336 Notes Part 1 Sp13 class by THIl6o5


									                                                    PSY 336: Part 1--Page 1 of 10

                             PSY 336: Ethology
Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior especially in a natural
setting. The word “ethology” comes from “ethos” which means the
distinguishing character, habit, manner, or behavior of an organism.

                      Part 1: Chapters 1, 2, and 3
      This is not a new area of study. Before the development of the
supermarket, people had to know animal behavior to get protein and fat. What
distinguishes ethology from the work of hunters, horse trainers, and so forth is
ethology’s scientific methods.

              History of the Study of Animal Behavior
I.     Prehistoric times
       A. hunters and gatherers
       B. L. S. B. Leakey (1903-1972), Kenyan anthropologist who worked in
       Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania
              1. Jane Goodall (chimpanzee)
              2. Dian Fossey (mountain gorilla)
              3. Birute Galdikas (orangutan)
       C. fire to drive animals

II.     Classic Greek World
        A. dualism--two worlds
              1. psychic world--humans are rational, this separates humans from
              animals (rationalism)
              2. physical world--animals are like machines and cannot think
              (mechanistic view)
        B. Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
              1. used observational method
              2. vitalist: living things had a vital force
              3. De Anima (On the Soul)
                     a.      postulated phylogenetic development and continuity
                     between species (Scala naturae)
                     b.      postulated a doctrine of behavior modification (an
                     elementary S-R theory)

III.   Roman
       Pliny (23-79), wrote Natural History, and used anthropomorphism
       (attribution of human characteristics or personality to nonhumans)
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IV.   The natural philosophers
      A. Francis Bacon (1561-1626): be empirical, be objective, observe,
      experiment, and use inductive reasoning rather than rationalism.
      B. René Descartes (1596-1650) dualistic interactionism (two worlds--
      psychic world and physical world interact)
            1.    animals are like machines, their behavior can be predicted
            2.    humans have a soul and free will
            3.    but the human body is a machine, it can be studied

As the natural world came to be quantified and measured by the mathematical
method, the human body, as part of the natural world, posed special
considerations. How could one measure emotions? Or quantify the soul? René
Descartes provided the philosophical justification for conceptualizing the
human body in mathematical terms by positing two separate but interacting
aspects that comprise the human body--the res cogitans, thinking substance,
and res extensa, the extended or physical substance. Quite simply, the human
body could now be divided into mind and body. With the advent of Newtonian
physics, the extended or physical world, including the human body, came to be
interpreted through the laws of matter and motion.

      C. John Locke (1632-1704)
            At birth the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa).
      D. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
            1. rejected the concept of a tabula rasa
            2. there has to be some native (innate or inborn) ability to
            organize what is observed

V.    Theory of evolution by natural selection
      A.    Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was the naturalist on HMS Beagle,
      which visited the Galápagos Islands. This got him thinking about earlier
      B.    Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
            1. Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
            2. population increases geometrically (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ...) but the
            food supply increases arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...)
      C.    Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) geologist who observed rock strata
      showed a succession of fossils that indicated a process of continuous
            2.    species are not fixed
            3.    animal breeding had already provided support
      D.    Herbert Spencer wrote Principles of Psychology in (1855). In it, he
      proposed there was an intellectual continuity among animals
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        E.    Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)
        F.    Both Darwin and Wallace independently formulated the theory of
        evolution by natural selection.
              1.    Darwin wrote:
                    a.    The Origin of Species (1859)
                    b.    On the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
              2.    The theory of evolution restored the continuity between
              humans and other animals.

