Jack Winograd, Monica Krin, Emily Kim, Kayla Gonik, Jared Miller 10/19/12
C) How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the
late nineteenth century?
During the 19th century the Monroe Doctrine became the basis of American foreign policy. John
Quincy Adams, James Monroe’s Secretary of State, was afraid Spain would try to reconquer its colonies
in Latin America. This fear reflected Americas concern about European intervention in the western
hemisphere. The United States declared their independence from other european imperializing powers
through the monroe doctrine. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine states that the U.S. will not be involved in any
European conflicts, European nations should not interfere with the recently indpendent nations of Latin
America, and the U.S. would defend itself against any imperializing efforts by other countries. The
monroe doctrine justified America’s colonizing attempts on nations within the Western Hemsiphere.
Prominent examples include Alaska, Spanish colonies such as Puerto Rico and Cuba, and Venezuela.
During America’s vast expansion throughout the Western Hemisphere, the Monroe Doctrine served as a
justification for annexaing and purchasing new territories.
BODY 1- ALASKA
- -bought in 1867
- -proposed by William Seward, purchased from Russia
- -nicknamed Seward’s icebox
- -signified America’s rise as a world power
- -the monroe doctrine justified the purchase of alaska because it removed another european
power from american politics
- -the initial purchase of alaska justified by the monroe doctrine set a precedent for all other
BODY 2- SPANISH COLONIES
- Spain repressed the rights of the people in its colonies
- American populists supported against spain
- Annexation rather than independence after the war
- Colonies felt threatened by european powers breaking the monroe doctrine
- The Maine, final straw for intervention with Spain
BODY 3- VENEZUELA
- Called the “iron-fisted neighbor” because financially troubled govt and established a pattern of
- Due to the corrupt govt, Ven. renege/accumulated debts from european bankers
- The us sympathized with venezula and other latin american colonies because britain, italy and
germany blockaded the coasts in response to the debts
- 1822 monroe admin first govt to openly recognize venezuela as independent nation
- Roosevelt corallary, us willing to go to war with any aggressive europeans in the new
Once to protect nations within the Western hemishphere, The Monroe Doctrine later served to support
american imperialists, spread democracy, and promote American ideals.
CRITIQUE (by Group A)
- You don’t need that much background information in the introduction
- Improve thesis lacks “how” part of question—make sure you address the entire question
- Relate body paragraphs to thesis
Jen, Veda, Ari, Ankush, Brigette
The concept of Manifest Destiny was prevalent in both the 1840’s and 1890’s. A central
idea to this perception was the desire to expand and acquire more resources, capital, and power.
Also, Americans thought that they were superior to other races and believed it was their
“destiny” to civilize them. During these two periods, the anti-expansionist groups of the
respective periods argued different points against the concept of Manifest Destiny. Additionally,
in the 1840’s arguments for Manifest Destiny were concentrated on the expansion of slavery and
mainly American property for settlement. However, the 1890’s interest in Manifest Destiny
focused on commercial interests, and transitioning America into a world power. The Americans
in both time periods both believed that manifest destiny was the way to improve and grow as a
nation, and both shared similarities as well as differences in the arguments for and against
Body Paragraph 1:
Topic Setence: In order to gain power by expanding their markets, Americans moved farther
West and into new nations.
Texas: Trying to use this new land for the growth of cotton/new markets
Hawaii: They take up Hawaii for the same reasons as Texas: grow new cash crops such
as sugar and pinapples
Both are trying to get new markets
o 1840’s new railroads and technologiesthe east could now transfer there
goods to the west
o 1890’s new markets through Samoa which would open it up to Asian
o 1840’s: new fur trade markets
o 1890’s: the expansion of new businesses/corporations wanted new
locations to sell and expand their goods: Rockerfeller and the Standard Oil
To become a world power they believed the economy needed to expand and flourish
They wanted to beat other world powers who were expanding as well
o Spanish American War (Cuban Revolt, The Maine)
o “Beat” England, France, Japan, Germany
Body Paragraph 2:
Topic Sentence: The desire to conquoer and assimilate other peoples spurred the idea of Manifest
In the 1890’s America was already trying to assimilate the immigrants in various ways:
settlement houses/study of eugenics (using “science” to figure out which people were the
most likely to assimilate”
Book Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis: said that Americans should spread
Chrisitianity to the worldspread anglo-saxon ideas; Political Science and Comparative
Law: anglo saxons have the duty to uplift less fortunate poeople
1840’s: Oregon had missionaries who wanted to spread Christianity
Body Paragraph 3:
1890’s believed that this would help the Republican party if they accomplished taking
over Phillipines and other nations
Anti Imperialist League in the 1890’s
1840’s: wanted land to either spread or prevent the expansion of slavery
Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract
widespread support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists
Critique: Stan, Jared
It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress
the ANIT IMPERIALIST views
Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis.
