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					COUNTDOWN 2010 READINESS ASSESSMENT

CHINA preliminary desk study

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COUNTDOWN 2010 READINESS ASSESSMENT

CHINA preliminary desk study

Contents

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................3 Existing national environmental policy and legislation ........................................................................................................4 National targets for the conservation of genetic biodiversity ..........................................................................................................4 Information on bathing water quality ............................................................................................................................................4 Action Plans and conservation status of marine species and habitats ...........................................................................................4 Invasive Alien Species legislation in place ....................................................................................................................................5 Bio-safety measures to reduce impacts from alien genotypes ......................................................................................................5 Trade in CITES species ..............................................................................................................................................................5 Integration of biodiversity into cross-sector policies ..........................................................................................................5 Integration of biodiversity considerations into development programmes, and projects’ impact on biodiversity .................................5 Implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management concept ..........................................................................................6 Application of the Ecosystem approach to the management of fisheries........................................................................................6 Adaptation measures to increase biodiversity resilience to climate change ....................................................................................6 Stakeholder awareness and participation ........................................................................................................................6 Integration of biodiversity into public policy/wider decision making ................................................................................................6 National partnerships for biodiversity (including private sector involvement) ....................................................................................7 National/sub-national public awareness campaigns/initiatives.......................................................................................................8 Implementation of Multilateral agreements relevant to biodiversity conservation ...................................................................8 Ratified Biodiversity-related agreements ......................................................................................................................................8 Paid contributions in 2008 (in USD) ............................................................................................................................................9 Financial and technical resources for achieving the 2010 target ........................................................................................9 Proportion of its Rural Development budget allocated to biodiversity .............................................................................................9 Annual funding for biodiversity ....................................................................................................................................................9 Sources .......................................................................................................................................................................9

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Competent authorities for nature & biodiversity:

IUCN Focal points: Cui Guoyin Deng Weijie cuiguoyin@hotmail.com dweijie@163.com

CBD Focal points: Ms. Zhang Jieqing zhang.jieqing@sepa.gov.cn dio.dic@sepa.gov.cn

H.E. Mr. Zhang Zijun

huanghw@mail.scbg.ac.cn

Prof. Hongwen Huang

huanghw@mail.scbg.ac.cn

Mr. Zhuang Guotai

zhu.guangqing@sepa.gov.cn

Mr. Jiansheng Jia Most recent national/sub-national biodiversity strategy/action plan: Latest review of the implementation of the biodiversity strategy/action plan: Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan of China (1994) China’s 3rd Report on Implementation of the CBD (2005)

JiaJiansheng@forestry.gov.cn http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/cn/cn-nbsap01-p1-en.pdf http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/cn/cn-nr-03en.pdf

Introduction
China, the world’s most populous country, represents both the biggest opportunities and greatest challenges for sustainable development and for mainstreaming the environment into development plans. Recent sustained growth in GDP indicates st a nation that is leapfrogging into the 21 century in terms of technology and the economy. However, the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index ranked China 133rd out of 146 countries. The Chinese government and World Bank analysis suggest that if inequality and sustainability issues are not addressed, economic growth could falter. In a vicious cycle, rapid economic growth leads to pollution and habitat destruction, and the resultant loss of biodiversity further contributes to some of China’s most pressing pollution-related environmental health problems.

In a nation where limited resources are seen as a potential constraint to growth and to rising standards of living, China’s biodiversity supports not only the health and well-being of its citizens, but also its rapid economic development. While the benefits and services provided by Chinese biodiversity cannot be precisely calculated, in 1995 the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) Biodiversity Working Group estimated that they were worth between US$255 and US$410 billion per year. Besides contributing directly to Chinese industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and tourism, and directly supporting millions of livelihoods, China’s biological resources are inextricably woven into the fabric of Chinese culture. These resources are of tremendous value for China’s present generations – and for future generations worldwide.

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Being one of the mega-diverse countries, China is home to approximately 6,347 species of vertebrates, including 581 animal, 1,244 bird, 376 reptile, 284 amphibian, and 3,862 fish species. Well-known among them are the giant panda, golden monkey, South China tiger, Tibetan antelope, baiji and the Chinese alligator. China has more than 30,000 higher plants, ranking third in the world after Brazil and Colombia. China also harbours many endemic species, with about 667 endemic vertebrates and 50% to 60% of the 30,000 higher plants in China also endemic. China possesses almost all ecosystem types: agricultural, forest, inland water, marine and coastal, dryland and semi-arid, mountain and island.

