PSY 336: Part 1--Page 1 of 10 PSY 336: Ethology Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior especially in a natural setting. The word “ethology” comes from “ethos” which means the distinguishing character, habit, manner, or behavior of an organism. Part 1: Chapters 1, 2, and 3 This is not a new area of study. Before the development of the supermarket, people had to know animal behavior to get protein and fat. What distinguishes ethology from the work of hunters, horse trainers, and so forth is ethology’s scientific methods. History of the Study of Animal Behavior I. Prehistoric times A. hunters and gatherers B. L. S. B. Leakey (1903-1972), Kenyan anthropologist who worked in Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania 1. Jane Goodall (chimpanzee) 2. Dian Fossey (mountain gorilla) 3. Birute Galdikas (orangutan) C. fire to drive animals II. Classic Greek World A. dualism--two worlds 1. psychic world--humans are rational, this separates humans from animals (rationalism) 2. physical world--animals are like machines and cannot think (mechanistic view) B. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) 1. used observational method 2. vitalist: living things had a vital force 3. De Anima (On the Soul) http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Aristotle/De-anima/index.htm a. postulated phylogenetic development and continuity between species (Scala naturae) b. postulated a doctrine of behavior modification (an elementary S-R theory) III. Roman Pliny (23-79), wrote Natural History, and used anthropomorphism (attribution of human characteristics or personality to nonhumans) PSY 336: Part 1--Page 2 of 10 IV. The natural philosophers A. Francis Bacon (1561-1626): be empirical, be objective, observe, experiment, and use inductive reasoning rather than rationalism. B. René Descartes (1596-1650) dualistic interactionism (two worlds-- psychic world and physical world interact) 1. animals are like machines, their behavior can be predicted 2. humans have a soul and free will 3. but the human body is a machine, it can be studied scientifically As the natural world came to be quantified and measured by the mathematical method, the human body, as part of the natural world, posed special considerations. How could one measure emotions? Or quantify the soul? René Descartes provided the philosophical justification for conceptualizing the human body in mathematical terms by positing two separate but interacting aspects that comprise the human body--the res cogitans, thinking substance, and res extensa, the extended or physical substance. Quite simply, the human body could now be divided into mind and body. With the advent of Newtonian physics, the extended or physical world, including the human body, came to be interpreted through the laws of matter and motion. C. John Locke (1632-1704) At birth the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa). D. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 1. rejected the concept of a tabula rasa 2. there has to be some native (innate or inborn) ability to organize what is observed V. Theory of evolution by natural selection A. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was the naturalist on HMS Beagle, which visited the Galápagos Islands. This got him thinking about earlier work. B. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) 1. Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) 2. population increases geometrically (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ...) but the food supply increases arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...) C. Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) geologist who observed rock strata showed a succession of fossils that indicated a process of continuous change 2. species are not fixed 3. animal breeding had already provided support D. Herbert Spencer wrote Principles of Psychology in (1855). In it, he proposed there was an intellectual continuity among animals PSY 336: Part 1--Page 3 of 10 E. Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) F. Both Darwin and Wallace independently formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection. 1. Darwin wrote: a. The Origin of Species (1859) b. On the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1873) 2. The theory of evolution restored the continuity between humans and other animals. VI. Comparative method A. George John Romanes (1848-1894) 1. was a close friend of Charles Darwin 2. coined the term “comparative psychology” 3. emotions 4. used anecdotal evidence rather than empirical tests B. C. Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) 1. Introduction to Comparative Psychology (1894) 2. both observations and empirical method 3. Morgan's canon: “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale” (Morgan, 1894), the Law of parsimony or William of Occam's razor VII. Theories of genetics and inheritance Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) VIII. Psychology A. Physiological psychology 1. Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) 2. Karl Lashley searched for the engram 3. Roger W. Sperry won a Nobel prize in 1981 B. Animal psychology (or comparative psychology) 1. Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) a. puzzle box b. trial-and-error learning (instrumental learning) (aka operant conditioning) c. Law of Effect: “If a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened. Conversely, if the response is followed by an aversive event, the association will be weakened” (Dugatkin, p. 130). 