Levels of Organization by HC12110420476

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									5 Levels of Organization




        Pages 524-525
        5 Levels of Organization
Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organ Systems

Organism
                     Cells
• Cells are the smallest
  level of organization
  in living things.
                        Tissue
• Cells + Cells = Tissue

• There are 4 types of tissue
  in your body:
  –   Connective (bone, blood)
  –   Nerve
  –   Epithelial (skin, linings)
  –   Muscle
                      Organ
• Tissue + Tissue = Organ

• Organs are what we
  usually think about when
  we think about parts of
  the body
                   Organ
• Connective tissue
  makes up organs like
  the bones, blood
  vessels, tendons,
  ligaments, etc…
                     Organ
• Nerve Tissue Makes
  up organs like the
  brain, spinal cord, and
  nerves.
                   Organ
• Epithelial Tissue
  makes up organs like
  the skin, hair, and
  fingernails
                  Organ
• Muscle tissue makes
  up organs like the
  heart, stomach,
  kidneys, lungs,
  biceps, etc…
             Organ System
• Organ + Organ =
  Organ System

• You have 11 organ
  systems in your body.
11 organ systems of the body
                  Organ Systems
• 1- Integumentary System
• The integumentary system
  is a temperature regulator,
  sensory system, and
  protects the organism. (first
  line of defense.)
• Skin, hair, and fingernails
  are some organs that make
  up the integumentary
  system.
                      Organ Systems
• Integumentary system facts:
   – Skin is the largest organ in your
     body.
   – Skin is 16% of your body
     weight
   – You completely replace your
     skin cells about once per
     month.
   – About 90% of dust in your
     house is dead skin cells.
   – Hair is the fastest growing
     organ in the body
   – Average #s of hairs:
       • redheads= 80,000
       • Brown/black = 100,000
       • Blondes = 120,000
   – Fingernails grow faster during
     the summer and on your
     dominant hand.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your integumentary
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
           Organ Systems
• 2- Muscular system
• The muscular system
  allows us to move
• Biceps, triceps,
  hamstring, and
  quadriceps, are all
  organs in the
  muscular system.
                 Organ Systems
• Muscular system facts:
   – The busiest muscles in
     your muscular system are
     your eyes. They move
     more than 100,000 times
     per day!
   – The largest muscle in your
     body is the gluteus
     maximus
   – It takes 17 muscles to
     smile and 42 to frown.
   – Muscles can’t push, they
     can only pull.
   – Muscles can’t function
     without calcium.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your muscular
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
            Organ Systems
• 3- Skeletal system
• The skeletal system
  provides support and
  protection for vital
  organs.
• Bones, ligaments,
  and tendons are
  some organs that
  make up a skeletal
  system.
                    Organ Systems
• Skeletal system facts:
   – Your body has about 206
     bones although you were born
     with over 300 bones.
   – You have the same number of
     bones in your neck as a
     giraffe does!
   – Bone marrow makes blood
     cells, but bones are alive, and
     would die without blood.
   – The longest bone in your body
     is your femur. (Thigh)
   – Your bones are about 60%
     calcium compounds.
   – Over half of the bones in your
     entire body are in your hands
     and feet.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your skeletal system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
             Organ Systems
• 4- Nervous system
• The nervous system
  sends messages that
  control body functions
• The brain, spinal
  cord, and nerves are
  some organs in the
  nervous system.
                  Organ Systems
• Nervous system facts:
   – Your nervous system
     functions using electricity.
   – Messages can travel
     through your neurons at
     speeds of 250 mph!
   – The avg. # of neurons in a
     human brain is 100 billion.
   – The longest neuron (nerve
     cell) known to man is 15
     feet long (in a giraffe leg).
   – If you lined up all the
     neurons in your body, it
     would stretch 600 miles!
   – An adult human brain
     weighs about 3 pounds.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your nervous system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
              Organ Systems
• 5- Endocrine System
• The endocrine system
  produces chemicals
  that control the body
  (ex. Hormones)
• The adrenal glands,
  pituitary gland (in
  brain), thyroid, and
  pancreas are all organs
  in the endocrine
  system.
                    Organ Systems
• Endocrine system facts:
   – Steroids, insulin, and
     adrenaline are 3 of the 30
     hormones made by your
     body.
   – It only takes a tiny bit of a
     hormone to cause a very
     large reaction
   – Physical growth, hyperactivity,
     depression, stress, hunger
     and many other emotions are
     linked to hormone production.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your endocrine
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