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coordinate biodiversity conservation and sustainable development

Actions to ensure the implementation of specific conservation measures with focus on legislation and policy, institutional measures, scientific research, technical extension and demonstration, publicity and education, identification of financial resources, and international cooperation.

However, this natural capital is severely threatened. The global IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2007) found China to have a “particularly large number” of species in danger of extinction; of the 2,882 included species that are found in China, over a quarter are considered Threatened (classed as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered). The China Species Red List (2004) includes evaluations of 10,211 species, of which the percentage of threatened species is surprisingly high.

Existing national environmental policy and legislation
National targets for the conservation of genetic biodiversity

The main threats to biodiversity in China include: overconsumption of wild animals and plants; destruction and overexploitation of habitats; lack of protection of some wild animals and plants; invasive alien species; deforestation; pollution; and overuse of land.

National targets aim to conserve genetic resources related to crops and domestic livestock. The Chinese Biodiversity Action Plan describes the importance of the genetic diversity of wild plants and animals, domestic livestock and poultry, of fish. However, the plan by itself doesn’t present clear action points to conserve the genetic diversity, in particular concerning the protecting the genetic resources of crops and domesticated animals.

Information on bathing water quality In order to address these concerns, China set up Biodiversity Action Plan. The main objectives of China’s Action Plan are to:

According to the World Bank, virtually all of China’s coastal seas are moderately to highly polluted.

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improve the basic research of biodiversity in China Action Plans and conservation status of marine species and habitats

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improve the national network of nature reserves and other protected areas Development of marine and coastal ecosystem nature reserves in the country started in the 1970s. To date 19 marine and coastal nature reserves have been established in China, covering an area of 117,000 hectares. There are also 17 nature reserves designed to protect valuable and rare marine animals and marine products, covering a total area of 2,730,000 hectares. The combined total area of the marine nature reserves of these two types 2,847,000 hectares, accounting for 0.9 per cent China's seawaters.

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conserve wild species that are significant for biodiversity

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conserve genetic resources related to crops and domestic livestock

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in-situ conservation outside nature reserves

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establish a nationwide information and monitoring network for biodiversity conservation

China has adopted many measures in order to improve marine environmental quality, including increasing control of industrial pollution sources and enhancing capacity for wastewater treatment. The central government has also been engaging in increased monitoring of various aspects of the marine environment. In 2005, for example, the government undertook

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an environmental survey of the Yangtze and Pearl River estuaries and the surrounding sea waters; these rivers rank first and second, respectively, in terms of outflow into China’s seas. China is also placing increasing emphasis on the development of wetland nature reserves.

Integration of biodiversity into cross-sector policies
Integration of biodiversity considerations into development programmes, and projects’ impact on biodiversity

However, problems related to invasive alien species in China’s harbours and estuaries, as well as the coastal zone more generally, are receiving inadequate attention.

Invasive Alien Species legislation in place

The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of IAS legislation, and to work out national strategy and work plan. No further details were found on time for this study, although there seems to be inadequate attention to problems related to invasive alien species in China’s harbours and estuaries, as well as more generally in the different ecosystems.

th In its 11 Five-Year Plan (2006-2010), approved by the National People’s Congress in March 2006, the Chinese central government put forth an ambitious and compelling vision for “harmonious development.” The Plan states the importance of both environmental sustainability and social and economic equality, demonstrating the central government’s commitment to addressing the inequality and environmental concerns that threaten to undermine continued growth and social stability. At the national level, the growing importance of environmental issues and of biodiversity is clearly demonstrated through nd legislation and rhetoric. On May 22 2007, International Biodiversity Day, a representative of China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), the chief central agency responsible for addressing environmental issues, called for biodiversity to be “regarded as a key performance indicator.”

Bio-safety measures to reduce impacts from alien genotypes The water sector offers a good illustration of integration of development programmes and biodiversity concerns in China. Increasing water scarcity has generated alarm among China’s leaders, and prompted a technocratic response.

Within the Ministry of Agriculture, a special division: the GMO bio-safety division is in charge of alien genotypes. The management team has the task to make the rules for GMO techniques and biosecurity management; supervision of national GMO biosafety; permission of GMO production importing; evaluating and testing the GMO safety.

Trade in CITES species

Despite accession to and involvement in international environmental agreements, many international environmental concerns are insufficiently recognized by China. The nation does not yet play its part in Pan-Asia discussions about shared water courses, mountain ecosystems, marine resources and other international issues. Though it is a signatory of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), China nonetheless has a major impact on Southeast Asian biodiversity. In 2005, Southeast Asia was believed to be responsible for about one-quarter of the global illegal wildlife trade, with Chinese demand for exotic wildlife – which is still on the rise– seen as the single most important cause. Certain rare animal species, particularly those associated with traditional Chinese medicine, are gravely threatened by this illegal trade. In addition, China’s growing demand for timber has reached Southeast Asia’s tropical forests.