VI.     Comparative method
        A. George John Romanes (1848-1894)
              1. was a close friend of Charles Darwin
              2. coined the term “comparative psychology”
              3. emotions
              4. used anecdotal evidence rather than empirical tests
        B. C. Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936)
              1. Introduction to Comparative Psychology (1894)
              2. both observations and empirical method
              3. Morgan's canon: “In no case may we interpret an action as the
              outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be
              interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the
              psychological scale” (Morgan, 1894), the Law of parsimony or
              William of Occam's razor

VII.    Theories of genetics and inheritance
             Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

VIII.   Psychology
        A. Physiological psychology
              1. Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
              2. Karl Lashley searched for the engram
              3. Roger W. Sperry won a Nobel prize in 1981
        B. Animal psychology (or comparative psychology)
              1. Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949)
                    a.    puzzle box
                    b.    trial-and-error learning (instrumental learning) (aka
                    operant conditioning)
                    c.    Law of Effect: “If a response in the presence of a
                    stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association
                    between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened.
                    Conversely, if the response is followed by an aversive event,
                    the association will be weakened” (Dugatkin, p. 130).
              2. Ivan Pavlov
                                                     PSY 336: Part 1--Page 4 of 10

                  classical conditioning
            3. Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956)
                  a.     studied many species
                  b.     founded a primate center
                  c.     Army Alpha and Beta
            4. Frank Beach
                  a.     APA president in 1950
                  b.     too many rat studies
            5. Hodos and Campbell (1969)--psychology needs an evolutionary

      C. Behaviorism
            1. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924)
                   a.    tropism (forced movement)
                   b.    mechanistic point of view
            2. Herbert Spencer Jennings
                   a.    disagreed with Loeb
                   b.    said behavior was variable and modifiable
            3. John B. Watson (1878-1958)
                   a.    S-R psychology
                   b.    tabula rasa
                   c.    Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology
            4. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
                   a.    operant conditioning
                   b.    laws of learning

IX.   Ethology
      A. Early ethology
      Behavior can be studied with an evolutionary point of view just like
      anatomy and physiology.
            1. Charles O. Whitman (1842-1910) used the display patterns of
            birds to classify them.
            2. Jacob J. von Uexkull (1864-1944) Umwelt (sensory-perceptual
            3. ethogram
            4. Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
                   a.     Nobel prize in 1973
                   b.     fixed action pattern (FAP)
                   c.     sign stimulus
                   d.     supernormal sign stimulus
                   e.     innate releasing mechanism (IRM)
                   f.     chain of reactions, e.g., courtship in the three-spined
                                              PSY 336: Part 1--Page 5 of 10

            g.    theories, e.g., psycho-hydraulic model
            h.    action specific energy
            i.    vacuum activity
            j.    displacement activity
            k.    critical periods (imprinting)
      5. Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988)
            a.    Nobel prize in 1973
            b.    Four Questions (on page 6)
                  1)     causation (or immediate stimuli)
                  2)     development
                  3)     survival function
                  4)     evolution
            c.    hierarchical model
                  1)     IRM (innate releasing mechanism)
                  2)     after a sign stimulus is presented, it is identified
                  by the IRM which removes a block and allows an FAP
                  to occur
      6. Karl von Frisch (1886-1982)
            a.    Nobel prize in 1973
            b.    honeybees

B. Comparisons in 1950:

              Ethology  Psychology
             European  American
biological background  psychological backgrnd
         many species  “white rat”
             field work  laboratory setting
                 “Why?”  “How?”
       innate behavior  learned behavior
            descriptive  experimental
          evolutionary  not evolutionary
               “nature”  “nurture”

C.    Lehrman
There is an interaction between what is innate and the environment,
which allows life and learning.

D.    Changing terms:
      1. instinctive behavior
            to: species-specific behavior
            to: species-typical behavior
      2. fixed action pattern
            to: modal action pattern
      3. innate as absolute
                                                    PSY 336: Part 1--Page 6 of 10

                     to: innate as relative
       E.    isolation experiment
       F.    breeding experiment
       G.    Hess: “innate” pecking behavior of gull chicks gets better with
             practice (is learned)
       H.    Brelands: “instinctive drift” nonreinforced innate behavior
             interfered with “learned” behavior
       I.    Seligman: there is a continuum of preparedness to learn new
             associations from prepared (learn quickly) to contraprepared (takes
             many trials or may not learn at all)
       J.    Garcia has shown that the internal state of nausea can easily be
             paired with internal cues, such as tastes or odors, but not with
             external cues, such as sounds or lights.
       K.    Today we say that genes and environment interact in the
             development of every behavior.

