Jack Winograd, Monica Krin, Emily Kim, Kayla Gonik, Jared Miller 10/19/12 C) How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the late nineteenth century? During the 19th century the Monroe Doctrine became the basis of American foreign policy. John Quincy Adams, James Monroe’s Secretary of State, was afraid Spain would try to reconquer its colonies in Latin America. This fear reflected Americas concern about European intervention in the western hemisphere. The United States declared their independence from other european imperializing powers through the monroe doctrine. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine states that the U.S. will not be involved in any European conflicts, European nations should not interfere with the recently indpendent nations of Latin America, and the U.S. would defend itself against any imperializing efforts by other countries. The monroe doctrine justified America’s colonizing attempts on nations within the Western Hemsiphere. Prominent examples include Alaska, Spanish colonies such as Puerto Rico and Cuba, and Venezuela. During America’s vast expansion throughout the Western Hemisphere, the Monroe Doctrine served as a justification for annexaing and purchasing new territories. BODY 1- ALASKA - -bought in 1867 - -proposed by William Seward, purchased from Russia - -nicknamed Seward’s icebox - -signified America’s rise as a world power - -the monroe doctrine justified the purchase of alaska because it removed another european power from american politics - -the initial purchase of alaska justified by the monroe doctrine set a precedent for all other American acquisitions BODY 2- SPANISH COLONIES - Spain repressed the rights of the people in its colonies - American populists supported against spain - Annexation rather than independence after the war - Colonies felt threatened by european powers breaking the monroe doctrine - The Maine, final straw for intervention with Spain BODY 3- VENEZUELA - Called the “iron-fisted neighbor” because financially troubled govt and established a pattern of american intervention - Due to the corrupt govt, Ven. renege/accumulated debts from european bankers - The us sympathized with venezula and other latin american colonies because britain, italy and germany blockaded the coasts in response to the debts - 1822 monroe admin first govt to openly recognize venezuela as independent nation - Roosevelt corallary, us willing to go to war with any aggressive europeans in the new world/western hem. CONCLUSION Once to protect nations within the Western hemishphere, The Monroe Doctrine later served to support american imperialists, spread democracy, and promote American ideals. CRITIQUE (by Group A) - You don’t need that much background information in the introduction - Improve thesis lacks “how” part of question—make sure you address the entire question - Relate body paragraphs to thesis Jen, Veda, Ari, Ankush, Brigette The concept of Manifest Destiny was prevalent in both the 1840’s and 1890’s. A central idea to this perception was the desire to expand and acquire more resources, capital, and power. Also, Americans thought that they were superior to other races and believed it was their “destiny” to civilize them. During these two periods, the anti-expansionist groups of the respective periods argued different points against the concept of Manifest Destiny. Additionally, in the 1840’s arguments for Manifest Destiny were concentrated on the expansion of slavery and mainly American property for settlement. However, the 1890’s interest in Manifest Destiny focused on commercial interests, and transitioning America into a world power. The Americans in both time periods both believed that manifest destiny was the way to improve and grow as a nation, and both shared similarities as well as differences in the arguments for and against expansion. Body Paragraph 1: Topic Setence: In order to gain power by expanding their markets, Americans moved farther West and into new nations. Texas: Trying to use this new land for the growth of cotton/new markets Hawaii: They take up Hawaii for the same reasons as Texas: grow new cash crops such as sugar and pinapples Both are trying to get new markets o 1840’s new railroads and technologiesthe east could now transfer there goods to the west o 1890’s new markets through Samoa which would open it up to Asian markets o 1840’s: new fur trade markets o 1890’s: the expansion of new businesses/corporations wanted new locations to sell and expand their goods: Rockerfeller and the Standard Oil Company To become a world power they believed the economy needed to expand and flourish They wanted to beat other world powers who were expanding as well o Spanish American War (Cuban Revolt, The Maine) o “Beat” England, France, Japan, Germany Body Paragraph 2: Topic Sentence: The desire to conquoer and assimilate other peoples spurred the idea of Manifest Destiny. In the 1890’s America was already trying to assimilate the immigrants in various ways: settlement houses/study of eugenics (using “science” to figure out which people were the most likely to assimilate” Book Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis: said that Americans should spread Chrisitianity to the worldspread anglo-saxon ideas; Political Science and Comparative Law: anglo saxons have the duty to uplift less fortunate poeople 1840’s: Oregon had missionaries who wanted to spread Christianity Body Paragraph 3: 1890’s believed that this would help the Republican party if they accomplished taking over Phillipines and other nations Anti Imperialist League in the 1890’s 1840’s: wanted land to either spread or prevent the expansion of slavery Group: Kimia Zehtab Jihoon Choi Philip Peker Liz DelTufo Emilie McDonald Question: Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract widespread support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists Critique: Stan, Jared It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress the ANIT IMPERIALIST views Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis. Show unifying trend throughout ideas. Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American people’s response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people that would support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded by Eugene Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional capitalist foundation America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on, represented by the Anti-Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support, because it could not compete with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative government, the radicalism of groups such as the Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably isolated them from popular opinion, and thus severely limited their ballot strength and power in the ever evolving political scene. anti-imperialists Imperialist Views expanding for economics increasing importance of foreign trade it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines) everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the race Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world Failures The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries socialists Eugene V. Debs Robert LaFollete The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from voters Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major influence in gov’t) Opposition to World War I reduced support Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not appealing to the general society Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during the late 19th and early 20th century. I. Throughout the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, industrialism was dominated mainly by Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller; corrupted monopolies were present throughout America. Because of such, reform in the United States was imminent, and was mostly spearheaded by Progessivists. Among those in the Progressive movement were muckrakers and yellow journalists, both of which investigated and exposed the political, social, and economical injustices through their publications which resulted in reform. II. Muckrakers a. Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens in the McClure’s Magazine i. Ida Tarbell – exposing the illegal economic deals within Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company ii. Lincoln Steffens – party bosses and business leaders and their role in political corruption b. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle i. Unsanitary slaughter houses and the sale of rotten meat; led Teddy Roosevelt to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. c. Theodore Dresier’s Sister Carrie (1900) i. Traced a hopeful young woman’s descent into prostitution in Chicago. d. Through all of this, it is seen that the Muckrakers continued to write about both the social and economic flaws in American society; not just in the upper class but the middle class and laborers. These publications exposed the underside of American life III. Yellow journalism a. Spanish American War i. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer tried to appeal to lower classes; fused the penny press with agressiveness ii. Supported Cuba; refused to write about the atrocities that the Cubans committed. Exaggerated the acts of the Spanish. 1. Concentration camps; exaggerated the conditions and the intents of the leaders in order to gain more readers. 2. Supported the Cuba Libre cause to establish Cuba as an independent, sovereign nation from the reigns of Spain. iii. Yellow Journalists exaggerated the explosion of the Maine automatically proclaiming it an offensive act by the Spanish and advocated for war against Spain. IV. Conclusion a. Through the social, political, and economical injustices in the late 1800’s, Muckrakers and yellow journalists began to expose not only domestic affairs, but international events as well. This led to reform and war. Critiqued By Alex Tran, Cole Friedfertig, and Chase Madorsky Expand on intro paragraph with more background information. (Ex. Examples of monopolies and economic corruption. Bring up JP Morgan, more corrupt than Carnegie and Rockefeller.) Discuss how muckrakers lead to decline of party bosses and political machines. Discuss why Yellow Journalists exaggerated the news and how they felt it would benefit their respective newspapers. Alex, Cole & Chase How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the late nineteenth century? Dating back to it’s victory for independence in the revolutionary war, America has always been concerned about European colonization in the western hemisphere. As a former colony, America wanted to ensure that Europe would not intervene in the affairs of any western territory, ensuring that nobody would face harsh colonization, much like the Americans did with Britain. In 1823, John Quincy Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents could not be colonized by Europe, as it would be considered a threat to the sovereignty of America and an unfriendly act. The document, which was drafted out of American fear of England occupying Cuba and Spain attempting to regain their lost empire, would remain relevant throughout the late 19th century. The end of the 19th century found European nations vying to expand into and colonize carribean islands off the coast of America. The Monroe Doctrine was now brought into play years after it was drafted as America was forced to wage war upon Spain for their occupation of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Through the desire to prevent Europe from colonizing in the western hemisphere, as well as the desire to expand the American empire, the Monroe Doctrine became the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the late 19th century. Body Paragraph #1- Preventing European Colonization America fights in the Spanish-American War against Spain in 1898. Spain under Commander Valeriano Weyler takes control of Cuba, forcing cuban civilians into containment camps. Spain refuses to reach armistice with Cuban rebels and America, refusing to leave Cuba. In light of Maine incident, congress unanimously agrees to wage war on Spain. Spanish in control of Puerto Rico since 1508. Refuses to grant sovereignty to Puerto Rico through 1900. Americans intervene and occupy Puerto Rico as a territory, eliminating any Spanish influence in the western hemisphere. Samoa was being occupied by the British, the German, and the US. US gets Pago Pago under Hayes administration in 1878. 