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					Beyond the Bench.
How Judges Can Help Reduce Juvenile DUI and
Alcohol and Other Drug Violations

Video Discussion Guide for Facilitators and
Educators

Office of Justice Programs
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention

U.S. Department of Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Developed by
Police Executive Research Forum
1120 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 930
Washington, DC 20036

Funding provided by
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention
and
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Washington, DC

1996

------------------------------

Contents

Acknowledgments

Beyond the Bench at a Glance

The Problem of Juvenile Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired
Driving

Convening a Video Viewing
 Identifying an Appropriate Audience
 Selecting a Location
 Selecting a Viewing Date

Video Learning Points
 Before Viewing
 During Viewing
 After Viewing
 Additional Discussion Questions

Conclusion: A Judicial Call to Action: Practical
Strategies and Programs for Addressing Juvenile
DUI/AOD
 System-wide Community Response: An Overview
 Model Judge-Initiated Programs to Combat Juvenile
 DUI/AOD

A National Trend to Reduce Juvenile BAC Levels:
 States Respond

------------------------------

Acknowledgments

Many agencies and individuals share the credit for
preparing this educational videotape. The idea
originated with a technical assistance request
from one of our project demonstration sites, the
Phoenix Police Department. Sergeant Bill Niles of
the traffic division and Kay Diaz of the planning
unit, encouraged us to find ways of reaching
judges that would set into motion a more
collaborative relationship among police,
prosecutors, and judges. Judge Elizabeth Finn of
the Phoenix Municipal Court helped steer us in the
direction of the video as the most appropriate
medium.

Desiring the assistance of judges recognized as
leaders by their peers nationwide, we turned to
Hon. J. Dean Lewis in Fredericksburg, Virginia,
and Hon. Michael Witte in Lawrenceburg, Indiana.
Both jurists provided valuable insights to the
staff on scoping out the purpose and approach of
the video, and we were delighted when both agreed
to share those insights on camera.

Dennis Foley, Director of STOP DWI in the Albany
County (New York) Sheriff's Office, was most
helpful in locating background video material from
his own countywide project effort, as was the
staff of the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety
in Arlington, Virginia. We are very grateful for
their contributions.

-- Police Executive Research Forum

------------------------------

Beyond the Bench at a Glance

The Beyond the Bench video and discussion guide
highlights the benefits of increased judicial
leadership in addressing juvenile impaired driving
(DUI) due to alcohol and other drugs. The video is
intended to enhance the dialogue between judges
and communities as they begin to explore a
community-wide response to juvenile DUI and other
problems related to juveniles' illegal use of
alcohol and other drugs.1 In addition, other
criminal justice practitioners and community and
government leaders can use the video as an
educational tool in addressing these problems.

Throughout America, rural and urban communities
are struggling with the mounting consequences of
juvenile abuse of alcohol and other drugs.
Although this guide emphasizes the problem of
juvenile DUI, not all communities are experiencing
exactly that problem; instead, they may be
experiencing non-driving related problems caused
by juvenile use of alcohol and other drugs. For
those communities too, this guide provides
resources and discussion points geared toward
helping judges and community leaders create a
community response.

Note to Facilitators:
Before convening a viewing of the video, watch the
video and read this companion guide to extract
appropriate topics for discussion before, during,
and after the group viewing. Suggestions for
"audience appropriate" discussion questions are
presented in the form of learning points. The
guide contains enough learning points to conduct
both a formal training session and an informal
viewing and discussion. The learning points have
also been designed so that facilitators may easily
extract only those items of interest to a
specially targeted audience.

----------

1 Hereafter, this guide will use the term
"juvenile DUI/AOD" to encompass all problems
(driving and non-driving) related to juvenile use
of alcohol and other drugs.

------------------------------

The Problem of Juvenile Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired
Driving

Drunk and drug-impaired driving are the most
frequent violent crimes committed in the United
States today. Nationally, communities and criminal
justice officials have begun to form partnerships
to reduce the consequences of driving under the
influence of alcohol and other drugs, ultimately
focusing on the reduction of deaths and injuries
from drug- and alcohol-related traffic crashes.
Most efforts, however, have been directed toward
the adult impaired driver.