Show unifying trend throughout ideas.
Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American
people’s response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people
that would support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded
by Eugene Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional
capitalist foundation America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on,
represented by the Anti-Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support,
because it could not compete with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New
Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative government, the radicalism of groups such as the
Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably isolated them from popular opinion, and thus
severely limited their ballot strength and power in the ever evolving political scene.
expanding for economics
increasing importance of foreign trade
it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines)
everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the
Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world
The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy
yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries
Eugene V. Debs
The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from
Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major
influence in gov’t)
Opposition to World War I reduced support
Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not
appealing to the general society
Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola
Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during
the late 19th and early 20th century.
I. Throughout the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, industrialism was dominated mainly
by Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller; corrupted monopolies were present
throughout America. Because of such, reform in the United States was imminent, and
was mostly spearheaded by Progessivists. Among those in the Progressive movement
were muckrakers and yellow journalists, both of which investigated and exposed the
political, social, and economical injustices through their publications which resulted
a. Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens in the McClure’s Magazine
i. Ida Tarbell – exposing the illegal economic deals within Rockefeller’s
Standard Oil Company
ii. Lincoln Steffens – party bosses and business leaders and their role in
b. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
i. Unsanitary slaughter houses and the sale of rotten meat; led Teddy
Roosevelt to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection
Act of 1906.
c. Theodore Dresier’s Sister Carrie (1900)
i. Traced a hopeful young woman’s descent into prostitution in Chicago.
d. Through all of this, it is seen that the Muckrakers continued to write about both
the social and economic flaws in American society; not just in the upper class but
the middle class and laborers. These publications exposed the underside of
III. Yellow journalism
a. Spanish American War
i. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer tried to appeal to lower
classes; fused the penny press with agressiveness
ii. Supported Cuba; refused to write about the atrocities that the Cubans
committed. Exaggerated the acts of the Spanish.
1. Concentration camps; exaggerated the conditions and the intents of
the leaders in order to gain more readers.
2. Supported the Cuba Libre cause to establish Cuba as an
independent, sovereign nation from the reigns of Spain.
iii. Yellow Journalists exaggerated the explosion of the Maine automatically
proclaiming it an offensive act by the Spanish and advocated for war
a. Through the social, political, and economical injustices in the late 1800’s,
Muckrakers and yellow journalists began to expose not only domestic affairs, but
international events as well. This led to reform and war.
Critiqued By Alex Tran, Cole Friedfertig, and Chase Madorsky
Expand on intro paragraph with more background information. (Ex. Examples of
monopolies and economic corruption. Bring up JP Morgan, more corrupt than Carnegie
Discuss how muckrakers lead to decline of party bosses and political machines.
Discuss why Yellow Journalists exaggerated the news and how they felt it would benefit
their respective newspapers.
Alex, Cole & Chase
How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of
United States foreign policy by the late nineteenth century?
Dating back to it’s victory for independence in the revolutionary war, America has always been
concerned about European colonization in the western hemisphere. As a former colony, America
wanted to ensure that Europe would not intervene in the affairs of any western territory, ensuring that
nobody would face harsh colonization, much like the Americans did with Britain. In 1823, John Quincy
Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents could not be colonized
by Europe, as it would be considered a threat to the sovereignty of America and an unfriendly act. The
document, which was drafted out of American fear of England occupying Cuba and Spain attempting to
regain their lost empire, would remain relevant throughout the late 19th century. The end of the 19th
century found European nations vying to expand into and colonize carribean islands off the coast of
America. The Monroe Doctrine was now brought into play years after it was drafted as America was
forced to wage war upon Spain for their occupation of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Through the desire to
prevent Europe from colonizing in the western hemisphere, as well as the desire to expand the
American empire, the Monroe Doctrine became the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the
late 19th century.
Body Paragraph #1- Preventing European Colonization
America fights in the Spanish-American War against Spain in 1898. Spain under Commander
Valeriano Weyler takes control of Cuba, forcing cuban civilians into containment camps. Spain
refuses to reach armistice with Cuban rebels and America, refusing to leave Cuba. In light of
Maine incident, congress unanimously agrees to wage war on Spain.