3 Nations quarrel over the islands for 10 years, almost leading to war. Leads to a protectorate split amongst all three nations. Later on, in 1899, the US divide lands with Germany, British are compensated with other Pacific Islands. Body Paragraph #2-Ameriacn Expansion Puerto Rico is given a 2 chamber legislature, with one representative directly elected by the people, as well as an American representative. America takes Puerto Rico as its own territory, allowing sugar trade between the two regions due to removal of tariffs for Puerto Rico to trade with America, as well as Americans not having to pay taxes for Puerto Rican sugar. Americans kept some Samoan Islands for access to Asian and Australian markets. Also gave America a new port to dock in while involved in pacific trade. Through Cuban Independence, America gains Guam and Puerto Rico as territories from Spain. It also allows american occupation of manila in the philippines due to agreement between America, Spain and Cuba through armistice. America establishes platt amendment which prevented Cuba from making treaties with other countries and allowed the Americans to intervene in Cuba to preserve independence and democracy. Cuba now forced to permit American Naval stations on its territory, allowing American influence into the country. Conclusion: Although the Americans were able to keep their word by keeping European powers out of the western hemisphere, they were a hypocrisy. Despite this, the Monroe Doctrine and it’s principles allowed the expansion of the American empire and the diversification of its people, it’s economy, and it’s culture. Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola’s critique 1. Be more concise 2. Talk more about why Monroe doctrine was drafted 3. Grammar mistakes Kevin Park, Susan & Sihan Outline: Dicuss the Impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic policy 1870- 1914 INTRO- During an era plagued by panic, economic instability, and racial injustice, a new ideology, Social Darwinism, gripped the nation in an attempt to rationalize the horrid conditions of a once great nation. Curiously, the term was coined by opponents of Social Darwinism in 1877 as an attempt to establish the illogical fallacies and contradictions that fueled the movement; despite heavy resistance, the social, economical, and political influences of this revolutionary ideal slowly devoured, piece by piece, the traditions and guide lines of American society, leaving a dark stain upon the proud history of United States. During the period of 1870 to 1914, social Darwinism had numerous impacts on America, including changing view of immigrant, new political reforms, expansion, foreign policy, and other political, economic, and social effects. Economical - Panic of 1873 - Spurred Nothern industrialism. Found explanation for poverty and instability. Using explanation of Social Darwinism blamed poor blacks in South and the unemployed in North. Herbert Spencer – Elimination of the unfit, and the survival of the strong is essential to society. Rockefeller – The growth of the large business is from the survival of the fittest and not from evil tendencies. IT IS A LAW OF NATURE. Andrew Carnegie – Self- Made Man. Those who failed have no one else to blame but themselves. Social – New Manifest Destiny · Strong nations needed to dominate weaker ones and help them because they struggle constantly to survive · John Fiske—white subjugation of natives of the US in the past was a sign that they needed to expand to other parts of the world · Josiah Strong—Anglo-Saxon race had great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity needed to be spread all over the world · Alfred Thayer Mahan—countries with sea power were the great nations of historyàgov. launched shipbuilding program 1898 Political – Post Reconstruction. Social Darwinism encouraged critique of government intervention: Social and economic aid. Weakened commitment to reconstruction. Land redistribution, Election of 1900 – Bryan support the referendum of the annexation of the Philippines. Pointing out the annexation has become a serious issue. Annexation = Social Darwinism, Americans are naturally superior and should subjugate lesser/unsophisticated dudessss CONCLUSION · It was a way for the US to justify advocating Imperialism but later on, the US struggled to keep a hold of their colonies. Caused major economic reform because social Darwinism was a justification of monopolies. Critique GROUP D: ADAM, SARRA, RACHEL, EMILY The Introduction, specifically the first two sentences, has too many lists and information to absorb by the reader. In other words, Group B needs to simplify their ideas because an introduction’s purpose is only to introduce the setting, main points and thesis. The thesis has too many examples and should be a broader idea with the impacts of the effects. For example, don’t say other political, economic and social effects. Marla Georges, Lauren Naphtali, Joanie Gilliland Mr. McCulley AP USII 20 October 2012 Essay Question Prompt: Discuss the impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic. (1870-1914) Intro: During the late 19th and early 20th century, the belief in Social Darwinism greatly influenced American society. Darwinism, the application of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection to human