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					Jack Winograd, Monica Krin, Emily Kim, Kayla Gonik, Jared Miller 10/19/12

C) How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the
late nineteenth century?



         During the 19th century the Monroe Doctrine became the basis of American foreign policy. John
Quincy Adams, James Monroe’s Secretary of State, was afraid Spain would try to reconquer its colonies
in Latin America. This fear reflected Americas concern about European intervention in the western
hemisphere. The United States declared their independence from other european imperializing powers
through the monroe doctrine. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine states that the U.S. will not be involved in any
European conflicts, European nations should not interfere with the recently indpendent nations of Latin
America, and the U.S. would defend itself against any imperializing efforts by other countries. The
monroe doctrine justified America’s colonizing attempts on nations within the Western Hemsiphere.
Prominent examples include Alaska, Spanish colonies such as Puerto Rico and Cuba, and Venezuela.
During America’s vast expansion throughout the Western Hemisphere, the Monroe Doctrine served as a
justification for annexaing and purchasing new territories.

BODY 1- ALASKA

   -   -bought in 1867
   -   -proposed by William Seward, purchased from Russia
   -   -nicknamed Seward’s icebox
   -   -signified America’s rise as a world power
   -   -the monroe doctrine justified the purchase of alaska because it removed another european
       power from american politics
   -   -the initial purchase of alaska justified by the monroe doctrine set a precedent for all other
       American acquisitions

BODY 2- SPANISH COLONIES

   -   Spain repressed the rights of the people in its colonies
   -   American populists supported against spain
   -   Annexation rather than independence after the war
   -   Colonies felt threatened by european powers breaking the monroe doctrine
   -   The Maine, final straw for intervention with Spain

BODY 3- VENEZUELA

   -   Called the “iron-fisted neighbor” because financially troubled govt and established a pattern of
       american intervention
   -   Due to the corrupt govt, Ven. renege/accumulated debts from european bankers
    -   The us sympathized with venezula and other latin american colonies because britain, italy and
        germany blockaded the coasts in response to the debts
    -   1822 monroe admin first govt to openly recognize venezuela as independent nation
    -   Roosevelt corallary, us willing to go to war with any aggressive europeans in the new
        world/western hem.

CONCLUSION

Once to protect nations within the Western hemishphere, The Monroe Doctrine later served to support
american imperialists, spread democracy, and promote American ideals.



CRITIQUE (by Group A)

    -   You don’t need that much background information in the introduction
    -   Improve thesis lacks “how” part of question—make sure you address the entire question
    -   Relate body paragraphs to thesis


Jen, Veda, Ari, Ankush, Brigette




        The concept of Manifest Destiny was prevalent in both the 1840’s and 1890’s. A central
idea to this perception was the desire to expand and acquire more resources, capital, and power.
Also, Americans thought that they were superior to other races and believed it was their
“destiny” to civilize them. During these two periods, the anti-expansionist groups of the
respective periods argued different points against the concept of Manifest Destiny. Additionally,
in the 1840’s arguments for Manifest Destiny were concentrated on the expansion of slavery and
mainly American property for settlement. However, the 1890’s interest in Manifest Destiny
focused on commercial interests, and transitioning America into a world power. The Americans
in both time periods both believed that manifest destiny was the way to improve and grow as a
nation, and both shared similarities as well as differences in the arguments for and against
expansion.



Body Paragraph 1:

Topic Setence: In order to gain power by expanding their markets, Americans moved farther
West and into new nations.

       Texas: Trying to use this new land for the growth of cotton/new markets
      Hawaii: They take up Hawaii for the same reasons as Texas: grow new cash crops such
       as sugar and pinapples
      Both are trying to get new markets
                  o 1840’s new railroads and technologiesthe east could now transfer there
                      goods to the west
                  o 1890’s new markets through Samoa which would open it up to Asian
                      markets
                  o 1840’s: new fur trade markets
                  o 1890’s: the expansion of new businesses/corporations wanted new
                      locations to sell and expand their goods: Rockerfeller and the Standard Oil
                      Company
      To become a world power they believed the economy needed to expand and flourish
      They wanted to beat other world powers who were expanding as well
              o Spanish American War (Cuban Revolt, The Maine)
              o “Beat” England, France, Japan, Germany

Body Paragraph 2:

Topic Sentence: The desire to conquoer and assimilate other peoples spurred the idea of Manifest
Destiny.

