemic vegetation types, of which three are critically endangered. Invasive alien species (IAS) include animals (vertebrates and invertebrates), plants (woody and weeds) and microbes. IAS invade terrestrial habitats, fresh water, marine areas and forests. Invasive alien plants are regarded as the second biggest threat to biodiversity – the biggest threat is habitat loss due to development and agriculture.



Impact of invasive alien plants
The species currently covering the largest surface areas in Cape Town are Port Jackson, Rooikrans and Kikuyu grass. The control of invasive alien plants places a huge burden on the already struggling economy and costs the country millions every year. The Working for Water Programme alone spends more than R400 million annually while the City spends about R8 million controlling invasive alien plants (see above left, clearing Port Jackson). The most damaging species, such as the Australian acacias (Black wattle, Longleaved wattle and Port Jackson) and some pines (Pinus pinaster, P. radiata and P. halepensis) transform ecosystems by using excessive amounts of resources, change the nitrogen composition,	promote	and/or	suppress	fire	(see	left,	during	and	after	 a fire fuelled by alien invasive species), stabilise sand movement, promote erosion, and accumulate litter. Research shows that dense stands of Port Jackson (Acacia saligna) cause a decline of soil-stored seed banks of indigenous plants, leading to local extinction of species.

Invasive alien animals
Examples of invasive alien animals specific to the City include the invasive Indian house crow and mallard ducks. The house crow (opposite top) The house crow (Corvus splendens) is indigenous to the Indian sub-continent, Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia and southern China.



It was introduced in Africa in the late 1800s, and was already considered	a	pest	in	Zanzibar	by	1917.	It	spread	from	Zanzibar	to	 Africa mainland by ship, and was recorded in Durban in 1972 and in Cape Town in the 1980s. But why are house crows a problem? Because they are omnivorous and will eat insects, small vertebrates, birds’ eggs, fledglings, seeds … almost anything, in fact. As a result, they are a serious threat to other species. In addition, they are aggressive scavengers and feed on carrion, crops, refuse and human faeces. They are known to store food once they have eaten their fill, and carry diseases such as salmonella, entamoeaba, dysentary, cholera and typhoid. At least eight species of animal intestinal parasites are known to be harboured by the house crow, while disease-causing organisms can also be transmitted passively via their feet, bills and bodies. They often deposit infected organic matter into water as well as open-air food stalls and markets. They roost near clinics, food and meat vendors in informal settlements, specifically Nyanga. It’s no surprise, then, that they are regarded as a health risk.

The Biodiversity Management Branch is responsible for the conservation of biodiversity within the City’s boundaries. One of the important aspects of this branch’s work is to ensure that biodiversity and nature become part of ordinary, ‘everyday’ life. More specifically, this branch is responsible for conservation planning, biodiversity management and invasive alien species management and control. However, managing biological invasions in an urban environment is complex. The City’s new framework for invasive alien species provides a platform for collaboration between partners, improved planning and prioritisation, and implementing best practice. But without support from you and the City’s decisionmakers, implementing the framework will not be as successful as it could be.

The mallard duck (above) The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) plays havoc with indigenous waterfowl worldwide, and threatens a significant number of indigenous waterfowl species in South Africa, such as the yellowbilled duck (Anas undulata), red-billed teal, Cape shoveller and African black duck. Mallard ducks are an introduced species from the northern hemisphere, and cause severe ‘genetic pollution’ of the endemic yellow-billed duck through cross-breeding. In fact, they are known to breed with about 45 other species of waterfowl, and the hybrids of mallard ducks and yellow-billed ducks are fertile and can produce even more hybrid offspring. Mallards also out-compete indigenous birds for resources such as food, nest sites and roosting. If this continues, only hybrids will occur, and in the long term this will result in the extinction of the indigenous species.

For more information, contact Louise Stafford, Invasive Alien Species Coordinator, Biodiversity Management Branch on 021 514 4162, or e-mail



Volume 2/08 • December 2008

city greening

From ‘gloom’ to ‘bloom’
The once dreary Civic Centre in Delft has been transformed into a vibrant indoor garden.


he Delft Civic Centre is not merely a building with no human activity and connection. It’s a service centre, the face of the City of Cape Town, a place where public representatives have their offices, and from which they serve the greater Delft community. “Sadly, however, this important facility was being vandalised,” says Councillor Frank Martin (far left). “We decided that something had to be done – and a beautification initiative, linked to environmental education, seemed like a good solution.” Cllr Martin roped in the local school and the YES Programme, and applied for a ward allocation of R40 000 for the greening venture. “It’s for us to take ownership of our facilities,” he says. “Through this project, our working environment looks so much better, it’s as if it has had a face-lift – and our whole community is proud of our Civic Centre now.”

