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Keck NGAO Caltech Optical Observatories

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									W. M. Keck Observatory

      Keck Next Generation AO



           Next Generation Adaptive Optics
                         Irvine Meeting
                          September 14, 2006




                       P. Wizinowich
                for NGAO Executive Committee
Keck NGAO

                 Welcome - Participants
     In-Person Participants
       – NGAO Executive Committee: Rich Dekany, Don Gavel,
         Claire Max, Peter Wizinowich
       – Sean Adkins, Aaron Barth, Antonin Bouchez, Andrea
         Ghez, Mike Liu, Chris Neyman
     Telecon Attendees:
       – Brian Bauman, Matthew Britton, Jason Chin, Ralf
         Flicker, Bruce Macintosh, Franck Marchis, Knut Olsen,
         Viswa Velur
       – Unconfirmed – Richard Ellis, Erik Johansson, Stephan
         Kellner, James Larkin, Junichi Meguro, Chuck Steidel


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            Goals of Today’s Meeting
     Finalize the System Engineering Management
     Plan for the NGAO system design phase
     Map out the science case requirements
     development plan
     Map out the performance budget development
     plan

 The above 3 goals are part of the process of
   identifying the path to a system design

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               Meeting Agenda
 08:20 Welcome (Wizinowich)
 08:30 Project Management (Wizinowich)
 11:00 Science Team Management (Max)
 12:00 Lunch at Faculty Club
 13:00 Science Requirements & Performance
   Budgets (All)
 16:30 Wrap up & Action Items
 17:00 End


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                  Meeting Agenda –
     Science Requirements & Performance Budgets
 1:00 Introduction to Goals & Approach
 1:10 Plan to Develop System Requirements thru 1) Science
    Cases & 2) Performance Budgets
 Sample Cases:
       1:45 Galactic Center & Astrometry Budget (Ghez, Wizinowich)
       2:15 Debris Disks & Binary Brown Dwarfs & Companion Sensitivity
          Budget (Liu, Macintosh, Neyman)
 2:45 Break
       3:00 Crowded Fields &/or Resolved Stellar Populations & Photometry
          Budget (Max, Dekany)
       3:30 High Redshift Universe & Encircled Energy Budget (Max)
 4:00 Simulations & Assumptions (Neyman)

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W. M. Keck Observatory

      Keck Next Generation AO



        NGAO System Design Phase
    System Engineering Management Plan




                       P. Wizinowich
                for NGAO Executive Committee
Keck NGAO

              Presentation Sequence
     Background
     System Design (SD) Phase
     Review/discuss the System Engineering
     Management Plan (SEMP) for the SD phase of the
     NGAO project




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                           Background
   NGAO Proposal
     – Presented at 6/21/06 SSC meeting
     – Well received by SSC & Observatory management
     – CARA Board approved proceeding with the system design (SD)
       phase
   NGAO Executive Committee (EC)
     – Established by Observatory Directors to manage the NGAO SD
       phase
     – Peter Wizinowich (EC chair), Rich Dekany, Don Gavel, Claire Max
       (NGAO science team chair)
   SD Phase System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)
     – Document describing how the EC plans to manage the SD phase
     – Will be submitted to the Observatory Directors on 9/29/06 for
       approval
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                      System Design Phase
   Section 3.1 & 8 of SEMP
   Initial design phase (precedes the preliminary design phase)
   “The principle objective of a system design is to establish a
   design approach that meets the scientific and user
   requirements established for the system. System design will
   establish a discipline integrated engineering plan for the
   proposed design, understand the technical risks, explore
   trade-offs, and determine estimates for performance and
   cost to completion.”
   Key deliverables:
     –     System Requirements Document
     –     System Design Manual
     –     System Engineering Management Plan
     –     System Design Report

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                    Planning Assumptions
   Budget
     – NGAO proposal estimated $980k for SD phase
     – $600k currently available in WMKO FY07 budget (may change -
       NASA negotiating to buy 10 telescope nights/year in FY07-09)
     – Conclusions:
           No need to prepare funding proposals during SD phase
           Can accelerate SD phase once we reach FY08
   Science Instruments
     – Will only be taken to a proposal level
     – Necessary to understand impact on NGAO system design & to
       provide a good starting point for instrument system designs



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                    Planning Approach
     Design process loop
     – Will begin anew & complete several iterations during SD



       Science        Technical                Initial   Performance
     Requirements    Implications             Concept    Assessment