Alcohol- and drug-related traffic crashes are not
the result of alcohol and other drug use by adults
alone. Each year for the past decade, it is
estimated that between 2,400 and 5,400 youths aged
15 to 21 were killed in alcohol- or drug-related
crashes.2 According to the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration, youths 15 to 20
years of age constituted 14.9 percent of all
driver fatalities.3

In response to the rising tide of juvenile alcohol
and other drug use and its tragic impact on a
community's well-being, judges with juvenile
jurisdictions are stepping from "behind" the bench
to take on a more prominent role "beyond" the
bench -- in assessing and addressing the problem
of juvenile AOD, particularly in juvenile DUI
offenses.

Nationwide, judges can be found at the forefront
of model juvenile DUI and other drug use
prevention and intervention programs as
highlighted in this guide. Beyond the Bench has
been created to serve as a discussion tool to aid
judges as they begin to explore whether to become
leaders in developing and sustaining community
initiatives on juvenile DUI/AOD. Critical concerns
about maintaining judicial neutrality and the
appropriate level of judicial involvement are also
addressed. In summary, Beyond the Bench helps
judges who wish to take on leading roles outside
the courtroom; it offers suggestions on how such
judges can inform other judges about (1) the
seriousness of juvenile DUI/AOD and (2) the
potential advantages of court-initiated prevention
and intervention programs that result from
community-wide coordination.

----------

2 James Wright, "Update: Alcohol Related Traffic
Crashes and Fatalities Among Youth and Young
Adults -- United States, 1982-1994," 44 Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report 47, December 1, 1995,
pp. 870-871.

3 Thomas H. Carr, "The Police Executive: Facing
the Challenges of Underage Drinking," in
Leadership Series: Responding to Juvenile Impaired
Driving (Washington: Police Executive Research
Forum, in publication).

------------------------------

Convening a Video Viewing

The primary objective of Beyond the Bench is to
inform judges of the problem of juvenile alcohol-
and drug-impaired driving. When organizing an
educational session, however, a facilitator should
also include members of the broad continuum of the
justice system, as well as community, local
government, and private agencies that are critical
to the formation of a justice system/community-
wide response. The facilitator should consider the
desired outcome of the viewing and follow-up
discussion to determine the most appropriate
audience.

The facilitator should first decide whether to
convene a viewing to serve as a general
consciousness-raising session or as the foundation
for establishing a system-wide community response.
(A sample plan for establishing a system-wide
community response is summarized on pages 18-20 of
this guide.)

Identifying an Appropriate Audience

Before convening an audience to review the video,
the facilitator, preferably a judge, should
determine his or her desired outcome. Several
viewing audiences can be convened to meet a
variety of desired outcomes. For example, if the
facilitator's primary intent is to establish a
criminal justice interdisciplinary team approach
only, he or she will want to invite key criminal
justice professionals to represent all key
criminal justice agencies. Criminal justice system
participants should include:

o Juvenile, family, and municipal court judges

o District attorney, assistant DAs, and city
attorney, as well as representative(s) from the
defense bar

o Chief of police and sheriff

o Chief of probation

o State troopers

o Court clerk
Based on either the recommendation of the criminal
justice system viewing panel or the facilitator's
desire to establish a system-wide community
approach, a second viewing of the video should be
held for other governmental and nongovernmental
representatives. Participants may include:

o Mayor, county commissioner, or other county
executive

o Superintendent of schools

o State legislators

o Representatives from grass-roots, advocacy, and
self-help organizations

o Directors of mental health, public health,
recreation, housing, social services, and
employment services

The audience may be expanded to include religious
leaders, representatives from student advocacy
organizations, insurance agents, and business
leaders (especially those who serve or sell
alcohol).