2. Ivan Pavlov PSY 336: Part 1--Page 4 of 10 classical conditioning 3. Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956) a. studied many species b. founded a primate center c. Army Alpha and Beta 4. Frank Beach a. APA president in 1950 b. too many rat studies 5. Hodos and Campbell (1969)--psychology needs an evolutionary perspective C. Behaviorism 1. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) a. tropism (forced movement) b. mechanistic point of view 2. Herbert Spencer Jennings a. disagreed with Loeb b. said behavior was variable and modifiable 3. John B. Watson (1878-1958) a. S-R psychology b. tabula rasa c. Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (1914) 4. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) a. operant conditioning b. laws of learning IX. Ethology A. Early ethology Behavior can be studied with an evolutionary point of view just like anatomy and physiology. 1. Charles O. Whitman (1842-1910) used the display patterns of birds to classify them. 2. Jacob J. von Uexkull (1864-1944) Umwelt (sensory-perceptual world) 3. ethogram 4. Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) a. Nobel prize in 1973 b. fixed action pattern (FAP) c. sign stimulus d. supernormal sign stimulus e. innate releasing mechanism (IRM) f. chain of reactions, e.g., courtship in the three-spined stickleback PSY 336: Part 1--Page 5 of 10 g. theories, e.g., psycho-hydraulic model h. action specific energy i. vacuum activity j. displacement activity k. critical periods (imprinting) 5. Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988) a. Nobel prize in 1973 b. Four Questions (on page 6) 1) causation (or immediate stimuli) 2) development 3) survival function 4) evolution c. hierarchical model 1) IRM (innate releasing mechanism) 2) after a sign stimulus is presented, it is identified by the IRM which removes a block and allows an FAP to occur 6. Karl von Frisch (1886-1982) a. Nobel prize in 1973 b. honeybees B. Comparisons in 1950: Ethology Psychology European American biological background psychological backgrnd many species “white rat” field work laboratory setting “Why?” “How?” innate behavior learned behavior descriptive experimental evolutionary not evolutionary “nature” “nurture” C. Lehrman There is an interaction between what is innate and the environment, which allows life and learning. D. Changing terms: 1. instinctive behavior to: species-specific behavior to: species-typical behavior 2. fixed action pattern to: modal action pattern 3. innate as absolute PSY 336: Part 1--Page 6 of 10 to: innate as relative E. isolation experiment F. breeding experiment G. Hess: “innate” pecking behavior of gull chicks gets better with practice (is learned) H. Brelands: “instinctive drift” nonreinforced innate behavior interfered with “learned” behavior http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Breland/misbehavior.htm I. Seligman: there is a continuum of preparedness to learn new associations from prepared (learn quickly) to contraprepared (takes many trials or may not learn at all) J. Garcia has shown that the internal state of nausea can easily be paired with internal cues, such as tastes or odors, but not with external cues, such as sounds or lights. K. Today we say that genes and environment interact in the development of every behavior. X. Sociobiology (also called behavioral ecology) A. applies the principles of evolutionary theory to the study of social behavior B. How could helping another individual raise its young (altruism) evolve? C. William D. Hamilton wrote in 1964 that evolutionary success is the result of your inclusive fitness. Inclusive fitness is your surviving offspring (direct fitness) plus offspring of kin (indirect fitness). D. Edward O. Wilson wrote Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) Chapter 1 Principles of Animal Behavior, pages 2-25 I. Early art shows animal behavior Fig1.2 Fig1.3 (parallel walk) Fig1.4 II. Types of Questions and Levels of Analysis Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988) Four Questions (on page 6) proximate analysis causation (or immediate stimuli) development ultimate analysis survival function evolution III. Three Foundations PSY 336: Part 1--Page 7 of 10 A. Foundation 1 --Natural Selection B. Foundation 2 -- Individual Learning C. Foundation 3 -- Cultural Transmission through social learning IV. Conceptual, Theoretical, and Empirical Approaches A. Conceptual Approaches B. Theoretical Approaches C. Empirical Approaches Chapter 2 The Evolution of Behavior, pages 26-71 I. Artificial Selection Controlled by humans II. Natural Selection A. Selective Advantage of a Trait Natural process If one allele (variant form of a gene) gives an advantage over other alleles, it will increase in frequency over generations. This changes the genotype (the genetic information of the organism) over many generations. B. How Natural Selection Operates Ernst Mayr (1977) proposed that Darwin and Wallace thought like this: Fact 1: All species are capable of overproducing. Fact 2: Populations of species tend to remain stable. Fact 3: Resources are limited Inference 1: There is a struggle for existence among individuals Fact 4: Individuals are unique. Fact 5: Individual differences can be inherited. Inference 2: Differential survival, or natural selection, occurs. Inference 3: Through many generations--evolution. III. Behavioral Genetics A. Mendel's laws