      In the 1890’s America was already trying to assimilate the immigrants in various ways:
       settlement houses/study of eugenics (using “science” to figure out which people were the
       most likely to assimilate”
      Book Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis: said that Americans should spread
       Chrisitianity to the worldspread anglo-saxon ideas; Political Science and Comparative
       Law: anglo saxons have the duty to uplift less fortunate poeople
      1840’s: Oregon had missionaries who wanted to spread Christianity



Body Paragraph 3:

      1890’s believed that this would help the Republican party if they accomplished taking
       over Phillipines and other nations
      Anti Imperialist League in the 1890’s
      1840’s: wanted land to either spread or prevent the expansion of slavery



Group:
Kimia Zehtab
Jihoon Choi
Philip Peker
Liz DelTufo
Emilie McDonald

Question:
Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract
widespread support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists

Critique: Stan, Jared

It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress
the ANIT IMPERIALIST views
Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis.
Show unifying trend throughout ideas.




Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American
people’s response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people
that would support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded
by Eugene Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional
capitalist foundation America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on,
represented by the Anti-Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support,
because it could not compete with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New
Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative government, the radicalism of groups such as the
Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably isolated them from popular opinion, and thus
severely limited their ballot strength and power in the ever evolving political scene.


anti-imperialists
Imperialist Views

      expanding for economics
      increasing importance of foreign trade
      it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines)
      everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the
       race
      Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world

       Failures


      The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy
      yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries
socialists

        Eugene V. Debs



        Robert LaFollete
        The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from
         voters
        Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major
         influence in gov’t)
        Opposition to World War I reduced support
        Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not
         appealing to the general society

Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola
Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during
the late 19th and early 20th century.

   I.        Throughout the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, industrialism was dominated mainly
             by Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller; corrupted monopolies were present
             throughout America. Because of such, reform in the United States was imminent, and
             was mostly spearheaded by Progessivists. Among those in the Progressive movement
             were muckrakers and yellow journalists, both of which investigated and exposed the
             political, social, and economical injustices through their publications which resulted
             in reform.

   II.       Muckrakers
             a. Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens in the McClure’s Magazine
                     i. Ida Tarbell – exposing the illegal economic deals within Rockefeller’s
                        Standard Oil Company
                    ii. Lincoln Steffens – party bosses and business leaders and their role in
                        political corruption
             b. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
                     i. Unsanitary slaughter houses and the sale of rotten meat; led Teddy
                        Roosevelt to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection
                        Act of 1906.
             c. Theodore Dresier’s Sister Carrie (1900)
                     i. Traced a hopeful young woman’s descent into prostitution in Chicago.
             d. Through all of this, it is seen that the Muckrakers continued to write about both
                the social and economic flaws in American society; not just in the upper class but
                 the middle class and laborers. These publications exposed the underside of
                 American life

   III.      Yellow journalism
             a. Spanish American War
                     i. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer tried to appeal to lower
                        classes; fused the penny press with agressiveness
                    ii. Supported Cuba; refused to write about the atrocities that the Cubans
                        committed. Exaggerated the acts of the Spanish.
                            1. Concentration camps; exaggerated the conditions and the intents of
                                the leaders in order to gain more readers.
                            2. Supported the Cuba Libre cause to establish Cuba as an
                                independent, sovereign nation from the reigns of Spain.
                   iii. Yellow Journalists exaggerated the explosion of the Maine automatically
                        proclaiming it an offensive act by the Spanish and advocated for war
                        against Spain.