Selecting a Location

When selecting a viewing location, the facilitator
should consider a site that provides an
appropriate atmosphere for both viewing and
conducting small working groups, a plenary
session, or whatever works best. Community
locations that are often available at little or no
cost may include:

o County government meeting or hearing rooms

o Public library meeting rooms

o Local hotel, motel, or conference facility
meeting rooms

o School libraries or lunchrooms

Selecting a Viewing Date

When selecting a viewing date, the facilitator
should consider the busy schedules of the target
audience and convene a viewing when attendance is
likely to be high. It is important to plan and
announce the video viewing well in advance so that
early and follow-up reminders can be sent.
Examples of possible viewing dates include:

o Midweek working lunches

o Regularly scheduled professional meetings

o Just before events at which youth alcohol or
drug use is likely to increase: prom nights,
graduations, holidays, and summer vacations

------------------------------

Video Learning Points

This discussion guide highlights the nine
informational learning points that are presented
in the video. They are designed to serve as
suggestions for establishing a dialogue among
participants as they begin to discuss, shape, and
implement a comprehensive, community-wide response
to juvenile DUI/AOD.

Under each learning point, "pull quotes" of
salient information taken directly from the video
narrative are provided, as well as key questions,
issues, and points for discussion. The learning
points appear in sequential order, corresponding
to the video narrative. Suggestions for discussing
the learning points are presented in a format that
allows for audience participation before, during,
and after the video viewing.

Note to Facilitators:
As stated earlier in this guide, the video's
narrative is primarily directed towards judicial
involvement and leadership in addressing the
problem of juvenile DUI. However, the video's
narrative and the learning points contained in
this guide easily lend themselves to a discussion
of the formation of a system-wide community
response to the broader issue of juvenile use of
alcohol and other drugs. (As explained previously,
this guide uses the term "juvenile DUI/AOD" to
encompass all problems, driving and non-driving,
related to juvenile use of alcohol and other
drugs.) The broader approach would be especially
relevant in communities where juvenile DUI itself
is not a major problem, but the use of alcohol and
other drugs has affected the type or number of
offenses committed, such as theft, burglary,
assault, illegal alcohol and drug possession, and
truancy. The facilitator should feel comfortable
in using his or her discretion to modify the
suggested discussion questions based on the
composition and interests of the viewing audience.

Before Viewing

Learning Point 1

Beyond the Bench begins by raising the problem of
juvenile DUI as a community-wide priority, one
that requires immediate response.

"The judges who see juvenile impaired driving
offenses every day in their courtroom are the
persons who need to somehow convey that message to
society or to the community that this is a real
problem."

-- Judge Michael Witte

o How significant a problem is juvenile DUI/AOD in
your community?

o What is the prevailing attitude among judges,
other justice system officials, and community
leaders about the seriousness of juvenile DUI/AOD?
What are the prevailing attitudes of students and
teachers?

What percentage of juvenile crime in the community
is alcohol- or drug-related? How many offender or
victim injuries and deaths occur in your community
as a direct result of juvenile DUI/AOD? Is there a
data collection system in place to collect
relevant statistics?4

----------

4 Sources of data may include police and sheriffs'
departments' citation reports, intake offices,
administrative offices for courts, insurers, crime
victim compensation programs, victim assistance
programs, and community advocacy groups.

----------

Learning Point 2

Beyond the Bench emphasizes that expanded judicial
involvement significantly improves a community's
understanding and response to juvenile DUI. This
requires increased judicial outreach beyond the
bench.

"You're just bringing forward an issue that comes
into your court every day and now you're saying to
the community the court system can't do it alone."

-- Judge Michael Witte

o If a judge wishes to take the lead in combating
juvenile DUI/AOD, how can he or she go about it?
How does one develop a comprehensive approach
whereby the justice system and the community
address juvenile alcohol and drug use?

o How can judges balance judicial neutrality with
a beyond-the-bench role in the larger community?

o What are appropriate levels of judicial
involvement in establishing education, advocacy,
and public awareness activities?

o Why might judges be reluctant to involve
community institutions, service agencies, or
advocacy groups in addressing the problem? Can
solutions to their concerns be found?