Spanish in control of Puerto Rico since 1508. Refuses to grant sovereignty to Puerto Rico
through 1900. Americans intervene and occupy Puerto Rico as a territory, eliminating any
Spanish influence in the western hemisphere.
Samoa was being occupied by the British, the German, and the US. US gets Pago Pago under
Hayes administration in 1878. 3 Nations quarrel over the islands for 10 years, almost leading to
war. Leads to a protectorate split amongst all three nations. Later on, in 1899, the US divide
lands with Germany, British are compensated with other Pacific Islands.
Body Paragraph #2-Ameriacn Expansion
Puerto Rico is given a 2 chamber legislature, with one representative directly elected by the
people, as well as an American representative. America takes Puerto Rico as its own territory,
allowing sugar trade between the two regions due to removal of tariffs for Puerto Rico to trade
with America, as well as Americans not having to pay taxes for Puerto Rican sugar.
Americans kept some Samoan Islands for access to Asian and Australian markets. Also gave
America a new port to dock in while involved in pacific trade.
Through Cuban Independence, America gains Guam and Puerto Rico as territories from Spain. It
also allows american occupation of manila in the philippines due to agreement between
America, Spain and Cuba through armistice. America establishes platt amendment which
prevented Cuba from making treaties with other countries and allowed the Americans to
intervene in Cuba to preserve independence and democracy. Cuba now forced to permit
American Naval stations on its territory, allowing American influence into the country.
Although the Americans were able to keep their word by keeping European powers out of the
western hemisphere, they were a hypocrisy. Despite this, the Monroe Doctrine and it’s principles
allowed the expansion of the American empire and the diversification of its people, it’s economy, and
Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola’s critique
1. Be more concise
2. Talk more about why Monroe doctrine was drafted
3. Grammar mistakes
Kevin Park, Susan & Sihan
Outline: Dicuss the Impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic policy 1870-
During an era plagued by panic, economic instability, and racial injustice, a new ideology,
Social Darwinism, gripped the nation in an attempt to rationalize the horrid conditions of a once great
nation. Curiously, the term was coined by opponents of Social Darwinism in 1877 as an attempt to
establish the illogical fallacies and contradictions that fueled the movement; despite heavy resistance,
the social, economical, and political influences of this revolutionary ideal slowly devoured, piece by
piece, the traditions and guide lines of American society, leaving a dark stain upon the proud history
of United States. During the period of 1870 to 1914, social Darwinism had numerous impacts on
America, including changing view of immigrant, new political reforms, expansion, foreign policy, and
other political, economic, and social effects.
Panic of 1873 - Spurred Nothern industrialism. Found explanation for poverty and instability.
Using explanation of Social Darwinism blamed poor blacks in South and the unemployed in
Herbert Spencer – Elimination of the unfit, and the survival of the strong is essential to society.
Rockefeller – The growth of the large business is from the survival of the fittest and not from evil
tendencies. IT IS A LAW OF NATURE.
Andrew Carnegie – Self- Made Man. Those who failed have no one else to blame but
Social – New Manifest Destiny
· Strong nations needed to dominate weaker ones and help them because they struggle
constantly to survive
· John Fiske—white subjugation of natives of the US in the past was a sign that they needed to
expand to other parts of the world
· Josiah Strong—Anglo-Saxon race had great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity needed to
be spread all over the world
· Alfred Thayer Mahan—countries with sea power were the great nations of historyàgov.
launched shipbuilding program 1898
Social Darwinism encouraged critique of government intervention: Social and economic aid.
Weakened commitment to reconstruction.
Election of 1900 – Bryan support the referendum of the annexation of the Philippines.
Pointing out the annexation has become a serious issue.
Annexation = Social Darwinism, Americans are naturally superior and should subjugate
· It was a way for the US to justify advocating Imperialism but later on, the US struggled to keep a
hold of their colonies.
Caused major economic reform because social Darwinism was a justification of monopolies.
Critique GROUP D: ADAM, SARRA, RACHEL, EMILY
The Introduction, specifically the first two sentences, has too many lists and information to absorb by
the reader. In other words, Group B needs to simplify their ideas because an introduction’s purpose is
only to introduce the setting, main points and thesis.
The thesis has too many examples and should be a broader idea with the impacts of the effects. For
example, don’t say other political, economic and social effects.