X.     Sociobiology (also called behavioral ecology)
       A. applies the principles of evolutionary theory to the study of social
       B. How could helping another individual raise its young (altruism)
       C. William D. Hamilton wrote in 1964 that evolutionary success is the
       result of your inclusive fitness. Inclusive fitness is your surviving
       offspring (direct fitness) plus offspring of kin (indirect fitness).
       D. Edward O. Wilson wrote Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975)

                             Chapter 1
             Principles of Animal Behavior, pages 2-25
I.     Early art shows animal behavior

       Fig1.2 Fig1.3 (parallel walk) Fig1.4

II.    Types of Questions and Levels of Analysis
            Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988)
                  Four Questions (on page 6)
                  proximate analysis
                       causation (or immediate stimuli)
                       development
                  ultimate analysis
                       survival function
                       evolution

III.   Three Foundations
                                                     PSY 336: Part 1--Page 7 of 10

       A.    Foundation 1 --Natural Selection
       B.    Foundation 2 -- Individual Learning
       C.    Foundation 3 -- Cultural Transmission through social learning

IV.    Conceptual, Theoretical, and Empirical Approaches
       A.   Conceptual Approaches
       B.   Theoretical Approaches
       C.   Empirical Approaches

                      Chapter 2
        The Evolution of Behavior, pages 26-71
I.     Artificial Selection
       Controlled by humans

II.    Natural Selection
       A.     Selective Advantage of a Trait
              Natural process
              If one allele (variant form of a gene) gives an advantage over other
       alleles, it will increase in frequency over generations.
              This changes the genotype (the genetic information of the
       organism) over many generations.
       B.     How Natural Selection Operates

Ernst Mayr (1977) proposed that Darwin and Wallace thought like this:

Fact 1: All species are capable of overproducing.
Fact 2: Populations of species tend to remain stable.
Fact 3: Resources are limited
      Inference 1: There is a struggle for existence among individuals
Fact 4: Individuals are unique.
Fact 5: Individual differences can be inherited.
      Inference 2: Differential survival, or natural selection, occurs.
      Inference 3: Through many generations--evolution.

III.   Behavioral Genetics
       A.   Mendel's laws
       B.   Locating Genes for Polygenic Traits
       C.   Dissecting Behavioral Variation

IV.    The Modern Theoretical Framework for Animal Behavior
       A.    Sociobiology and Selfish Genes
       “Any gene that codes for a trait that increases the fitness of its bearer
       above and beyond that of others in the population will increase in
                                                     PSY 336: Part 1--Page 8 of 10

       frequency. So natural selection often, but not always, produces genes that
       appear to be selfish” (Dugatkin, 2009, p. 44).
       B.    Antipredator Behavior in Guppies

V.     Adaptation
       A.    Adaptation leads to the highest fitness among a specified set of
       behaviors in a specified environment.
       B.    An adaptive trait is an inherited characteristic that increased in a
       population (usually through natural selection) because it helped solve the
       problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
       C.    Brood parasitism in wood ducks appeared to be maladaptive when
       there are many man-made nest boxes in the environment.

VI.    Genetic Techniques to Test Hypotheses in Animal Behavior
       A.    Kinship and Naked Mole Rat Behavior
             1.     Show eusociality
                    a)    show reproductive division of labor where some castes
                    reproduce and other castes do not
                    b)    there is an overlap in generations where older
                    generations care for younger generations
                    c)    there is communal care of young
             2.     There is high genetic relatedness (r = .81) among individuals
             within the same colony.
             3.     Kinship theory states that the more highly related individuals
             are, the more we expect to see cooperation and altruistic behavior.
       B.    Coalition Formation
             1.     Small coalitions of male lions are sometimes made up of
             relatives and sometimes not.
             2.     Large coalitions of male lions are always composed of