----------

Learning Point 3

Beyond the Bench also discusses judicial
leadership, highlighting the unique position,
knowledge, and abilities judges bring to
addressing the problem of juvenile DUI.

"Judges can reach out through hands-on experience
and specialized training. To build a community-
wide coalition, the judge can enlist court
agencies and civic groups, religious leaders, and
parents in the fight to reduce juvenile DUI."

-- Judge J. Dean Lewis

o What special abilities do judges have to provide
leadership and to spearhead the justice system's
and the community's approach to combating juvenile
DUI/AOD?

o Where can judges apply their unique abilities to
develop specialized training for other justice
system officials through relating their own hands-
on experiences?5

o What funding sources are available for judges to
develop educational programs, and how can judges
identify all reasonable sources?
----------

5 Judicial outreach and community education can
include the following: speaking to civic and
community groups; serving as educators in judicial
and justice system-related workshops, seminars,
and conferences; participating in school- and
church-based educational programs; and convening a
justice system/community task force or
establishing multidisciplinary teams to assess and
develop a plan of action to address juvenile
DUI/AOD.

----------

During Viewing

Learning Point 4

Beyond the Bench emphasizes the importance of
working with various community groups as well as
utilizing community resources to address the issue
of juvenile DUI.

"Policy for the community should be developed by
the community--not by the judge, not by the
prosecutor, not by the sheriff or chief of police,
but by the collaboration of interested parties in
that community. . . . That's when you really
achieve buy-in and support."

-- Judge J. Dean Lewis

o Who in the community leads this kind of effort
or coalition now? How successful has the effort
been? Does the coalition have a well-rounded
membership, i.e., community, justice system, and
government representation? What can judges do to
improve the coalition's efforts and increase
community involvement?

o Has a community-wide assessment been conducted
to identify all relevant educational, social
service, and treatment programs? If so, what can
judges do to help address weaknesses or gaps in
resources? If not, what role can judges play in
conducting such an assessment?

----------

Learning Point 5

Beyond the Bench addresses the significant role
judges can play in influencing public attitudes
about the problem of juvenile DUI.

"The ways in which judges reach their communities
are as varied as their experience and ingenuity."

-- Judge J. Dean Lewis

o What forums are there for judges to educate
other judges about the seriousness of the problem?

o What opportunities exist for judges who wish to
lead or participate in training for criminal
justice and allied professionals in the community,
state, region, or nation?

o What opportunities exist for judges to educate
youths about the problem of juvenile DUI/AOD?

----------

Learning Point 6

Beyond the Bench raises the issue of judicial
neutrality, specifically raising the subject of
how far judges can venture in taking the role of
an activist in the community.

"Reaching out to the community does not have to
affect judicial neutrality."

-- Judge Michael Witte

o What are the ethical, political, and personal
advantages of increased judicial involvement? What
are the potential disadvantages? What guidelines
might judges wish to consider when planning their
degree of beyond the bench participation in
efforts to combat juvenile DUI/AOD?

o What can judges do to initiate a collaborative
position with other agencies in addressing
juvenile DUI/AOD?

----------

Learning Point 7

Beyond the Bench encourages judges to examine the
formation of partnerships with law enforcement
officials and prosecutors.

"Ultimately, as the neutral party in an
adversarial system, judges are in a unique
position to focus all of the various agencies on
the ultimate goal: turning young lives around."

-- Judge Michael Witte

Building Communication Bridges with Law
Enforcement

o Within the law enforcement community, who serves
as the liaison with other justice system agencies
and the treatment and educational community?

o How does information flow from the law
enforcement community to the judiciary?

o What role can judges play in the development and
presentation of law enforcement agencies' school-
and community-based educational programs or other
law enforcement initiatives to reduce juvenile
alcohol and other drug use?

