Please read the following and answer the questions by 6wFmxv

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                           Croton Dam Fails in January 1841

 Please read the following and answer the questions.

 Document #1
         “On the 7th of January 1841, a great freshet (sudden overflowing) occurred on the
 Croton River. On the 6th, the snow lay on the hills and valleys to a depth of twelve or
 fifteen inches. In the evening the weather moderated (became less and a heavy rain fell,
 melting the snow and ice rapidly. The waters in the river rose swiftly and rush furiously
 to the Hudson carrying fear to many of the inhabitants (people) down the river. Many of
 them took some means towards saving their dwelling (houses) but events proved their
 effort unavailing (unsuccessful). Shortly after midnight- the early morning of the 8th-the
 rapidly rising flood swept away Pine’s Bridge carrying it toward the dam about a mile
 below. The accumulated waters and broken ice caused the dam to give way and with a
 loud roar the great flood on its way to the Hudson carried away barns and stables, farm
 houses, and other buildings and possessions within its course…”
                          From A. P. French’s in History of Westchester County pg 347
      1. When did this event occur, please be specific?


    2. Name three things that were carried away?


    3. What caused the flooding?

 Document #2
 “..In the neighborhood of Bailey’s Mill some precautions had been taken to avoid the
 flood, but the oncoming flood was so swift (fast) and sudden …that it did not give time
 for the awakening of those who had gone to rest and in a very brief time the waters were
 upon the little settlement and some fifty or sixty people were thrown into the flood and
 their possessions swept away. Mrs. Avery with her infant, Miss Mitchell, Mrs. Batson
 and a little girl, Mrs. Millen and child, William Mitchell. Joseph Bailey, Gerry
 Hale…..were rescued by means of rafts from trees to which they had clung. Mr. Bailey
 waded waist deep in water carrying his father and a bag of gold, and fortunately reached
 a place of safety. The only laborer on the dam to lose his life was Patrick Burke….
 unable to save himself.” From French’s History of Westchester County pg 347 and 348.

        1. What was the name of the little community that was swept away?

        2. How were some of the people able to save themselves?

        3. Why weren’t the people able to get to safety sooner?
Document #3
         “(Law) suits were brought to recover (get back) some of these damages and the
liability (responsibility) of the city of New York was sustained (upheld). In Bailey vs.
City of New York … it was decided that …injuries caused by negligent (lack of care)
and unskillful (bad) construction of the dam on the Croton River and that New York city
and its representatives, the commissioners appointed by the state, were liable
(responsible).
         Pecuniary (money) damages
         Embankment of the Dam ………………………………….$30,000
         Damage to Masonry …………………………. ……………26,000
         Pine’s Bridge …………………………………. …………… 6,000
         Quaker’s Bridge ……………………………………………10,000
         Bridge near the Dam ………………………………… ….. . 6,000
         Bailey’s Mill, dwelling house and Farm ………………… .20,000
         Furniture ………………………………………………… . .2,000
         Money, Clothes and Papers …………………. ……………20,000
         Store and Village Buildings ………………………………..20,000
         Thompkins Farm …………………………….……………..20,000
         Damages to surrounding Lands, Houses and Buildings… 500,000

       The final total was …………………………………………$672,5000
                                                   From A.P. French History of
                                                   Westchester County pg 348
       1. What did the court say was the cause of the failure of the Dam?

       2. How much was awarded to Bailey’s Mill? What was the final total?

       3. Who was held responsible for the collapse of the Dam?


       ESSAY: Context: By the early 1800s New York City was in need of new sources
       of fresh water. The population of New York City was growing bigger everyday.
       One of the sources for fresh and clean water was the Croton River. It was
       purposed to build a dam to collect water and an aqueduct to deliver water to New
       York City. This was an important and difficult task for many reasons. In January
       1841 the dam burst.
       Write an essay describing what it was like for the people at Bailey’s Mill. Use
       information you know about life in the 1840s and things you know about winter
       here in Ossining. Use the three documents and the answers you have written to
       develop your essay.

								
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