  Repeat as required while making improvements & balancing trade offs




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                  Work Flow Approach
     1. Initial focus will be on requirements & performance
        budgets to ensure we understand the largest levers on
        the design
     2. Break down the requirements into functional
        requirements on the major systems (AO, LGS facility,
        operations tools & science instruments)
     3. In parallel with 1 & 2, perform trade studies to better
        understand the appropriate design choices
     4. Work on overall AO architecture & concepts for the
        major systems. Continue to iterate with the
        requirements & performance budgets.
     5. Work on cost estimates & the plans for the NGAO
        project
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       SD Phase - Work Breakdown Structure
Each major WBS produces one of the 4 major deliverables of
  the SD Phase:
1 System Design Phase Management
      System Design Report
2 System Requirements
      System Requirements Document
3 System Design Approach
      System Design Manual
4 System Engineering Management Plan
      System Engineering Management Plan

WBS dictionary defines each element in WBS (section 9)
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           WBS 1 SD Phase Management
1.1 Planning & Contracting
1.2 Meetings
1.3 Tracking & Reporting
1.4 Funding Proposals
1.5 System Design Report & Review




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               MILESTONE              DATE                          DESCRIPTION
           SD SEMP Approved          10/9/06       Approval of this plan by the Directors. Initial SEMP
                                                version released to Directors for comment on 9/12 & final
                                                                    version on 9/29/06.
    SD phase contracts in place      10/27/06     Contracts issued to Caltech & UCSC for the system
                                                                     design phase.
   System Requirements v1.0 Rel.     10/27/06   Initial release of System Requirements with emphasis on
                                                                  the science requirements
  Individual Performance Budgets     2/16/07       First round of all performance budgets complete &
              Released                                                  documented

 System Requirement v2.0 Release      3/9/07           Second release of System Requirements

    Initial Risk Analysis Released   4/18/07         First round of project risk analysis complete &
                                                                      documented
       Trade Studies Complete        6/16/07           All trade studies complete & documented

 System Requirement v3.0 Release     6/29/07             Third release of System Requirements

    System Design Manual v1.0        8/31/07             First release of System Design Manual
            Release
  System Design Manual v2.0 Rel.     10/31/07          Second release of System Design Manual

       Cost Review Complete          12/12/07       Project cost estimates complete, documented &
                                                                   internally reviewed
      SDR Package Distributed        1/15/08               SDR documents sent to reviewers

       System Design Review           2/4/08                         SDR meeting

           SSC final SDR Report       4/3/08         Final SD phase report including results of SDR
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                                                  Sc ienc e/Management    Systems Engineering      Optic s/Mec hanic s      Elec tronic s/Software         WFS/WFP
   Date        #    Venue    Major Meeting Goal
                                                         Milestone             Milestone               Milestone                   Milestone               Milestone

14- Sep- 06    1     UCI    Kic koff              NGAO SD Plan           Model/Tool Validation
                            Sc i. Case I

3- Nov- 06     2     CIT Performanc e Drivers                            Identify Perf. Drivers                                                       Var/Fixed LGS Ast
                            SRD I                                        SRD I                                                                        LGS Ast Geom & Sz


13- Dec - 06   3    Video Various TS's                                   Obs. Effic . Budget    Rayleigh Rejec tion
                                                                         Site Monitoring Update Tip/Tilt Stage v. DM



22- Jan- 07    4    Keck Performanc e Budgets Continuous Sc i. Field Photometric Budget           Tel Wavefr Errors                                   LOWFS Num & Type
                                                  Operations Arc h. I    Astrometric Budget                                                           HOWFS Num & Type
                                                                         High- c ontrast Budget
                                                                         Polarimetric Budget
                                                                         Throughput Budget

7- Mar- 07     5    Video SRD II                  K- & L- band Sc ienc e SRD II                   AM2                     NGAO vs Upgrades
                          Various TS's            GLAO for non- AO                                Optic al Relay

18- Apr- 07    6    UCSC Various TS's             d- IFU Opt Sampling                             Field Rotat. Strategy                               Foc us Compens.
                                                  Risk Analysis I                                 Enc l/Relay Temp.

30- May- 07    7    Video Software Review I       Operations Tools I                              Laser Enc losure        Software Arc hitec ture     Slow WFS
                          SRD IV                                                                                                                      Centroid Anisoplan



 9- Jul- 07    8    UCSC 5- day Retreat                                  SRD III                  Sc i Path Opt Des I     Non- real- time Softwr I    HOWFS I
                                                                                                  Mec h Struc ture I                                  LOWFS II

22- Aug- 07    9    Video Cost Review I           Cost Estimate I        Subsystem Test Plans                             Elec tronic s I             Real- time Control I
                                                                         SDM I

13- Sep- 07    10    CIT Infrastruc ture I                                                        Sc i Path Opt Des II
                                                                                                  Mec h Struc ture II

5- Nov- 07     11   Video Software Review II      Operations Tools II    SDM II                                           Non- real- time Softwr II