Initiating a Dialogue with Prosecutors

o Is there a clear policy on alcohol use screening
and drug testing, holdover detention decisions, or
use of a juvenile assessment instrument? How can
the information collected from those sources be
used in a justice system response? If judges feel
policies on those activities would be useful, how
can they go about calling for their development?

o Who makes the decision to proceed with a formal
or informal court proceeding (such as a hearing),
and how is that decision made?

----------

After Viewing

Learning Point 8

Beyond the Bench explores the varied community
treatment options for juvenile impaired drivers
and emphasizes the benefits of judicial awareness
of these programs.

"The juvenile may be carrying on the family line
of alcohol abuse. I have the ability to order the
parent to go to rehabilitative programs if it will
benefit the child."

-- Judge Michael Witte

o What government and private programs deal with
juvenile abuse of alcohol and other drugs in the
community? Is there a sufficient number of
programs to handle an increased caseload resulting
from court-ordered participation?

o Are there low- or no-cost options available to
juvenile offenders who abuse alcohol or other
drugs, such Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics
Anonymous?

o Are assessments or evaluations conducted
periodically to measure the effectiveness of these
programs? If not, what can judges do to initiate
such assessments to ensure proper referrals?

o Where can judges gain access to alcohol and drug
risk assessment instruments to aid the court in
identifying ongoing or potential alcohol or other
drug abuse among juvenile offenders?

o Where can resources be found to develop an
assessment instrument if one does not currently
exist? (Possible sources may include local
colleges, judicial associations, governmental
agencies, health/mental health associations, or
advocacy or self-help groups.)

o Besides recidivism statistics, what data might
judges find useful when deciding on appropriate
court sanctions?

----------

Learning Point 9

Beyond the Bench concludes by encouraging judges
to educate other judges about the problem of
juvenile DUI.

"Judges can and should take a leadership position
among their fellow judges -- spreading the word on
how every judge can help reduce juvenile alcohol
and drug use."

-- Judge J. Deane Lewis

o Is there a committee dealing with juvenile
education or juvenile alcohol and drug issues
within most judicial associations or state
Administrative Offices of the Court?

o If not, could judges benefit from such a
committee? How might judges develop one?

----------
Additional Discussion Questions

Many offenses committed by juveniles under the
influence of alcohol or other drugs result in the
injury or death of thousands of victims each year.
The actions of these juvenile offenders affect
survivors, family members of survivors, family
members of those who die, and to a great extent
the community at large. In assessing the
seriousness of juvenile DUI/AOD, judges may wish
to consider its broader impact on the victims and
the community.

o What steps can judges take to communicate more
effectively with victim assistance, advocacy,
self-help, and support organizations?

o What characteristics of juvenile DUI/AOD
complicate the juvenile justice system's and
community's response to the problem? Discussants
should consider, for example, confidentiality
issues, offenders' ability to make financial
restitution, and future accountability.

o What intervention complications arise when there
is a relationship between the offender and the
victim (for example, if they are friends,
neighbors, members of the same family,
schoolmates, or members of the same community)?

------------------------------

Conclusion

A Judicial Call to Action:
Practical Strategies and Programs for Addressing
Juvenile DUI/AOD

While no single strategy or program guarantees a
solution to the problem of juvenile use of alcohol
and other drugs, judicial leadership, coupled with
a community partnership, can pave the way to the
creation of effective intervention and prevention
solutions. Nationwide, many judges lead the
response to juvenile DUI/AOD by exercising their
ability to mobilize communities and convene
community leaders in order to develop a
comprehensive plan of action.

Within the justice system, judicial leadership has
led to the creation of programs, strategies, and
services to identify and treat juveniles and to
make them more responsible for their actions.
Among the measures taken are these: the setting of
special dockets to hear cases involving juveniles
and alcohol- and drug-related crimes with a
specific intent to identify and treat potential
alcohol or other drug addiction; the imposition of
maximum sanctions against juvenile offenders for
alcohol-related crimes; and the development of
prevention and intervention treatment options.