China has a long history of constructing infrastructure for water management, and since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, these infrastructure projects have increased dramatically in size and number. China is now first in the world in terms of the number of dams built. In 1949, China had eight large dams; forty years later the country had about 19,000. Today, large-scale water management projects particularly take the form of water transfer from the southern to the northern regions. Construction has already begun on the south-north water transfer scheme – a massive project designed to pump 3 48 billion m of water from the flood-prone south to the parched northern part of the country. With an estimated price tag of $59 billion, it dwarfs even the Three Gorges dam in scale, and is scheduled for completion in 2050.

Officials estimate that this water transfer scheme will require the relocation of at least 370,000 people. Analysts acknowledge that the project may be accompanied by significant environmental problems, such as the alteration of hydrological processes, disruption of entire aquatic ecosystems, pollution, salinisation and saltwater intrusion in the lower Yangtze River. China’s dams are not improving water quality, and are in some cases aggravating water pollution.

China’s wetlands, underrepresented in the protected area

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system, are decreasing in size and are suffering from ecological degradation, in part due to the dams that have been and continue to be constructed throughout the country. Another common water management practice is draining wetlands for conversion to farmland (though some are being restored to help with flood control).

seas.

Adaptation measures to increase biodiversity resilience to climate change

China is seeking to develop public-private partnerships in the water sector, but has been slow in developing the appropriate rules and regulations.

Implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management concept

Climate change is another major issue for China’s seas and coastal lands: the State Oceanic Administration in January 2007 issued a report on the erosion being suffered by coastal cities due to rapid sea-level rise resulting from global warming. Consistent with recent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, it predicts a further rapid rise in sea level, with expensive consequences.

Climate change is another major issue for China’s seas and coastal lands: the State Oceanic Administration in January 2007 issued a report on the erosion being suffered by coastal cities due to rapid sea-level rise resulting from global warming. Consistent with recent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, it predicts a further rapid rise in sea level, with expensive consequences.

Stakeholder awareness and participation
Integration of biodiversity into public policy/wider decision making

Increasing development pressure on China’s 18,000 km of continental coastline contributes to marine environmental problems; an overall decline in the ecological quality of coastal lands corresponds with a decline in their effectiveness as a buffer protecting the marine environment from land-based activities.

Application of the Ecosystem approach to the management of fisheries

An important aspect of China’s environmental institutions landscape is the emergence of an active civil society. In the past two years, public participation in the environmental debates on dam issues in the upper reaches of the Nujiang River and ecological damage to the old Summer Palace of China resulting from construction activities have attracted massive media coverage and discussions. These debates not only showed the public’s concern about and participation in environmental matters, but they also affected the decision making process for environmental impact assessments (EIA). Through the new EIA process, a public hearing mechanism has been introduced for the first time in China as an aspect of decision making related to environmental issues.

As marine industries grow in importance to the domestic economy, the fishing industry must contend with over-fishing and other destructive fishing practices.

China has 29 national marine protected areas, administered by four different government departments. Economically, marine ecosystems are important: the nation is the world’s largest supplier of fish, with its marine industries contributing significantly to the domestic economy. In 2005, the total output of China’s major marine industries accounted for 4% of national GDP; these industries are making increasing contributions to economic growth, in coastal regions. Current national policy reflects this economic importance, calling for environmental protection of marine resources in order to facilitate sustainable development of the marine economy, and placing increasing emphasis on marine environmental quality. But rapid development continues to pose a serious threat to China’s marine ecosystems, primarily through the impacts of landbased activities that pour vast amounts of pollutants into the

To some degree, the involvement of civil society and concerned individuals in environmental matters is being supported by the government. In late April of this year, China announced the promulgation of new transparency regulations that will empower citizens to demand official information, including information about air and water quality, pollution, and those who violate environmental law. Pan Yue, vice minister of SEPA, called for individuals to aid the government in monitoring

1 polluters. However, the overall influence of environmentalists

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Reuters (Beijing), Apr. 25 2007: China environment official wants action by citizens. Reuters AlertNet. <http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/PEK256406.htm>

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is still very weak in China, as is government support for a structure that allows independent, non-government organizations to function. Registering civil society organizations is made difficult by government procedures (see “Actors of civil society,” below, for more information), and “low income levels and restrictions on political participation limit the present-day potential for domestic environmentalist pressure.”