society, by individuals such as Herbert Spencer and William Sumner, spurred the concept of survival of the fittest. As a result it was an excuse often used from justification purposes. The KKK earlier on used it to justify their discrimination and hate crimes; whites are superior and the fittest. It was also used by business tycoons such as Rockefeller and Carnegie to justify their tactics; if your business failed it was because you weren’t among the fittest. Later on this same application of Darwinism was used as a justification for U.S imperialist expansion of foreign islands; since the fittest survive strong nations dominating weaker ones was in accordance with nature. Throughout America in the 19th and 20th century Darwinism induced feelings of superiority in Americans and served as a justifying motive for their actions including discrimination, aggressive business methods, and imperialist expansion and as a result all of this impacted American foreign and domestic policy, and sparked changes that might not have occurred without its mitigating encouragement. Domestic – Social Darwinism KKK – believed that the white race was superior to all others; they were the fittest. Crudest and one of the earliest forms of SD. Lead to passing enforcement acts. Industrial tycoons like Rockefeller and Carnegie agreed because it justified business tactics – influential to society Led to trust and monopolies Eugenics – they thought that we were the superior race; they had to stop the “mongrelization” of the Anglo-Saxons – people of other races corrupted their “perfect race” Led to American superiority complex 1870-80 – Herbert Spencer – 1st to propose the idea of Social Darwinism and most prominent proponent William Graham Sumner – 1906 – Folkways – didn’t agree with everything Spencer said; agreed that individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, to compete, to succeed or to fail Foreign – Imperial Darwinism Social Darwinism was another justification of imperialism – they’re not as fit, so we should help and civilize them – Guam, Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba. Darwinism being applied to world affairs. Philosophical justification for expansionism in Charles Darwin’s theories – strong nations dominate the weak, because on the fittest can survive Led to new resources and luxury items; sugar. Also started war and caused much damage to island natives; disease and changed way of life. John Fiske – 1885 – Harper’s Magazine and John W. Burgess; because native people were inferior to the US, it was their “burden” to expand, and help the less fit evolve to their standard. The White Man’s Burden- Rudyard Kipling Josiah Strong – Our Country: Its possible Future and Its Present Crisis – it declared that Anglo Saxon race represented the great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity. Must keep them pure. Back to stopping mongrelization. Conclusion: Because SD justified so much Americans believed they had free reign to do more. This both helped and hurt American policy. KKK’s belief in SD led the gov‘t to pass enforcement acts, which aided black suffrage to an extent Led to monopolies and trust; hurt Americans economically and created bigger gap between rich and poor. Led to several depressions and fluctuating economic situations Supplied U.S. with new resources from foreign island and aided economy; at cost to native. Annexed Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba, and made Hawaii a state. Created new U.S. naval bases in Hawaii and Guam Brought U.S. into war with cost Ams resources and lives Whether it helped or hurt more is debatable. NOT CRITIQUED Group: Kimia Zehtab Jihoon Choi Philip Peker Liz DelTufo Emilie McDonald Question: Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract widespread support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists Critique: Stan, Jared It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress the ANIT IMPERIALIST views Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis. Show unifying trend throughout ideas. Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American people’s response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people that would support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded by Eugene Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional capitalist foundation America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on, represented by the Anti- Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support, because it could not compete with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative government, the radicalism of groups such as the Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably isolated them from popular opinion, and thus severely limited their ballot strength and power in the ever evolving political scene. anti-imperialists Imperialist Views ● expanding for economics ● increasing importance of foreign trade ● it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines) ● everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the race ● Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world Failures ● The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy ● yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries socialists ● Eugene V. Debs ● Robert LaFollete ● The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from voters ● Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major influence in gov’t) ● Opposition to World War I reduced support ● Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not appealing to the general society Sarra Son, Adam Brodkin, Rachel Geffner Group B Question: Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840’s with those that took place in the 1890’s, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras. what would justify manifest destiny 1840s-: religion and promote democracy, american nationalism, domestic 1890s- promote democracy and competition btw nations, economic