                 Organ Systems
• 6- Cardiovascular system
  (circulatory)
• The cardiovascular system
  carries food and oxygen to
  the cells, and carries
  carbon dioxide away from
  the cells.
• Your heart, arteries, veins,
  and capillaries, are organs
  in the cardiovascular
  system.
                     Organ Systems
• Cardiovascular system facts:
   – The heart beats about
     3,000,000,000 times during an
     average lifetime.
   – You have thousands of miles of
     blood vessels and arteries in your
     body. (you could wrap them
     around the world twice.
   – You have about 5 million red
     blood cells, 10,000 white blood
     cells, and 250,000 platelets in 1
     drop of blood.
   – Arteries take blood away from the
     heart, and veins return it to the
     heart.
   – Moving helps return blood to your
     heart
   – You do NOT have blue blood!
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your cardiovascular
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
              Organ Systems
• 7- Lymphatic system
   (Immune system)
• The lymphatic system
  returns leaked fluids to
  blood vessels, and
  helps fight off germs.
• Lymph nodes, lymph
  vessels, thymus,
  spleen, and tonsils are
  all organs in the
  lymphatic system.
                  Organ Systems
• Lymphatic system facts:
   – Your lymph system releases
     white blood cells to fight off
     infection.
   – Your lymph nodes swell up
     when the fill up with white
     blood cells (when you are
     sick)
   – Your spleen helps break down
     and recycle RBCs.
   – Your lymph system returns
     about ½ cup of lymph fluid to
     the heart per hour.
   – Domestic birds don’t have
     lymph nodes.
   – Most of your lymph nodes are
     in your armpits, neck, and
     groin.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your lymph system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
             Organ Systems
• 8- Respiratory system
• The respiratory system
  exchanges oxygen for
  carbon dioxide. (O2 in
  and CO2 out).
• Lungs, Bronchi,
  trachea, and
  diaphragm are all
  organs in the
  respiratory system.
                 Organ Systems
• Respiratory system facts:
   – You breathe in 21%
     oxygen and .4% Carbon
     dioxide, you breathe out
     16% oxygen and 4%
     carbon dioxide.
   – You have the same surface
     area on you lungs as a
     tennis court.
   – You breathe out about ½ of
     a liter of water per day.
   – Your right lung is slightly
     larger than your left.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your respiratory
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
             Organ Systems
• 9- Digestive System
• The digestive system
  breaks food down into
  nutrients that can be
  absorbed by the
  body.
• The mouth, liver,
  stomach, and
  intestines are some of
  the organs in the
  digestive system.
                 Organ Systems
• Digestive system facts:
   – The average stomach can
     hold about 1.5 liters of
     food.
   – Your intestines are lined
     with tiny projections called
     villi. They increase the
     surface area of your
     intestines so you can
     absorb as much as
     possible.
   – Your intestines are about
     15 meters long!
   – Food stays in your stomach
     for 2-4 hours.
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your digestive
  system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
              Organ Systems
•   10- Urinary System
     (excretory)
•   The urinary system
    removes waste from the
    blood and regulates
    body fluids.
•   Kidneys, ureters, and
    the bladder are all
    organs in the urinary
    system.
                 Organ Systems
• Urinary system facts:
   – Your bladder can hold
     about 400 ml of urine.
   – The blood in your body
     passes through each
     kidney 400 times per day.
   – The kidneys use osmosis
     to control the amount of
     water in the blood.
   – Caffeine and alcohol are
     diuretics, which means that
     they suppress the part of
     your brain that tells your
     body that you need to
     retain water. (increases
     urination - dehydration)
            Organ Systems
• How would your life
  be different without
  your urinary system?
• How long do you think
  you could survive?
             Organ Systems
• 11- Reproductive
  system
• The reproductive
  system enables the
  organism to produce
  offspring
• Ovaries and uterus in
  a female and testes in
  a male are organs in
  the reproductive
  system.
                  Organ Systems
• Reproductive system
  facts:
   – The largest cell in the
     human female body is the
     egg in the ovaries.
   – An adult male makes about
     500 million sperm per day.
     A female is born with about
     600,000 immature eggs.
   – A female body is capable
     of giving birth to 35 children
     in her lifetime.
            Organ Systems
• Which organ system
  do you think is most
  important?
• Which organ systems
  couldn’t function
  without other organ
  systems?
               Quiz time!
• Which level of organization do each of the
  following pictures belong to?
Quiz time!
Quiz time!
Quiz time!
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Quiz time!
Quiz time!

								
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