B. Locating Genes for Polygenic Traits C. Dissecting Behavioral Variation IV. The Modern Theoretical Framework for Animal Behavior A. Sociobiology and Selfish Genes “Any gene that codes for a trait that increases the fitness of its bearer above and beyond that of others in the population will increase in PSY 336: Part 1--Page 8 of 10 frequency. So natural selection often, but not always, produces genes that appear to be selfish” (Dugatkin, 2009, p. 44). B. Antipredator Behavior in Guppies V. Adaptation A. Adaptation leads to the highest fitness among a specified set of behaviors in a specified environment. B. An adaptive trait is an inherited characteristic that increased in a population (usually through natural selection) because it helped solve the problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged. C. Brood parasitism in wood ducks appeared to be maladaptive when there are many man-made nest boxes in the environment. VI. Genetic Techniques to Test Hypotheses in Animal Behavior A. Kinship and Naked Mole Rat Behavior 1. Show eusociality a) show reproductive division of labor where some castes reproduce and other castes do not b) there is an overlap in generations where older generations care for younger generations c) there is communal care of young 2. There is high genetic relatedness (r = .81) among individuals within the same colony. 3. Kinship theory states that the more highly related individuals are, the more we expect to see cooperation and altruistic behavior. B. Coalition Formation 1. Small coalitions of male lions are sometimes made up of relatives and sometimes not. 2. Large coalitions of male lions are always composed of relatives. VII. Phylogeny and the Study of Animal Behavior A. Phylogeny--evolutionary history through common descent B. Phylogenetic Trees Homology--a trait shared by species because of a common ancestor Homoplasy--a trait that is not due to a common ancestor, e.g., wings of birds, bats, and insects, which are analogies that are produced by convergent evolution. The direction of historical change (polarity [or which came first]) in a trait must be determined. A parsimonious analysis should be used. (Use Occam's razor to cut off unnecessary assumptions.) C. Phylogeny and parental care in fish D. Phylogeny, Mating Systems, and Male Aggression PSY 336: Part 1--Page 9 of 10 1. Males may benefit from being more aggressive when sexually receptive females are present and less aggressive otherwise. 2. Nasonia wasps show high male-male aggression was the ancestral state and within-host mating is a more recent development. Chapter 3 Proximate Factors, pages 72-117 I. Ultimate and Proximate Perspectives A. A perspective is considered ultimate if it concerns how something may have evolved. It might be a question that begins with, “Why is it that…?" B. A perspective is considered proximate, if it answers a question about “How is it that…?" or “What is it that…?" It operates within the lifetime of an organism. II. Hormones and Proximate Causation A. The Long-Term Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Hormones B. Stress Hormones and Spatial Memory in Rats 1. water maze 2. Corticosterone's effects on spatial memory are often displayed about 30 minutes after stress is induced. III. Neurobiological Underpinnings of Behavior A. The Nervous Impulse B. Neurobiology and Learning in Voles 1. Male meadow voles are polygamous, have a home range that is 10 times that of females, and have better spatial skills than females. 2. Prairie voles are monogamous, have a home range that is about the same size as those of females, and have spatial skills about equal to that of females. 3. The size of the hippocampus in polygamous meadow voles was larger in males than in females. 4. The size of the hippocampus in monogamous voles was the same in both sexes. 5. Male meadow voles have more dendritic spines than females in the prefrontal and parietal cortex that is associated with spatial ability. C. Sleep and Predation in Mallard Ducks Mallards can sleep with one eye open and one hemisphere of the brain awake while the other hemisphere is asleep. This is more likely to occur on the edge of the flock. PSY 336: Part 1--Page 10 of 10 IV. Molecular Genetics and Animal Behavior A. Ultraviolet Vision in Birds B. Song Acquisition in Birds Gene expression V. Foraging in Honeybees: An Integrated Proximate Analysis A. Mushroom Bodies and Honeybee Foraging 1. Parts of the brains of honeybees, called mushroom bodies, are associated with spatial navigation and foraging. 2. Mushroom bodies were larger in foraging honeybees than in bees that stayed in the hive. B. Genes, mRNA, and Honeybee Foraging 1. The period (per) gene influences circadian rhythms. 2. Foraging bees have significantly higher levels of per mRNA than younger, non-foraging bees. C. Hormones and Honeybee Foraging 1. In honeybees, juvenile hormone is associated with foraging. 2. Removing the corpus allatum removes the source of the juvenile hormone. 3. This reduced foraging in honeybees. 4. Adding artificial juvenile hormone increased foraging. 5. Octopamine modulates learning and memory in honeybees. 6. Foraging bees have more octopamine in their brains than do nurse bees. 7. Increasing octopamine increased flight activity for foraging, but not for removal of corpses. 8. Bees given octopamine and exposed to new, larger brood increase their foraging behavior but not caring-for-brood behavior.
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