   IV.       Conclusion
             a. Through the social, political, and economical injustices in the late 1800’s,
                Muckrakers and yellow journalists began to expose not only domestic affairs, but
                international events as well. This led to reform and war.



Critiqued By Alex Tran, Cole Friedfertig, and Chase Madorsky

         Expand on intro paragraph with more background information. (Ex. Examples of
          monopolies and economic corruption. Bring up JP Morgan, more corrupt than Carnegie
          and Rockefeller.)
         Discuss how muckrakers lead to decline of party bosses and political machines.
         Discuss why Yellow Journalists exaggerated the news and how they felt it would benefit
          their respective newspapers.

Alex, Cole & Chase

   How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of
     United States foreign policy by the late nineteenth century?
       Dating back to it’s victory for independence in the revolutionary war, America has always been
concerned about European colonization in the western hemisphere. As a former colony, America
wanted to ensure that Europe would not intervene in the affairs of any western territory, ensuring that
nobody would face harsh colonization, much like the Americans did with Britain. In 1823, John Quincy
Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents could not be colonized
by Europe, as it would be considered a threat to the sovereignty of America and an unfriendly act. The
document, which was drafted out of American fear of England occupying Cuba and Spain attempting to
regain their lost empire, would remain relevant throughout the late 19th century. The end of the 19th
century found European nations vying to expand into and colonize carribean islands off the coast of
America. The Monroe Doctrine was now brought into play years after it was drafted as America was
forced to wage war upon Spain for their occupation of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Through the desire to
prevent Europe from colonizing in the western hemisphere, as well as the desire to expand the
American empire, the Monroe Doctrine became the cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the
late 19th century.

Body Paragraph #1- Preventing European Colonization

      America fights in the Spanish-American War against Spain in 1898. Spain under Commander
       Valeriano Weyler takes control of Cuba, forcing cuban civilians into containment camps. Spain
       refuses to reach armistice with Cuban rebels and America, refusing to leave Cuba. In light of
       Maine incident, congress unanimously agrees to wage war on Spain.
      Spanish in control of Puerto Rico since 1508. Refuses to grant sovereignty to Puerto Rico
       through 1900. Americans intervene and occupy Puerto Rico as a territory, eliminating any
       Spanish influence in the western hemisphere.
      Samoa was being occupied by the British, the German, and the US. US gets Pago Pago under
       Hayes administration in 1878. 3 Nations quarrel over the islands for 10 years, almost leading to
       war. Leads to a protectorate split amongst all three nations. Later on, in 1899, the US divide
       lands with Germany, British are compensated with other Pacific Islands.

Body Paragraph #2-Ameriacn Expansion

      Puerto Rico is given a 2 chamber legislature, with one representative directly elected by the
       people, as well as an American representative. America takes Puerto Rico as its own territory,
       allowing sugar trade between the two regions due to removal of tariffs for Puerto Rico to trade
       with America, as well as Americans not having to pay taxes for Puerto Rican sugar.
      Americans kept some Samoan Islands for access to Asian and Australian markets. Also gave
       America a new port to dock in while involved in pacific trade.
      Through Cuban Independence, America gains Guam and Puerto Rico as territories from Spain. It
       also allows american occupation of manila in the philippines due to agreement between
       America, Spain and Cuba through armistice. America establishes platt amendment which
       prevented Cuba from making treaties with other countries and allowed the Americans to
       intervene in Cuba to preserve independence and democracy. Cuba now forced to permit
       American Naval stations on its territory, allowing American influence into the country.



Conclusion:
          Although the Americans were able to keep their word by keeping European powers out of the
western hemisphere, they were a hypocrisy. Despite this, the Monroe Doctrine and it’s principles
allowed the expansion of the American empire and the diversification of its people, it’s economy, and
it’s culture.