12- Dec - 07   12   Keck 3- day Meeting           Risk Analysis II       Integr. & Test Plan I                            Elec tronic s II            HO WFS II
                            Cost Review II        Cost Estimate II                                                                                    LO WFS II

 9- Jan- 08    13   Video SDR Preparation         SDR Prep               SDR Prep                 SDR Prep                SDR Prep                    SDR Prep
                          Prelim. Design Prop.                           SRD IV

4- Feb- 08     14   Keck SDR                                                                                                           SDR


 4- Apr- 08    15   TBD Prelim. Design Kic koff                                                   Sc i Path Opt Des III                               Real- time Control II
                                                                                                  Mec h Struc ture III
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           WBS 2 System Requirements
2.1 Science Requirements
2.2 Observatory Requirements
2.3 System Requirements Document




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           WBS 3 System Design Approach
3.1 System Engineering
3.2 AO System
3.3 Laser Facility
3.4 Operations Tools
3.5 Science Instruments
3.6 System Design Manual




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     WBS 4 System Engineering Management Plan

4.1 Project Plan
4.2 Risk Assessment & Management Plan
4.3 Preliminary Design Phase Plan
4.4 Integration & Test Plans
4.5 Configuration Management Plan
4.6 Project Management Plan
4.7 System Engineering Management Plan



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W. M. Keck Observatory

      Keck Next Generation AO



       System Requirements Development:
            Science Requirements &
             Performance Budgets



                       P. Wizinowich
                for NGAO Executive Committee
Keck NGAO

Science Requirements & Performance Budgets
The science & user requirements drive the performance
budgets & hence the design
As a 1st step we want to identify the biggest terms in the
performance budgets & the biggest levers on the design
Our approach for each performance budget:
 –   Select the science case(s) that most drive the budget
 –   Develop the science requirements from the science case
 –   Develop the elements of the performance budget
 –   Validate models & assumptions that have a big impact
 –   Develop predictions from the budgets (i.e., PSFs, backgrounds, etc.)
 –   Use predictions to test whether science case needs achieved
 –   Iterate until science case & performance budget achieved
Good iteration on the wavefront error budget produced for
proposal. All other performance budgets need a 1st iteration.

 9/14/06                       NGAO Irvine Meeting                      33
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                Example: Wavefront Error Budget

           Science Case           AO       Seeing      Field of       RMS        NGS mag or
     (typically under median     mode                    View      Wavefront    Sky Coverage
            conditions)                                (arcsec)    Error (nm)     at H-band
"Best-conditions" narrow-field   5 LGS    Superior         2"         93            20%
Io                               1 NGS     Median          1"         125         mV = 5.5
Kuiper Belt Object (KBO)         5 LGS     Median          2"         131        mH = 15.75
Galactic Center (GC)             5 LGS     Median         10"         182       mH=8.8 (IRS7)
Field Galaxies (sky-average)     5 LGS     Median          2"     173 + 6 mas       30%
Field Galaxies (d-IFU case)      5 LGS     Median          2"     173+30 mas        90%
GOODS-N Field                    5 LGS     Median          2"     218+16 mas     20% of G-N
GOODS-N Field (d-IFU case)       5 LGS     Median          2”     H-band FWHM    75% of G-N
                                                                    50mas




     9/14/06                             NGAO Irvine Meeting                              34
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Example: Wavefront Error Budget for KBO case