For more information about the YES Programme, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail

City lights up to raise awareness of


lmost 800 trees were planted in Cape Town in celebration of Arbor Month in September. The City’s tree-planting initiative was part of local government’s commitment to promote healthy neighbourhoods and beautify the urban environment. Plants act as natural filters to clean our air by reducing carbon emissions, thus mitigating some of the effects of climate change. The wild plum (Harpephullum caffrum) is the common tree of 2008, and the bladder-nut tree (Diospyros whyteana) is the rare (uncommon) official tree of the year. A few wild plum trees were planted in the Strand area. The bladder-nut tree is not suitable for planting in the Western Cape


Greening comes to Heinz Park community
The Heinz Park community is active in improving their surroundings. One such community member is Rose Claasen, who told media and guests at the event about the history of Heinz Park. She has been involved in many of the developments that have taken place in the area, such as the Nobuhle Women’s Organisation, which runs a community food garden next to the park. Community partnerships such as this one with City Parks assists in reducing vandalism in parks through community involvement.


n Heinz Park, a relatively poor community in the Southern District of Cape Town, Arbor Month was celebrated with the planting of 30 ficus trees.

ABOVE: Joseph Nhose, Area Manager, and Cllr Shehaam Sims, Mayoral Committee Member for Community Services. LEFT: Pupils from Heinz Park Primary School looking on as Rodnick Minnies, one of the workers in the area, demonstrates how to plant a tree. The children were accompanied by their teachers who wanted them to see the ceremony as part of the school’s environmental awareness programme.

trees for Arbor Month
region due to the different soil types in the Peninsula. The City therefore planted other species of indigenous trees such as Ficus rubignosa (fig) and Acacia xanthoploea (fever tree) and Acacia karoo (sweet thorn) best suited to the soil of a specific area. South Africa first celebrated Arbor Day in 1983. So positive was the reaction that the authorities extended the celebration period to create Arbor Week. Schools and businesses were encouraged to participate and contribute to the greening of the country, and to recognise the advantages of trees in improving air and water quality and as a renewable source of food, shelter and fuel. With the theme ‘Plant a tree for life’, Cape Town’s Arbor Month festivities kicked off with special lights in Adderley Street and from the main entrance to the Company’s Garden down Government Avenue. These lights are similar to the lights put up in the festive season. City Parks adopted a theme of ‘Healthy parks, healthy people’ for Arbor Month, and ensured that some of the trees were planted in parks, cemeteries and other council facilities such as civic centres and libraries. FAR LEFT: Cllr JP Smith with Cllr Belinda Walker, Mayoral Committee Member for Corporate Services and Human Resources.


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

energy and climate change

Cape Town leads by example
Cities must manage their own energy futures to protect their economies, infrastructure and vulnerable communities.

in the cities, this is where the responsibility of leading the way in reducing carbon emissions will rest. Thus the City has to prepare itself to take on this new role of managing and implementing the actions required to ensure a sustainable energy future.

Mitigation; Adaptation and Climate Proofing; and Communication and Education.

Energy Action
The City intends to lead by example by tackling energy efficiency in its buildings, fleets, water and sewerage operations and other facilities. It is already running information and education programmes for City staff and for schools through its YES Programme. During this past year it has been involved in: •	 Climate change risk assessment research; •	 Introducing fuel efficiency as a criterion in its fleet tenders; •	 Energy efficiency projects in the City’s buildings; •	 Concluding its power purchase agreement for wind power from the Darling Wind Farm; •	 Developing a Solar Water Heater by-law; •	 Kuyasa energy efficiency in low-cost housing project; •	 The installation of solar water heaters in facilities in the City’s nature reserves; and •	 Developing Draft Green Building Guidelines (pictured above left) which are now available for public comment.

Strategic focus area: Energy for a Sustainable City


nergy plays a central role in the economic development, social welfare and environmental sustainability for a city. Climate change and the global and local energy crisis, clearly marked by the rapidly increasing oil and coal prices, as well as South Africa’s electricity supply shortages, have heralded a new era in which cities must take a proactive role in managing their energy futures to safeguard their economies, infrastructure and vulnerable communities. The reality of climate change means that industrialised developing countries such as South Africa are highly likely to soon be required to meet carbon emission reduction targets. As most energy is used

ERM is the custodian of the Energy and Climate Change Strategy (2006). The second State of Energy Report for the City was completed in 2007, and in 2008 the City adopted Energy for a Sustainable City as one of its eight strategic focus areas.