Edward Chin, Michael Kim, and David Santola’s critique

    1. Be more concise
    2. Talk more about why Monroe doctrine was drafted
    3. Grammar mistakes



Kevin Park, Susan & Sihan

Outline: Dicuss the Impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic policy 1870-
1914

INTRO-

        During an era plagued by panic, economic instability, and racial injustice, a new ideology,
Social Darwinism, gripped the nation in an attempt to rationalize the horrid conditions of a once great
nation. Curiously, the term was coined by opponents of Social Darwinism in 1877 as an attempt to
establish the illogical fallacies and contradictions that fueled the movement; despite heavy resistance,
the social, economical, and political influences of this revolutionary ideal slowly devoured, piece by
piece, the traditions and guide lines of American society, leaving a dark stain upon the proud history
of United States. During the period of 1870 to 1914, social Darwinism had numerous impacts on
America, including changing view of immigrant, new political reforms, expansion, foreign policy, and
other political, economic, and social effects.

Economical -

         Panic of 1873 - Spurred Nothern industrialism. Found explanation for poverty and instability.
         Using explanation of Social Darwinism blamed poor blacks in South and the unemployed in
         North.

         Herbert Spencer – Elimination of the unfit, and the survival of the strong is essential to society.

         Rockefeller – The growth of the large business is from the survival of the fittest and not from evil
         tendencies. IT IS A LAW OF NATURE.

         Andrew Carnegie – Self- Made Man. Those who failed have no one else to blame but
         themselves.
Social – New Manifest Destiny

·    Strong nations needed to dominate weaker ones and help them because they struggle
constantly to survive

·    John Fiske—white subjugation of natives of the US in the past was a sign that they needed to
expand to other parts of the world

·    Josiah Strong—Anglo-Saxon race had great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity needed to
be spread all over the world

·    Alfred Thayer Mahan—countries with sea power were the great nations of historyàgov.
launched shipbuilding program 1898

Political –

Post Reconstruction.

Social Darwinism encouraged critique of government intervention: Social and economic aid.

                Weakened commitment to reconstruction.

        Land redistribution,

        Election of 1900 – Bryan support the referendum of the annexation of the Philippines.

                Pointing out the annexation has become a serious issue.

               Annexation = Social Darwinism, Americans are naturally superior and should subjugate
lesser/unsophisticated dudessss




CONCLUSION

·    It was a way for the US to justify advocating Imperialism but later on, the US struggled to keep a
hold of their colonies.

Caused major economic reform because social Darwinism was a justification of monopolies.
Critique GROUP D: ADAM, SARRA, RACHEL, EMILY

The Introduction, specifically the first two sentences, has too many lists and information to absorb by
the reader. In other words, Group B needs to simplify their ideas because an introduction’s purpose is
only to introduce the setting, main points and thesis.

The thesis has too many examples and should be a broader idea with the impacts of the effects. For
example, don’t say other political, economic and social effects.



Marla Georges, Lauren Naphtali, Joanie Gilliland
Mr. McCulley
AP USII
20 October 2012
                                        Essay Question
Prompt:
Discuss the impact of Social Darwinism on United States foreign and domestic. (1870-1914)

Intro:
         During the late 19th and early 20th century, the belief in Social Darwinism greatly
influenced American society. Darwinism, the application of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution
and natural selection to human society, by individuals such as Herbert Spencer and William
Sumner, spurred the concept of survival of the fittest. As a result it was an excuse often used
from justification purposes. The KKK earlier on used it to justify their discrimination and hate
crimes; whites are superior and the fittest. It was also used by business tycoons such as
Rockefeller and Carnegie to justify their tactics; if your business failed it was because you
weren’t among the fittest. Later on this same application of Darwinism was used as a
justification for U.S imperialist expansion of foreign islands; since the fittest survive strong
nations dominating weaker ones was in accordance with nature. Throughout America in the
19th and 20th century Darwinism induced feelings of superiority in Americans and served as a
justifying motive for their actions including discrimination, aggressive business methods, and
imperialist expansion and as a result all of this impacted American foreign and domestic policy,
and sparked changes that might not have occurred without its mitigating encouragement.