Green Earth Volunteers

DNGO

Greenpeace (China Program)

INGO

National partnerships for biodiversity (including private sector involvement)

The Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs

DNGO

Name

Type of Organization

The Jane Goodall Institute (China Program)

INGO

China Association for NGO Cooperation (CANGO)

DNGO

The Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES)

Government-affiliated research institute

Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge (CBIK)

DNGO

The Nature Conservancy (China Program)

INGO

China Environmental Protection Association (CEPF)

GONGO

United Nations Development Program (China Program)

Intergovernmental organization

China Landscape and Historic Sites Association (CLHSA)

GONGO

Wildlife Conservation Society (China Program)

INGO

Conservation International (China Program)

INGO

WildAid (China Program)

INGO

Wild China Film China Wildlife Conservation Association DNGO WWF (China Program) Fauna and Flora International (China Program) INGO Key: DNGO = Domestic NGO INGO = International NGO Friends of Nature (FoN) DNGO

DNGO

INGO

GONGO = Government Organized NGO

The Global Environmental Institute (GEI)

DNGO

Global Village Beijing (GVB)

DNGO

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National/sub-national public awareness campaigns/initiatives

www.iucn.org, and www.iucn.org/asia), IUCN, C2010, and our 21 partners; gained attention of new potential partners and supporters (including chinadialogue, the EC delegation, Future Generations, and InterNews)

In February 2007, IUCN-China introduced C2010 to representative of the conservation and development fields interested in CBD implementation.

In May 2007 it hosted a meeting with ECBP VAC that brought together local and international NGOs and players in the conservation field to discuss conservation communications and opportunities for joint collaboration. C2010 was introduced to the meeting’s attendees.

Through formal consultation: increased stakeholders’ and particularly partners’ feelings of ownership of the C2010 China network; solicited opinions and inputs on the future of C2010 in China; identified potential next steps for C2010 in China; laid foundation for future work

Launched C2010 in China website (www.countdown2010.net/china), in Chinese and English.

In preparing for September 7, 2007 formal launch of C2010 in China, IUCN-China recruited 21 organizations to join as partners.

Followed up on Partners’ and Supporters’ Consultation for Countdown 2010 in China, sending out consultation notes and encouraging partners to share information that can be put on the website. (Some information/stories have already gone up.)

On September 7, 2007, IUCN-China held formal Partners’ and Supporters’ Consultation for C2010 in China, followed by Official Launch of Countdown 2010 in China.

We have developed strong ties with ECBP and have ties, too, with UNDP (and therefore potentially with CEPF)

Through Official Launch, including presentations by Jeff McNeely and Ma Keping: introduced IUCN and C2010 to a wider audience in China; garnered publicity and press for biodiversity (including webstories on www.countdown2010.net,

Scoping paper submitted to ROfE by end of September.

Implementation of Multilateral agreements relevant to biodiversity conservation
Internationally, China is a signatory to all major environmental conventions and an active participant in those related to biodiversity. China is seeking to establish itself as a responsible international actor, and particularly on biodiversity issues China would like to be seen as a global leader.

Ratified Biodiversity-related agreements

CBD

CITES

RAMSAR

WHC

UNFCCC

UNCCD

1993

1981

1992

1985

1993

1997

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COUNTDOWN 2010 READINESS ASSESSMENT

CHINA preliminary desk study

Paid contributions in 2008 (in USD)

CBD

CITES

RAMSAR

UNEP Environment Fund

WHC

$225,903

$100,194

$98.711,35

$26 millions

$84 144

Financial and technical resources for achieving the 2010 target
The NSBAP details how China is planning to finance its NSBAP, but no budget is annexed, and precise information on how the country is going to invest, which agency, or which ministry can’t be found in any national report.

Sources
CBD: http://www.cbd.int/countries/?country=cn Countdown 2010 Report for Biodiversity in China National CHM http://english.biodiv.gov.cn/ State Environmental Protection Administration http://www.chinacp.com/eng/cporg/cporg_sepa.html Office for Implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity Ministry of Environmental Protection No. 115 Xizhimennei Nanxiaojie Beijing 100035 China

Proportion of its Rural Development budget allocated to biodiversity

Local governments and agencies are included in the financial system of the BAP.

Annual funding for biodiversity

As a long term plan, the efforts have to be determined by the central government. All administration agencies (ministries and other governmental agencies) share the investments in including conservation projects in their administrative plans and in allocating proper resources to the implementation.

The publication was produced with the financial support of the European Commission.

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