DNA Microarray Replication
Richard M. Crooks, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Opportunities and challenges
DNA microarrays have broad applications.
• Disease diagnosis
• Homeland Security
• Drug discovery research
The DNA microarray market is limited.
• ~$0.6 billion in annual sales
• 6.7% annual growth
• Growth potential is high, could reach >$5 billion by 2010.
Drivers for market expansion:
• Lower prices
• Greater production potential
• Expanded uses
MarketResearch.com; Frost and Sullivan
How do microarrays work?
DNA microarrays allow
up to 1,000,000 genetic
elements to be analyzed
Custom content to
• Different organisms
• Different diseases
and rapid results
DNA microarrays lend themselves to
• Unique DNA samples are in fixed locations in array.
• DNA template process allows faithful replication.
• Investment of costs is in precise master array.
• Copies are faithfully reproduced, in content and
spatial register from master.
• Many copies are cheaply prepared from a single
A single master DNA microarray is created.
The master array is exposed to a solution of
complementary DNA primers.
The primers hybridize to all DNA strands on the master.
The primers are enzymatically extended to copy master
A replica surface is brought into contact with the master.
The replica surface is mechanically removed, separating
the master from the complementary assay array.
The master array is ready to repeat copying procedure.
Xerographic replication of DNA
Broadly applicable to all array formats
Disruptive technology with potential to:
• Dramatically reduce costs of arrays (up to 80%)
• Increase production potential of arrays
• Expand availability, use and market
Satisfies increasing demand for DNA
microarrays in diagnostic, medical, and
U.S. provisional patent filed covering technology