Within many communities, judicial leadership has
changed attitudes to better reflect the gravity of
juvenile alcohol and other drug use. More and
more, judges are reinforcing law enforcement and
prosecutorial efforts to address the problem. In
addition, judges are active in the development of
training and public awareness programs. Finally,
some judges have assumed the role of advocate in
calling for the passage of stricter laws governing
underage alcohol consumption, such as "abuse and
lose" laws and lower blood-alcohol levels for
juveniles.

System-wide Community Response: An Overview

Throughout the video's narrative, the resounding
theme is an invitation for judges to increase
their role beyond the bench, to serve as leaders,
advocates, and conveners in the community. Judge
Dean Lewis, one of the video narrators, calls on
judges to initiate a justice system/community-wide
response to juvenile alcohol and other drug use,
and in particular, juvenile DUI. The following
overview highlights Judge Lewis's unique
initiative.

Creating the System-wide Community Response

A system-wide community response can help local
communities develop a comprehensive and
coordinated package of polices, procedures,
programs, and practices to combat juvenile DUI/AOD
through the following:

o Identifying and analyzing the problem

o Assessing resources

o Determining needs

o Developing an action plan with concrete
objectives, tasks, and responsibilities

Furthermore, a system-wide community response
brings together officials and community leaders
from juvenile court, schools, law enforcement
agencies, mental health services, public health
and welfare institutions, and other key local
government agencies to facilitate several
activities:

o Sharing of policies, procedures, programs,
practices, and resources

o Coordination of efforts to set priorities,
concentrate resources, and maximize the
contribution of each agency

o Establishment of procedures to integrate
services, including setting priorities for service
delivery and system-wide case management

Selecting Problems to be Addressed by the System-
wide Community Response

Care must be exercised in the selection of
problems that might be approached thorough the
system-wide strategy. Problems must be carefully
defined so they are manageable and at least appear
solvable. The system-wide community response
approach in Judge Lewis's community accomplished
the following:

o Helped win passage of a more restrictive "use
and lose" law

o Sponsored a radio Public Service Announcement
(PSA) for reporting youths who purchase alcohol

o Sponsors quarterly meetings of judges,
legislators, sheriffs, chiefs of police, and
prosecutors to develop strategies to lower DUI and
other alcohol-related offenses

o Sought and received funding from the local bar
association to sponsor an ad in the local
newspaper to print laws concerning youth use of
alcohol

o Conducted mass mailing to all local hotels and
motels informing them of dates of proms and
graduations and requesting help in keeping youth
from holding alcohol-related parties in their
establishments; also supported numerous regional
after-prom events

o Created, printed, and distributed approximately
80,000 brochures on community substance abuse
resources
o Initiated a Fit & Sober New Year's Eve party
with the local YMCA

o Initiated a midnight basketball and swimming
program

o Organized a forum on youth activities

o Sponsors an annual "Day of Discovery," a
resource exchange for service providers

o With the local juvenile detention center,
cosponsored a workshop that included system-wide
community response representatives and youth
detainees as participants

o Conducted a seminar for Alcoholic Beverage
Control (ABC) license holders, encouraging
responsible alcohol beverage sales and services

Judges may wish to draw upon Judge Lewis's program
when considering similar plans of action for their
own communities to combat juvenile DUI.
Alternatively, they may wish to modify her
approach to address the more general issue of
juvenile alcohol and other drug abuse.

Model Judge-Initiated Programs to Combat Juvenile
DUI/AOD

The following programs represent only a few of
those initiated by judges to comprehensively
address juvenile DUI, and in some cases, other
drug use. They are the kinds of specific
initiatives that can result from a coordinated,
community-wide effort. They clearly demonstrate
that judicial leadership can significantly reduce
juvenile DUI/AOD.

Prevention Programs

Computerized Drunk Driving Simulation Models
Dallas, Texas

Teen drivers have an opportunity to experience,
firsthand, a simulation of the effects of driving
under the influence through the use of a
computerized car. In addition to the computerized
simulation model, public awareness campaigns and
educational programs have also been developed. For
more information, contact Judge Marshall Gandy,
133 N. Industrial, Frank Cowley Courts Building,
Criminal Court No. 10, 4th Floor, Dallas, TX
75207. (214) 653-5697.