Marla Georges, Lauren Naphtali, Joanie Gilliland
20 October 2012
Discuss the impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic. (1870-1914)
During the late 19th and early 20th century, the belief in Social Darwinism greatly
influenced American society. Darwinism, the application of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution
and natural selection to human society, by individuals such as Herbert Spencer and William
Sumner, spurred the concept of survival of the fittest. As a result it was an excuse often used
from justification purposes. The KKK earlier on used it to justify their discrimination and hate
crimes; whites are superior and the fittest. It was also used by business tycoons such as
Rockefeller and Carnegie to justify their tactics; if your business failed it was because you
weren’t among the fittest. Later on this same application of Darwinism was used as a
justification for U.S imperialist expansion of foreign islands; since the fittest survive strong
nations dominating weaker ones was in accordance with nature. Throughout America in the
19th and 20th century Darwinism induced feelings of superiority in Americans and served as a
justifying motive for their actions including discrimination, aggressive business methods, and
imperialist expansion and as a result all of this impacted American foreign and domestic policy,
and sparked changes that might not have occurred without its mitigating encouragement.
Domestic – Social Darwinism
KKK – believed that the white race was superior to all others; they were the fittest.
Crudest and one of the earliest forms of SD.
Lead to passing enforcement acts.
Industrial tycoons like Rockefeller and Carnegie agreed because it justified business
tactics – influential to society
Led to trust and monopolies
Eugenics – they thought that we were the superior race; they had to stop the
“mongrelization” of the Anglo-Saxons – people of other races corrupted their “perfect
Led to American superiority complex
1870-80 – Herbert Spencer – 1st to propose the idea of Social Darwinism and most
William Graham Sumner – 1906 – Folkways – didn’t agree with everything Spencer said;
agreed that individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, to compete, to succeed
or to fail
Foreign – Imperial Darwinism
Social Darwinism was another justification of imperialism – they’re not as fit, so we
should help and civilize them – Guam, Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba. Darwinism
being applied to world affairs.
Philosophical justification for expansionism in Charles Darwin’s theories – strong nations
dominate the weak, because on the fittest can survive
Led to new resources and luxury items; sugar. Also started war and caused much
damage to island natives; disease and changed way of life.
John Fiske – 1885 – Harper’s Magazine and John W. Burgess; because native people
were inferior to the US, it was their “burden” to expand, and help the less fit evolve to
their standard. The White Man’s Burden- Rudyard Kipling
Josiah Strong – Our Country: Its possible Future and Its Present Crisis – it declared that
Anglo Saxon race represented the great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity. Must
keep them pure. Back to stopping mongrelization.
Because SD justified so much Americans believed they had free reign to do more. This both
helped and hurt American policy.
KKK’s belief in SD led the gov‘t to pass enforcement acts, which aided black suffrage to
Led to monopolies and trust; hurt Americans economically and created bigger gap
between rich and poor.
Led to several depressions and fluctuating economic situations
Supplied U.S. with new resources from foreign island and aided economy; at cost to
native. Annexed Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba, and made Hawaii a state.
Created new U.S. naval bases in Hawaii and Guam
Brought U.S. into war with cost Ams resources and lives
Whether it helped or hurt more is debatable.
Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract widespread
support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists
Critique: Stan, Jared
It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress the
ANIT IMPERIALIST views
Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis.
Show unifying trend throughout ideas.
Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American people’s
response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people that would
support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded by Eugene
Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional capitalist foundation
America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on, represented by the Anti-
Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support, because it could not compete
with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative
government, the radicalism of groups such as the Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably
isolated them from popular opinion, and thus severely limited their ballot strength and power in
the ever evolving political scene.
● expanding for economics
● increasing importance of foreign trade
● it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines)
● everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the race
● Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world
● The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy
● yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries
● Eugene V. Debs
● Robert LaFollete
● The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from voters
● Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major
influence in gov’t)
● Opposition to World War I reduced support
● Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not
appealing to the general society
Sarra Son, Adam Brodkin, Rachel Geffner Group B
Question: Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840’s with those
that took place in the 1890’s, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras.