VII.   Phylogeny and the Study of Animal Behavior
       A.    Phylogeny--evolutionary history through common descent
       B.    Phylogenetic Trees
             Homology--a trait shared by species because of a common ancestor
             Homoplasy--a trait that is not due to a common ancestor, e.g.,
       wings of birds, bats, and insects, which are analogies that are produced
       by convergent evolution.
             The direction of historical change (polarity [or which came first]) in
             a trait must be determined.
             A parsimonious analysis should be used. (Use Occam's razor to cut
             off unnecessary assumptions.)
       C.    Phylogeny and parental care in fish
       D.    Phylogeny, Mating Systems, and Male Aggression
                                                    PSY 336: Part 1--Page 9 of 10

             1.    Males may benefit from being more aggressive when sexually
             receptive females are present and less aggressive otherwise.
             2.    Nasonia wasps show high male-male aggression was the
             ancestral state and within-host mating is a more recent

                         Chapter 3
              Proximate Factors, pages 72-117
I.     Ultimate and Proximate Perspectives
       A.     A perspective is considered ultimate if it concerns how something
       may have evolved. It might be a question that begins with, “Why is it
       B.     A perspective is considered proximate, if it answers a question
       about “How is it that…?" or “What is it that…?" It operates within the
       lifetime of an organism.

II.    Hormones and Proximate Causation
       A.  The Long-Term Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Hormones
       B.  Stress Hormones and Spatial Memory in Rats
           1.    water maze
           2.    Corticosterone's effects on spatial memory are often
           displayed about 30 minutes after stress is induced.

III.   Neurobiological Underpinnings of Behavior
       A.   The Nervous Impulse
       B.   Neurobiology and Learning in Voles
            1.     Male meadow voles are polygamous, have a home range that
            is 10 times that of females, and have better spatial skills than
            2.     Prairie voles are monogamous, have a home range that is
            about the same size as those of females, and have spatial skills
            about equal to that of females.
            3.     The size of the hippocampus in polygamous meadow voles
            was larger in males than in females.
            4.     The size of the hippocampus in monogamous voles was the
            same in both sexes.
            5.     Male meadow voles have more dendritic spines than females
            in the prefrontal and parietal cortex that is associated with spatial
       C.   Sleep and Predation in Mallard Ducks
            Mallards can sleep with one eye open and one hemisphere of the
            brain awake while the other hemisphere is asleep. This is more
            likely to occur on the edge of the flock.
                                                 PSY 336: Part 1--Page 10 of 10

IV.   Molecular Genetics and Animal Behavior
      A.   Ultraviolet Vision in Birds
      B.   Song Acquisition in Birds
           Gene expression

V.    Foraging in Honeybees: An Integrated Proximate Analysis
      A.    Mushroom Bodies and Honeybee Foraging
            1.    Parts of the brains of honeybees, called mushroom bodies,
            are associated with spatial navigation and foraging.
            2.    Mushroom bodies were larger in foraging honeybees than in
            bees that stayed in the hive.
      B.    Genes, mRNA, and Honeybee Foraging
            1.    The period (per) gene influences circadian rhythms.
            2.    Foraging bees have significantly higher levels of per mRNA
            than younger, non-foraging bees.
      C.    Hormones and Honeybee Foraging
            1.    In honeybees, juvenile hormone is associated with foraging.
            2.    Removing the corpus allatum removes the source of the
            juvenile hormone.
            3.    This reduced foraging in honeybees.
            4.    Adding artificial juvenile hormone increased foraging.
            5.    Octopamine modulates learning and memory in honeybees.
            6.    Foraging bees have more octopamine in their brains than do
            nurse bees.
            7.    Increasing octopamine increased flight activity for foraging,
            but not for removal of corpses.
            8.    Bees given octopamine and exposed to new, larger brood
            increase their foraging behavior but not caring-for-brood behavior.

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