 9/14/06          NGAO Irvine Meeting    35
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                             Science Requirements Overview
                                                                                  Imaging         Spectroscopy        Tiptilt stars
                                                   FOV                  # of
        Science Case                      (m)           Mag limit           Image    Phot     Spec Spec Res        On-      Off-              Special Reqs
                                                    (")                Targs    SNR     error    SNR     (   )   axis:     axis:
                                                                                       (mag)                         mag      sky %
            Solar System
Multiple Asteroidal Systems
  Main Belt multiples                   0.7-2.4     3      V= 7-17     100      100     0.05       -        -        V< 17      -      service observing
  TNO multiples                         1.1-2.4     3      V= 19-21     60       40     0.05      20       400       V< 17     30      service observing
  Size & shape                          0.7-2.4     2      V= 7-17     300      100      0.1       -        -        V< 17      -      service observing
  Moonlet spectroscopy                  0.7-2.4     2      V= 7-17     ~ 85     100      0.1      20       400       V< 17      -
Giant Planet Satellites
  Titan surface & atmosphere            0.83-2.4    2        V= 8        1      200     0.05     100      1000        V= 8      -
  Io volcanism                           0.7-5.3    3        V= 5        1      200     0.05     100      1000        V= 5     any     service observing - thermal IR
               Galactic
Galactic Center Dynamics
  Astrometry                            1.5-2.4     10      K= 18       1       tbd     0.02       -        -        H= 8.8     -      Astrometry: 10 mas
  Radial Velocities                     1.5-2.4      1      K= 18       1       tbd       -      100     4K/15K      H= 8.8     -
Debris Disks                            0.7-3.8    < 20    (H)< 20     50      20      0.02      20      100        V= 4-20    -      High contrast; PSF knowledge
Direct Imaging of Planets
  Around VLM stars & brown dwarfs       0.9-3.8     2      J= 13-25    300      20      0.05      20       100       H< 15     30      High contrast
  Around very young stars               0.9-3.8     2      J= 13-25    300      20      0.05      20       100       R< 19     30      High contrast
Protostars
  Circumstellar Environment             0.6-13     < 30     I= 9-24    200      30      0.03      50        3K          -      30      Polarimetry
  Outflow kinematics                    0.6-2.2    < 30     I= 9-24     50       -        -       50       20K          -      30
            Extragalactic
AGNs & Supermassive BHs
  BH mass determinations                0.8-2.4     10      R= 16        50      -        -       30        5K          -      30
  AGN/QSO host galaxies                 0.8-2.4     10      K= 20       200     20      0.05      30       > 3K         -      30      Some Multiplexed spectroscopy
High-z Field Galaxies                   0.7-2.4    > 120    K= 22      1000s    20      0.05      20      > 3.5K        -      30      Multiplexed spectroscopy
Gravitational Lensing
  Cluster lensing                       0.9-2.4    > 60     H= 24      200       5     0.1-0.2    20       > 3K         -      30      Multiplexed spectroscopy
  Galaxy-galaxy lensing                 0.9-2.4     4       H= 24       50       5     0.1-0.2    20       > 3K         -      30


        9/14/06
        Critical performance metrics:                                  NGAO Irvine Meeting                                                                  36
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             Science Requirements Overview

                           Parameter Space of Possible AO Systems
                  Optical        Near-IR        Thermal-NIR       High      Wide-Field,
                narrow field,   narrow field,    narrow field,   Contrast   Multi-Object
                modest Strehl    high Strehl     v.high Strehl

Solar System        Key             Yes                  Yes      Maybe          -



  Galactic           Yes            Key              Maybe         Key           -



Extragalactic       Key             Key                   -        Yes          Key




 9/14/06                           NGAO Irvine Meeting                               37
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               Science Requirements Overview

                  Prioritized List of Science Instruments
       Solar System                Galactic               Extragalactic
1. VIS Cam               1. NIR Cam + coronagraph    1. d-IFU-NIR: R~3000

2. NIR Cam               2. IFU-NIR: R~100, 3000     2. NIR Cam

3. IFU-NIR: R~400-1000   3. VIS Cam                  3. IFU-VIS: R~5000

4. Thermal NIR Cam       4. Thermal NIR Cam          4. VIS Cam
5. IFU-VIS: R~400-1000   5. IFU-VIS: R~100, 3000     5. Thermal NIR Cam

6. d-IFU-NIR             6. d-IFU-NIR




  9/14/06                      NGAO Irvine Meeting                        38
W. M. Keck Observatory

      Keck Next Generation AO




            Astrometry Performance Budget




                         P. Wizinowich
Keck NGAO

    Current Keck AO Astrometry Performance
   Galactic Center – 250 arcsec
   with NIRC2 (Ghez)

   < 20 arcsec spectro-astrometry
   precision with NIRC2 (Ireland)




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                 Predicted Keck Interferometer
                   Astrometry Performance
Differential Interferometric                          Error Term           RMS error
                                                                             (µas)
   Astrometry
    – Angle = OPD/Baseline            Atmosphere - turbulence                9.72
    – Assumptions: IRS7 for           Atmosphere - dispersion                8.51
      phase referencing, K=16         Baseline - noise                       6.59
      science object, 20 min
                                      Baseline - solution                    2.31
      integration
                                      Metrology - sampling                   4.85
  Goals:
                                      Metrology - alignment                  5.10
    – 100 arcsec for
      exoplanets                      Metrology - laser stability            1.46
    – 30 arcsec for Galactic         Metrology - thermal                    6.07
      Center                          Fringe detection - non-linearities     8.49
  PTI demo:                           Photon noise - reference target        0.09
    – 10 arcsec for <4thmag          Photon noise - science target          5.58
      binaries separated by 1”
                                                 Total rms error =           20.18
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            AO Astrometry Performance Budget

                                               Error Term        RMS error
As a starting point                                                (µas)
                               Atmosphere - turbulence
                               Atmosphere - dispersion
  What other terms
  should be                    AO distortion
                               Camera distortion
  considered?
                               Centroiding


  What is needed for
  the Galactic Center?         Photon noise - reference target
                               Photon noise - science target
                                          Total rms error =
  9/14/06                NGAO Irvine Meeting                          42

								
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