expansion through trade and new market, imperialism and global Throughout the 19th century Americans debated justifications for expansion into new lands. In the 1840’s religion was a primary validation for expansion along with nationalism. Furthermore,the closing of the western frontier lead americans to look globablly to expand markets and compete with dominating European powers. However, both eras exemplified an emphasis on American superiority and the promotion of democracy. While manifest desitiny stressed the importance of nationalism and religion, the new era of imperialism focused on more secular justifications such as economic growth and political competition; the two periods were similar in their main idea of expanding and strengthening the country. Differences between 1840’s and 1890’s: Religion- “god given right to conquer the west” Mexican war – got California because settlers wanted to join the US (nationalism) o Bear Flag Revolution Monroe doctrine – Cuba and venezuela vs. Spain and Britian (economic expansion, didn’t want to lose trading rights with either countries and compeition btw nations, don’t want European powers to settle in western hemisphere) Mahan wrote book which lead people to believe that a great navy would lead to a more powerful country that would enable the US to conquer new markets and compete with european powers in the race for imperialism Similarities between 1840’s and 1890’s Texas wanted to join the US to have democracy Phillipeans and Hawaii developed a modern, democratic government because of the invasion of the US Political support for manisfest destiny, (Theodore roosevelt and Polk) Both included invasions of foreign countries Group E-8, Stan & Jared To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following?: Labor, Trusts, and Conservation 1. Intro Colonel Theodore Roosevelt emerged in the wake of the Spanish American War as a national hero capable of organizing large military and social interests. As President, Roosevelt wanted to increase the influence and prestige of the United States on the world stage, and believed that the exportation of American values and ideals would have an ennobling effect on the world. Theodore Roosevelt’s diplomatic maxim was to "speak softly and carry a big stick," and he maintained that a chief executive must be willing to use force when necessary while practicing the art of persuasion. He therefore sought to assemble a powerful and reliable defense for the United States to avoid conflicts with enemies who might prey on weakness. Furthermore, one of President Theodore Roosevelt's most lasting and significant contributions to the world was the permanent preservation of the some of the most unique natural resources of the United States. In 1905, President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed Gifford Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under Roosevelt’s direction, lands were reserved for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. Ultimately, the conservative progressive deservedly expanded the role of the executive branch in facilitating domestic and international affairs. 2. World Affairs Theodore Roosevelt inherited a growing overseas empire when he assumed office in 1901. After the Spanish-American War in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States. One of the situations that Roosevelt inherited upon taking office was governance of the Philippines, an island nation in Asia. During the Spanish-American War, the United States had taken control of the archipelago from Spain. When Roosevelt appointed William Howard Taft as the first civilian governor of the islands in 1901, Taft recommended the creation of a civil government with an elected legislative assembly. The Taft administration was able to negotiate with Congress for a bill that included a governor general, an independent judiciary, and the legislative assembly. The most spectacular of Roosevelt's foreign policy initiatives was the establishment of the Panama Canal. In 1901, the United States negotiated with Britain for the support of an American-controlled canal that would be constructed in Panama. In a flourish of closed-door maneuvers, the Senate approved a route through Panama, contingent upon Colombian approval. When Colombia balked at the terms of the agreement, the United States supported a Panamanian revolution with money and a naval blockade, the latter of which prevented Colombian troops from landing in Panama. In addition, the United States established a protectorate over Cuba and annexed Hawaii. 3. Conservation Some of Theodore Roosevelt's greatest accomplishments were in conservation. In 1905, President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed Gifford Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under TR's direction, lands were reserved for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. During Roosevelt's time as President, the forest reserves in the U.S. went from approximately 43-million acres to about 194-million acres. An important aspect of Roosevelt’s natural resource policy included public reclamation and irrigation projects, covered by the National Reclamation Act. Due to his commitment to protecting the natural beauty of the land and the health of its wildlife from human intrusion, Roosevelt added significantly to the disorganized National Park System, which aimed to protect public land from any exploitation or development. Parks created included Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Sequoia. Roosevelt championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a way to protect the landscape for continued, rational lumbering. 