Domestic – Social Darwinism
   KKK – believed that the white race was superior to all others; they were the fittest.
     Crudest and one of the earliest forms of SD.
   Lead to passing enforcement acts.
   Industrial tycoons like Rockefeller and Carnegie agreed because it justified business
     tactics – influential to society
   Led to trust and monopolies
      Eugenics – they thought that we were the superior race; they had to stop the
       “mongrelization” of the Anglo-Saxons – people of other races corrupted their “perfect
       race”
      Led to American superiority complex
      1870-80 – Herbert Spencer – 1st to propose the idea of Social Darwinism and most
       prominent proponent
      William Graham Sumner – 1906 – Folkways – didn’t agree with everything Spencer said;
       agreed that individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, to compete, to succeed
       or to fail



Foreign – Imperial Darwinism
    Social Darwinism was another justification of imperialism – they’re not as fit, so we
       should help and civilize them – Guam, Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba. Darwinism
       being applied to world affairs.
    Philosophical justification for expansionism in Charles Darwin’s theories – strong nations
       dominate the weak, because on the fittest can survive
    Led to new resources and luxury items; sugar. Also started war and caused much
       damage to island natives; disease and changed way of life.
    John Fiske – 1885 – Harper’s Magazine and John W. Burgess; because native people
       were inferior to the US, it was their “burden” to expand, and help the less fit evolve to
       their standard. The White Man’s Burden- Rudyard Kipling
    Josiah Strong – Our Country: Its possible Future and Its Present Crisis – it declared that
       Anglo Saxon race represented the great ideas of civil liberty and pure Christianity. Must
       keep them pure. Back to stopping mongrelization.

Conclusion:
Because SD justified so much Americans believed they had free reign to do more. This both
helped and hurt American policy.

    KKK’s belief in SD led the gov‘t to pass enforcement acts, which aided black suffrage to
     an extent
   Led to monopolies and trust; hurt Americans economically and created bigger gap
     between rich and poor.
   Led to several depressions and fluctuating economic situations
   Supplied U.S. with new resources from foreign island and aided economy; at cost to
     native. Annexed Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba, and made Hawaii a state.
   Created new U.S. naval bases in Hawaii and Guam
   Brought U.S. into war with cost Ams resources and lives
Whether it helped or hurt more is debatable.

NOT CRITIQUED
Group:
Kimia Zehtab
Jihoon Choi
Philip Peker
Liz DelTufo
Emilie McDonald

Question:
Choose two of the following three movements and analyze why they failed to attract widespread
support: Anti-Imperialists, Socialists, Populists

Critique: Stan, Jared

It looks like you’ve addressed the imperialist views but the question asks for you to adress the
ANIT IMPERIALIST views
Explain examples a little more and how they connect to thesis.
Show unifying trend throughout ideas.




Social movements in America were and will always be entirely reliant on the American people’s
response. The more radical a social movement is, the smaller the pool of people that would
support it becomes, naturally. The socialist movement in America spearheaded by Eugene
Debs was short lived due to its radical nature in contrast to the traditional capitalist foundation
America was built upon. The Anti-Imperialist movement later on, represented by the Anti-
Imperialist League, was also weak and saw minimum support, because it could not compete
with popular belief and the revived ideology of the New Manifest Destiny. Due to a conservative
government, the radicalism of groups such as the Socialists and the Anti-Imperialists inevitably
isolated them from popular opinion, and thus severely limited their ballot strength and power in
the ever evolving political scene.


anti-imperialists
       Imperialist Views
    ● expanding for economics
    ● increasing importance of foreign trade
    ● it was their improving lives of poor countries (philippines)
    ● everyone is expanding and it’s a competition therefore US can’t be the last in the race
    ● Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political power in the world
                Failures
    ● The opponents views were too convincing hitting religion and economy
    ●   yellow journalism exaggerated conditions of other countries


        socialists
    ●   Eugene V. Debs
    ●   Robert LaFollete
    ●   The Socialist Party was a Third Party therefore not drawing enough support from voters
    ●   Radical (Unappealing to party bosses and political machines which had a major
        influence in gov’t)
    ●   Opposition to World War I reduced support
    ●   Drew support from other radical groups and disliked communities therefore not
        appealing to the general society