what would justify manifest destiny
1840s-: religion and promote democracy, american nationalism, domestic
1890s- promote democracy and competition btw nations, economic expansion through trade and new
market, imperialism and global
Throughout the 19th century Americans debated justifications for expansion into new lands. In the
1840’s religion was a primary validation for expansion along with nationalism. Furthermore,the closing
of the western frontier lead americans to look globablly to expand markets and compete with
dominating European powers. However, both eras exemplified an emphasis on American superiority
and the promotion of democracy. While manifest desitiny stressed the importance of nationalism and
religion, the new era of imperialism focused on more secular justifications such as economic growth and
political competition; the two periods were similar in their main idea of expanding and strengthening
Differences between 1840’s and 1890’s:
Religion- “god given right to conquer the west”
Mexican war – got California because settlers wanted to join the US (nationalism)
o Bear Flag Revolution
Monroe doctrine – Cuba and venezuela vs. Spain and Britian (economic expansion, didn’t want
to lose trading rights with either countries and compeition btw nations, don’t want European
powers to settle in western hemisphere)
Mahan wrote book which lead people to believe that a great navy would lead to a more
powerful country that would enable the US to conquer new markets and compete with
european powers in the race for imperialism
Similarities between 1840’s and 1890’s
Texas wanted to join the US to have democracy
Phillipeans and Hawaii developed a modern, democratic government because of the invasion of
Political support for manisfest destiny, (Theodore roosevelt and Polk)
Both included invasions of foreign countries
Group E-8, Stan & Jared
To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore
Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following?: Labor, Trusts, and
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt emerged in the wake of the Spanish American War as a
national hero capable of organizing large military and social interests. As President,
Roosevelt wanted to increase the influence and prestige of the United States on the world
stage, and believed that the exportation of American values and ideals would have an
ennobling effect on the world. Theodore Roosevelt’s diplomatic maxim was to "speak
softly and carry a big stick," and he maintained that a chief executive must be willing to
use force when necessary while practicing the art of persuasion. He therefore sought to
assemble a powerful and reliable defense for the United States to avoid conflicts with
enemies who might prey on weakness. Furthermore, one of President Theodore
Roosevelt's most lasting and significant contributions to the world was the permanent
preservation of the some of the most unique natural resources of the United States. In
1905, President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed
Gifford Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under Roosevelt’s direction, lands
were reserved for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. Ultimately, the
conservative progressive deservedly expanded the role of the executive branch in
facilitating domestic and international affairs.
2. World Affairs
Theodore Roosevelt inherited a growing overseas empire when he assumed office in
1901. After the Spanish-American War in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Puerto
Rico, and Guam to the United States.
One of the situations that Roosevelt inherited upon taking office was governance of the
Philippines, an island nation in Asia. During the Spanish-American War, the United
States had taken control of the archipelago from Spain. When Roosevelt appointed
William Howard Taft as the first civilian governor of the islands in 1901, Taft
recommended the creation of a civil government with an elected legislative assembly.
The Taft administration was able to negotiate with Congress for a bill that included a
governor general, an independent judiciary, and the legislative assembly.
The most spectacular of Roosevelt's foreign policy initiatives was the establishment of
the Panama Canal. In 1901, the United States negotiated with Britain for the support of
an American-controlled canal that would be constructed in Panama. In a flourish of
closed-door maneuvers, the Senate approved a route through Panama, contingent upon
Colombian approval. When Colombia balked at the terms of the agreement, the United
States supported a Panamanian revolution with money and a naval blockade, the latter of
which prevented Colombian troops from landing in Panama.
In addition, the United States established a protectorate over Cuba and annexed Hawaii.
Some of Theodore Roosevelt's greatest accomplishments were in conservation. In 1905,
President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed Gifford
Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under TR's direction, lands were reserved
for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. During Roosevelt's time as
President, the forest reserves in the U.S. went from approximately 43-million acres to
about 194-million acres.
An important aspect of Roosevelt’s natural resource policy included public reclamation
and irrigation projects, covered by the National Reclamation Act.
Due to his commitment to protecting the natural beauty of the land and the health of its
wildlife from human intrusion, Roosevelt added significantly to the disorganized
National Park System, which aimed to protect public land from any exploitation or
development. Parks created included Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Sequoia.
Roosevelt championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a way to protect
the landscape for continued, rational lumbering.
Roosevelt, although often championed as the father of reform, actually supported
progressive ideals for the sole purpose of preventing radical changes from sweeping
a. Can be condensed (too much fluff)
b. It’s a little weird that you compare conservation to the panama canal
c. Well organized and good factual details
Period 7: Kishan, Gage, Julie
Question: Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during the
late 19th and early 20th century.