Energy Committee
To give expression to this new focus area, a Section 80 Energy Committee has been established, which must address energy security, carbon mitigation and climate change impacts. (A Section 80 committee is an advisory committee to an executive mayor). The Energy Committee will work through four workstreams: Energy and Climate Change Strategy; Energy Security and Carbon

For more information contact Sarah Ward, Manager: Energy and Climate Change, on 021 487 2124/2200 or e-mail To download a copy of the State of Energy Report 2007 and of the Energy and Climate Change Strategy, or for tips on how to be more energy efficient yourself, visit


‘No regrets’ about future planning
Climate change will have significant social, economic and environmental impacts on Cape Town, unless the City understands these implications, and develops ways to adapt.
rise: the ‘no regrets’ option and ‘additional’ options, which plan ahead for ways in which to counter sea-level rise events.

The DOs and DON’Ts of the ‘no regrets’ option


ne of the ways in which the City is planning for a hotter, colder and wetter future, is by investigating what might happen if sea levels rise as predicted, and the size and frequency	of	storms	increases	(see	Enviroworks	Volume	1/08,	page	10). In May 2008, the City’s coastal management research team presented the results from the third and fourth phases of its Sea-Level Rise Risk Assessment to the Planning and Environment Portfolio Committee for discussion. The risk-analysis phase of the study identified three scenarios.

The City should not: •	 reclaim additional land; •	 further degrade wetlands and estuaries; and •	 further degrade dune cordons and systems. The City should: •	 maintain drains and stormwater systems; •	 incorporate sea-level rise scenarios into future planning decisions; •	 incorporate sea-level rise risks into disaster management strategies; •	 decentralise strategic infrastructure so that a single event does not disable core services; •	 prioritise poverty alleviation and improve living conditions, as this makes communities more resilient to disasters; •	 identify communities and locations that are particularly vulnerable to climate change; and •	 adopt and enforce legislation about coastal zone development.

Scenario 1:
A 2,5 m increase in sheltered environments, a 4,5 m increase in exposed environments, and a 6,5 m increase in very exposed environments. This scenario would see 25,1 km2 covered by the sea (1% of the Cape Metro’s total area of 2 499 km2), although for a short time. This scenario has a 95% chance of taking place in the next 25 years.

In addition …
Under the ‘additional options’, the study recommends that the City build sea walls, groynes, revetments and dolosse only where appropriate. Physical sea defences are no longer considered ‘best practice’ to manage sea-level rise, as they constitute mal-adaptation and amplify risks. Instead, the City should protect, conserve and rehabilitate existing dune systems, estuaries and wetlands, as well as protect and monitor kelp beds along the coast (and leave kelp on the beaches rather than remove it as part of waste management). Institutional options must include clear management, budgets and responsibilities within City structures, to ensure the necessary institutional expertise and capacity to manage the coastal zone.

Scenario 2:
A 4,5 m sea-level rise event, which would see 60,9 km2 (2% of the total Metro area) covered by sea for a short period. This scenario 2 has an 85% probability of occurring in the next 25 years.

Scenario 3:
A 6,5 m sea-level rise linked to the melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice shelves. This rise would be permanent, and would cover 95 km2 of land around the Cape coastline (4% of the total area of land under the City’s jurisdiction). Until recently, this scenario was considered unlikely in this century, but that has since changed. However, scenario 3 only has a 20% chance of occurring in the next 25 years. The risk-reduction phase of the study focussed on two strategies that would significantly lower the risk and the costs of the sea-level

ABOVE: Flooding of Beach Road in the Strand after the storm on the 30 August 2008.

For more information on any coastal management projects, contact Gregg Oelofse, Acting Manager: Environmental Strategy and Partnerships, on 021 487 2239 or e-mail


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

energy and climate change

New State of Energy Report released
Cape Town takes a close look at its energy profile
Unless we take energy efficiency and renewable energy more seriously, Cape Town will not be able to meet its future energy demands.


he City has released the first revision of its State of Energy Report, making it the first city in South Africa to have been through a cycle of two such studies. The first study was completed in 2003. This State of Energy Report details the energy profile of Cape Town, including energy policy and demand and supply options, and considers issues such as energy security, energy access and climate change. The report was released in August at a meeting of the City’s new dedicated Energy Committee. “The high rate of liquid fuel use in the city is a direct result of the geographic sprawl of our city and inadequate public transport,” says Committee Chairperson Councillor Marian Nieuwoudt, Mayoral Committee Member for Planning and Environment and Chair of the City’s Energy Committee. Cape Town still has an unacceptably high carbon emission profile of 6,4 tons of CO2 per person per year. The norm in Western Europe is 4,5 tons, and in the rest of Africa 0,6 tons. “The City has undertaken to lead by example and to work with residents to reduce the city’s carbon footprint, and the State of Energy Report provides a practical blueprint for all future energy conservation programmes,” says Councillor Nieuwoudt. Compared to the 2003 study, the latest