4. Conclusion Roosevelt, although often championed as the father of reform, actually supported progressive ideals for the sole purpose of preventing radical changes from sweeping society. Critique a. Can be condensed (too much fluff) b. It’s a little weird that you compare conservation to the panama canal c. Well organized and good factual details Period 7: Kishan, Gage, Julie Question: Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during the late 19th and early 20th century. During the late 19th century and early 20th century, journalism was experiencing an evolution in America that was unprecedented to any prior event. One faction of journalism sought out facts through extensive research, while the other used sensational headlines and exaggerated details to capture the attention of the audience. The Muckrakers targeted railroad trusts, monopolies, and party bosses through the use of political cartoons, newspaper articles, and magazine exposes. On the other hand, yellow journalists, such as Pulitzer, lured readers to topics which were previously unheard of through exciting headers and on-field reports. While their methods juxtaposed one another, yellow journalists and muckrakers accomplished their goals and were able to make a long lasting impact on society. Muckrakers: - Muckrakers used in-depth field research to expose the corruption of society, economic injustices of monopolies, and the political scandals of party bosses. - Evidence: o Ida Tarbell: One of the most influential muckrakers of her time. Exposed Rockefeller’s use of the Standard Oil monopoly to exploit railroads for better rates in her in McClure’s o Lincoln Steffens: He produces sentiment for urban reform and wrote for McClure’s. Books , Shame of the Cities, to attack municipal government. o Thomas Nast: Who was a political cartoons who targeted the Tammany Hall machine, specifically Boss Tweed, through political cartoons. Workers can understand cartoons o Jacob Riis: Book was How the Other Half Lives. Wrote on terrible conditions of tenements and the life of immigrants. Yellow Journalism: - Topic Sentence: yellow Journalists reported exaggerated news to lure in new readers on foreign and unknown topics. - Evidence: o Pulitzer: Wrote for New York World. Publicized the concentration camps in Cuba and the high sugar duties that were imposed on Cuba from Spain. Showed how Cubans were being tortured by Spaniards. Reported exaggerate accounts of “Butcher” Weyler cruelty. o There were exaggerated stories of kids being thrown to sharks and wells being poisoned. o Hearst: Wrote for New York Journal. Sent artist Remington to Cuba to illustrate reporter stories. Hearst Quote “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.” o James Creelman: One of the first human rights activist. Reporter for New York Journal. Recruited by Hearst. Conclusion: - The yellow journalists were effective in driving the United States into war with Spain after they created sentiment and sympathies for rebels in Cuba. Muckrakers were able to get laws passed, such as imitative and referendum, as well as direct primaries to circumvent the power of political machines. Ramita Gowda, Marisa Parnes, Sam Cherfas, Greg Vuong, David Shulman Period 7 10/19/12 Question E: To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following: Labor, Trusts, Conservation I. Opening Paragraph In the late nineteenth century, progressive sentiments swept the nation, and many Americans were eager for reform and growth of their society and nation. When Theodore Roosevelt assumed the presidency in 1901, the eclectic nature of his past experiences lent to his political ideology. Throughout his two-term presidency, Roosevelt would establish his domestic policy as a vehicle for both reforming and protecting American society from radical change. In his foreign policy, Roosevelt supported the demonstration of American power in his invervention of imperialist affairs. While he managed to preserve traditional American ideology, Roosevelt expanded the role of the federal government through regulation of domestic trusts and world affairs. II. Outline body paragraphs, 4 specifics each Topic sentence: Responding to international competition and growing European powers, Roosevelt sought to increase American global influence. - In 1902, as part of the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt annexed Cuba and forced the Platt Amendment upon the Cuban constitution. This amendment gave America many political and economic rights in Cuba, and prevented other foreign powers from intruding. - In 1902, Roosevelt sent troops to support a rebellion that broke out in Panama, which established a new government that supported work on the Panama Canal. - In dealing with competition for Latin American colonization, Roosevelt passed the Roosevelt Corollary, as a continuation of the Monroe Doctrine, to establish American domination of the western hemisphere. - He supported the expansion of the navy, and by 1906, the American navy was only surpassed by Great Britain. - In dealing with the Japanese threat in the Pacific, Roosevelt sent 16 battleships, known as the “Great White Fleet”, around the world in 1906 to demonstrate America’s strength to foreign communities. At the start of the 20th century, trusts controlled 4/5ths of the industries in the United States. - In his 1902 state of the union speech his initiative was “trust busting” – the breaking of monopolies - Roosevelt sought to limit the influence of manipulative trusts such as – Standard Oil, Northwestern securities, and the American Tobacco company(1911) through legislative measures such as the Sherman anti-trust act - “Square Deal” – denouncing of special treatment towards capitalists and large monopolizing businesses during his speaking tour to the nation in 1902 - In his second term as president he saw corporate regulation as a more effective method than trust busting monopolies and this was the underlying cause of the 1906 Hepburn act. Conclusion: Theodore Roosevelt advocated cautious domestic reform and similarly, he increased American involvement in foreign affairs. Roosevelt’s decisions and actions as president helped establish the United States as a world power.
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