During the late 19th century and early 20th century, journalism was experiencing an evolution in America
that was unprecedented to any prior event. One faction of journalism sought out facts through
extensive research, while the other used sensational headlines and exaggerated details to capture the
attention of the audience. The Muckrakers targeted railroad trusts, monopolies, and party bosses
through the use of political cartoons, newspaper articles, and magazine exposes. On the other hand,
yellow journalists, such as Pulitzer, lured readers to topics which were previously unheard of through
exciting headers and on-field reports. While their methods juxtaposed one another, yellow journalists
and muckrakers accomplished their goals and were able to make a long lasting impact on society.
- Muckrakers used in-depth field research to expose the corruption of society, economic
injustices of monopolies, and the political scandals of party bosses.
o Ida Tarbell: One of the most influential muckrakers of her time. Exposed
Rockefeller’s use of the Standard Oil monopoly to exploit railroads for better rates
in her in McClure’s
o Lincoln Steffens: He produces sentiment for urban reform and wrote for McClure’s.
Books , Shame of the Cities, to attack municipal government.
o Thomas Nast: Who was a political cartoons who targeted the Tammany Hall
machine, specifically Boss Tweed, through political cartoons. Workers can
o Jacob Riis: Book was How the Other Half Lives. Wrote on terrible conditions of
tenements and the life of immigrants.
- Topic Sentence: yellow Journalists reported exaggerated news to lure in new readers on
foreign and unknown topics.
o Pulitzer: Wrote for New York World. Publicized the concentration camps in Cuba
and the high sugar duties that were imposed on Cuba from Spain. Showed how
Cubans were being tortured by Spaniards. Reported exaggerate accounts of
“Butcher” Weyler cruelty.
o There were exaggerated stories of kids being thrown to sharks and wells being
o Hearst: Wrote for New York Journal. Sent artist Remington to Cuba to illustrate
reporter stories. Hearst Quote “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.”
o James Creelman: One of the first human rights activist. Reporter for New York
Journal. Recruited by Hearst.
- The yellow journalists were effective in driving the United States into war with Spain after
they created sentiment and sympathies for rebels in Cuba. Muckrakers were able to get
laws passed, such as imitative and referendum, as well as direct primaries to circumvent the
power of political machines.
Ramita Gowda, Marisa Parnes, Sam Cherfas, Greg Vuong, David Shulman
Question E: To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore
Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following: Labor, Trusts, Conservation
I. Opening Paragraph
In the late nineteenth century, progressive sentiments swept the nation, and many Americans were
eager for reform and growth of their society and nation. When Theodore Roosevelt assumed the
presidency in 1901, the eclectic nature of his past experiences lent to his political ideology. Throughout
his two-term presidency, Roosevelt would establish his domestic policy as a vehicle for both reforming
and protecting American society from radical change. In his foreign policy, Roosevelt supported the
demonstration of American power in his invervention of imperialist affairs. While he managed to
preserve traditional American ideology, Roosevelt expanded the role of the federal government through
regulation of domestic trusts and world affairs.
II. Outline body paragraphs, 4 specifics each
Topic sentence: Responding to international competition and growing European powers, Roosevelt
sought to increase American global influence.
- In 1902, as part of the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt annexed Cuba and forced the Platt
Amendment upon the Cuban constitution. This amendment gave America many political and
economic rights in Cuba, and prevented other foreign powers from intruding.
- In 1902, Roosevelt sent troops to support a rebellion that broke out in Panama, which
established a new government that supported work on the Panama Canal.
- In dealing with competition for Latin American colonization, Roosevelt passed the Roosevelt
Corollary, as a continuation of the Monroe Doctrine, to establish American domination of the
- He supported the expansion of the navy, and by 1906, the American navy was only surpassed by
- In dealing with the Japanese threat in the Pacific, Roosevelt sent 16 battleships, known as the
“Great White Fleet”, around the world in 1906 to demonstrate America’s strength to foreign
At the start of the 20th century, trusts controlled 4/5ths of the industries in the United States.
- In his 1902 state of the union speech his initiative was “trust busting” – the breaking of
- Roosevelt sought to limit the influence of manipulative trusts such as – Standard Oil,
Northwestern securities, and the American Tobacco company(1911) through legislative
measures such as the Sherman anti-trust act
- “Square Deal” – denouncing of special treatment towards capitalists and large monopolizing
businesses during his speaking tour to the nation in 1902
- In his second term as president he saw corporate regulation as a more effective method
than trust busting monopolies and this was the underlying cause of the 1906 Hepburn act.
Conclusion: Theodore Roosevelt advocated cautious domestic reform and similarly, he increased
American involvement in foreign affairs. Roosevelt’s decisions and actions as president helped establish
the United States as a world power.