Sarra Son, Adam Brodkin, Rachel Geffner Group B

Question: Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840’s with those
that took place in the 1890’s, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras.

what would justify manifest destiny

1840s-: religion and promote democracy, american nationalism, domestic

1890s- promote democracy and competition btw nations, economic expansion through trade and new
market, imperialism and global



Throughout the 19th century Americans debated justifications for expansion into new lands. In the
1840’s religion was a primary validation for expansion along with nationalism. Furthermore,the closing
of the western frontier lead americans to look globablly to expand markets and compete with
dominating European powers. However, both eras exemplified an emphasis on American superiority
and the promotion of democracy. While manifest desitiny stressed the importance of nationalism and
religion, the new era of imperialism focused on more secular justifications such as economic growth and
political competition; the two periods were similar in their main idea of expanding and strengthening
the country.

Differences between 1840’s and 1890’s:

       Religion- “god given right to conquer the west”
       Mexican war – got California because settlers wanted to join the US (nationalism)
             o Bear Flag Revolution
       Monroe doctrine – Cuba and venezuela vs. Spain and Britian (economic expansion, didn’t want
        to lose trading rights with either countries and compeition btw nations, don’t want European
        powers to settle in western hemisphere)
      Mahan wrote book which lead people to believe that a great navy would lead to a more
       powerful country that would enable the US to conquer new markets and compete with
       european powers in the race for imperialism

Similarities between 1840’s and 1890’s

      Texas wanted to join the US to have democracy
      Phillipeans and Hawaii developed a modern, democratic government because of the invasion of
       the US
      Political support for manisfest destiny, (Theodore roosevelt and Polk)
      Both included invasions of foreign countries



Group E-8, Stan & Jared

To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore
Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following?: Labor, Trusts, and
Conservation

1. Intro
      Colonel Theodore Roosevelt emerged in the wake of the Spanish American War as a
       national hero capable of organizing large military and social interests. As President,
       Roosevelt wanted to increase the influence and prestige of the United States on the world
       stage, and believed that the exportation of American values and ideals would have an
       ennobling effect on the world. Theodore Roosevelt’s diplomatic maxim was to "speak
       softly and carry a big stick," and he maintained that a chief executive must be willing to
       use force when necessary while practicing the art of persuasion. He therefore sought to
       assemble a powerful and reliable defense for the United States to avoid conflicts with
       enemies who might prey on weakness. Furthermore, one of President Theodore
       Roosevelt's most lasting and significant contributions to the world was the permanent
       preservation of the some of the most unique natural resources of the United States. In
       1905, President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed
       Gifford Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under Roosevelt’s direction, lands
       were reserved for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. Ultimately, the
       conservative progressive deservedly expanded the role of the executive branch in
       facilitating domestic and international affairs.
2. World Affairs
      Theodore Roosevelt inherited a growing overseas empire when he assumed office in
       1901. After the Spanish-American War in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Puerto
       Rico, and Guam to the United States.
      One of the situations that Roosevelt inherited upon taking office was governance of the
       Philippines, an island nation in Asia. During the Spanish-American War, the United
       States had taken control of the archipelago from Spain. When Roosevelt appointed
       William Howard Taft as the first civilian governor of the islands in 1901, Taft
       recommended the creation of a civil government with an elected legislative assembly.
       The Taft administration was able to negotiate with Congress for a bill that included a
       governor general, an independent judiciary, and the legislative assembly.
      The most spectacular of Roosevelt's foreign policy initiatives was the establishment of
       the Panama Canal. In 1901, the United States negotiated with Britain for the support of
       an American-controlled canal that would be constructed in Panama. In a flourish of
       closed-door maneuvers, the Senate approved a route through Panama, contingent upon
       Colombian approval. When Colombia balked at the terms of the agreement, the United
       States supported a Panamanian revolution with money and a naval blockade, the latter of
       which prevented Colombian troops from landing in Panama.
      In addition, the United States established a protectorate over Cuba and annexed Hawaii.
3. Conservation
      Some of Theodore Roosevelt's greatest accomplishments were in conservation. In 1905,
       President Roosevelt formed the United States Forestry Service and appointed Gifford
       Pinchot as the first chief of this new agency. Under TR's direction, lands were reserved
       for public use and huge irrigation projects were started. During Roosevelt's time as
       President, the forest reserves in the U.S. went from approximately 43-million acres to
       about 194-million acres.
      An important aspect of Roosevelt’s natural resource policy included public reclamation
       and irrigation projects, covered by the National Reclamation Act.
      Due to his commitment to protecting the natural beauty of the land and the health of its
       wildlife from human intrusion, Roosevelt added significantly to the disorganized
        National Park System, which aimed to protect public land from any exploitation or
        development. Parks created included Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Sequoia.
       Roosevelt championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a way to protect
        the landscape for continued, rational lumbering.
4. Conclusion
       Roosevelt, although often championed as the father of reform, actually supported
        progressive ideals for the sole purpose of preventing radical changes from sweeping
        society.