ABOVE: Pages from the State of Energy Report

report reflects an increase in the number of informal households that do not use electricity as their main energy source. Although coal-fired electricity accounts for 28% of Cape Town’s total energy consumption, it generates 66% of the total carbon emissions. Electricity is still the primary energy source in both the commercial (63%) and industrial (82%) sector. In Cape Town, the demand for energy is most affected by population growth (an increase in population results in an increase in the household consumption of energy), economic growth (as the economy grows, more industries demand more energy), and addressing the housing backlog (more houses mean more electricity connections – unless alternative energy sources such as solar energy and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking are used for water heating and cooking respectively). The report concludes that clearly, the future supply of energy to Cape Town needs to be more diverse and complemented by energy-saving measures if the future demand for energy is to be met. The report recommends improved energy efficiency (in City-owned buildings and operations, as well as in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors), and increased renewable energy (solar energy, wind power and energy from waste).

For more information contact Sarah Ward, Manager: Energy and Climate Change, on 021 487 2124/2200 or e-mail To download a copy of the State of Energy Report 2007 and of the Energy and Climate Change Strategy, or for tips on how to be more energy efficient yourself, visit


WWW is where you want to be
ERM’s website is updated every few weeks, with sustainable living tips, policies and projects, photographs and publications. And by the time you read this, there’ll be even more that’s new on the web.

Did you know that if you’re a qualified and registered Western Cape Education Department (WCED) educator, you may register for FREE for the City’s EduNet programme, part of the YES Programme). You’d know this if you visited, and looked under the What’s New section. EduNet has been established to provide a ‘one-stop shop’ for environmental educators to: •	 obtain resources such as posters, leaflets, lesson plans, books and information on environmental issues; •	 receive invitations to workshops and special outings; •	 get information on upcoming events, campaigns and competitions; •	 share information with other educators; •	 showcase projects and more. To become a member, educators must complete the registration form by hand (available on the website), and fax it to 021 487 2255.

Ponder where to live in Cape Town
In August, daily and weekly newspapers reported on a possible rise in sea-level in Cape Town (see page 28), and struck fear and anxiety into quite a few residents and readers. To read the City’s sea-level report, visit, and follow the links to ‘Publications’, and ‘Reports and Scientific Papers’.

Calculate your carbon footprint
Every time you switch on a light, drive your car, run water or put out your rubbish, you’re making a decision that affects the environment. Natural resources – water, coal, oil, land and fresh air – will run out if we use them faster than they can replenish themselves. There are many indications that this is already happening. Each person living on earth has a carbon footprint, and produces carbon emissions directly or indirectly, which have a combined negative long-term effect on the environment. The good news is that you can make a difference. Every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity you don’t use saves over a kilogram of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. You can calculate your carbon footprint using the resources and links on ERM’s website – follow the links and read about energy efficiency at home. You’ll be asked to think about things such as your: •	 type of home – flat, semi-detached or free-standing home; •	 lifestyle – heating, air conditioning, appliances and lighting setup; •	 habits – switching off lights and appliances, recycling, showering or bathing; •	 technology – solar heating, photovoltaic (PV) panels or renewable energy; •	 use of public transport; •	 personal travel with your car (yearly mileage) and aeroplane (yearly air miles); and •	 business travel with your car and aeroplane.

If you missed the last issue of Enviroworks (Volume 1/08, May 2008), visit environment, and follow the links to ‘Publications’. The full copy is a PDF document of 3,1 megabytes.


Volume 2/08 • December 2008

New publications
Turn the pages to find Cape Town’s network of amazing urban biodiversity


his beautiful, colourful and comprehensive booklet showcases the City’s 24 nature reserves and natural areas.

In this first decade of the 21st century, more than 3,5 million people have made a home in Cape Town, within the Cape Floristic Region. Yet, as more people are drawn here because of the city’s biodiversity-based economic and recreational opportunities, less of this biodiversity remains. As more land is used for housing, facilities and farming, less of the natural vegetation can be found amid the urban and agricultural sprawl. The City of Cape Town – as the local government responsible for this region – is determined to preserve this biodiversity to meet national and local conservation targets through a Biodiversity Network, a representative set of sites with core conservation areas linked by corridors. Each of the City’s 24 nature reserves, which form part of this network of representative sites, are featured in this publication, with details of opening hours, entry fees, facilities and activities, and the type of fynbos conserved. Nothing, however, compares with visiting these nature reserves for yourself!

To download a copy of this publication, visit and follow the links to ‘Publications’ and ‘Brochures and Booklets’.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Publisher: City of Cape Town – Communication Department; Production Coordinator: Amina Taylor; Writer: Gail Jennings; Environmental Resource Management: Michelle Preen and Shona Young; Photographer: Bruce Sutherland; Design: Cornelle Ellis; Proofing: The Language Studio; Printer: Forms


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