Court Licensing Ceremony
Commonwealth of Virginia

Mandatory court licensing ceremonies help teen
drivers learn about their legal responsibility to
drive sober and drug-free. The program provides
teens and their parents or guardians with
information on the state's "abuse and lose" law,
which allows for license suspension or revocation
if a teen is adjudicated delinquent in driving
under the influence of alcohol and other drugs.
For more information, contact Judge Philip
Trompeter, Juvenile and Domestic Relations
District Court, 305 E. Main Street, Room 100 East,
Salem, VA 24153. (540) 387-6126.

Teen Challenge Educational Programs
Flagstaff, Arizona

Teen Challenge programs provide teens with
information on a variety of topics relating to
juvenile DUI, including financial consequences
(increased insurance premiums or the inability to
become insured) and the emotional, financial, and
physical impact on victims of alcohol-related
crashes. Teen Challenge programs have been
replicated in several states. For more
information, contact Judge Jim Sedillo, Flagstaff
Justice Court, 100 East Birch Street, Flagstaff,
AZ 86001. (520) 779-6806.

Intervention Programs

Driver Risk Inventory Assessments
Pickaway County, Ohio

A computerized Driver Risk Inventory (DRI)
assessment tool helps judges identify juveniles at
risk of alcohol and drug abuse. This tool, when
compared to an assessment conducted by an
independent treatment facility, allows first-time
offenders an opportunity to complete a court-
approved alcohol or drug counseling program and to
create an individualized treatment plan to achieve
and maintain sobriety. For additional information
about the program, contact Judge John R. Adkins,
Circleville Municipal Court, Box 128, Circleville,
OH 43113. (614) 477-9824.

Hospital-based Community Service
Huntsville, Alabama
A partnership with area hospital emergency rooms
allows adjudicated first-time offenders to observe
the medical treatment of victims of drunk or
drugged drivers. Juvenile DUI offenders gain a
visual and experiential picture of the often life-
altering injuries many victims receive from
alcohol-related traffic crashes. For more
information, contact the Madison County Juvenile
Court, Madison County Courthouse, Huntsville, AL
35801. (205) 532-6990.

Responsibility Through Restitution
Houston, Texas

In Judge Ted Poe's court-ordered sanctions, DUI
offenders take financial responsibility for the
injuries and damage they caused. Juveniles found
guilty of DUI are held financially responsible by
judicial order for "support" payments to the
victim or family. The amount of support is
determined by the juvenile's age and ability to
secure employment. For more information, contact
the Administrative Office for District Court, 301
San Jacinto Avenue, Houston, TX 77002. (713) 755-
6650.

------------------------------

A National Trend to Reduce Juvenile
BAC Levels: States Respond

Zero tolerance laws, which set very low BAC levels
(.02 percent or less) for persons under age 21,
are gaining momentum across the nation. The
federal National Highway System Designation Act of
1995, which was signed into law by the President,
requires that all states enact zero tolerance laws
by 1999 or risk losing a portion of their federal
highway construction money. Evaluation of zero
tolerance laws has found them to be effective in
reducing teenage alcohol-related crashes.

The following 27 states plus the District of
Columbia have enacted zero tolerance legislation:
Arkansas, Arizona, California, Connecticut,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois,
Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon,
Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia,
Washington, and West Virginia.

To obtain copies of the video or additional
information on juvenile impaired driving, please
contact:

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
P. O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
(800) 638-8736

or

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Office of Alcohol and State Programs (NTS-21)
400 Seventh Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20590
(202) 366-9588

The development of this video and guide was funded
by Cooperative Agreement 92-JD-CX-K002, awarded by
the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention. Joint funding was provided
by the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration. Points of view or opinions
expressed in the video and its companion
discussion guide are those of the developer and do
not necessarily represent the official position or
policies of the Department of Justice or the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

				
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