    Critique

        a. Can be condensed (too much fluff)
        b. It’s a little weird that you compare conservation to the panama canal
        c. Well organized and good factual details




Period 7: Kishan, Gage, Julie

Question: Evaluate the goals, methods and social impact of muckrakers and yellow journalists during the
late 19th and early 20th century.



During the late 19th century and early 20th century, journalism was experiencing an evolution in America
that was unprecedented to any prior event. One faction of journalism sought out facts through
extensive research, while the other used sensational headlines and exaggerated details to capture the
attention of the audience. The Muckrakers targeted railroad trusts, monopolies, and party bosses
through the use of political cartoons, newspaper articles, and magazine exposes. On the other hand,
yellow journalists, such as Pulitzer, lured readers to topics which were previously unheard of through
exciting headers and on-field reports. While their methods juxtaposed one another, yellow journalists
and muckrakers accomplished their goals and were able to make a long lasting impact on society.
Muckrakers:

       -      Muckrakers used in-depth field research to expose the corruption of society, economic
              injustices of monopolies, and the political scandals of party bosses.
       -      Evidence:
                  o Ida Tarbell: One of the most influential muckrakers of her time. Exposed
                       Rockefeller’s use of the Standard Oil monopoly to exploit railroads for better rates
                       in her in McClure’s
                  o Lincoln Steffens: He produces sentiment for urban reform and wrote for McClure’s.
                       Books , Shame of the Cities, to attack municipal government.
                  o Thomas Nast: Who was a political cartoons who targeted the Tammany Hall
                       machine, specifically Boss Tweed, through political cartoons. Workers can
                       understand cartoons
                  o Jacob Riis: Book was How the Other Half Lives. Wrote on terrible conditions of
                       tenements and the life of immigrants.

Yellow Journalism:

       -      Topic Sentence: yellow Journalists reported exaggerated news to lure in new readers on
              foreign and unknown topics.
       -      Evidence:
                  o Pulitzer: Wrote for New York World. Publicized the concentration camps in Cuba
                      and the high sugar duties that were imposed on Cuba from Spain. Showed how
                      Cubans were being tortured by Spaniards. Reported exaggerate accounts of
                      “Butcher” Weyler cruelty.
                  o There were exaggerated stories of kids being thrown to sharks and wells being
                      poisoned.
                  o Hearst: Wrote for New York Journal. Sent artist Remington to Cuba to illustrate
                      reporter stories. Hearst Quote “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.”
                  o James Creelman: One of the first human rights activist. Reporter for New York
                      Journal. Recruited by Hearst.




Conclusion:

       -       The yellow journalists were effective in driving the United States into war with Spain after
              they created sentiment and sympathies for rebels in Cuba. Muckrakers were able to get
              laws passed, such as imitative and referendum, as well as direct primaries to circumvent the
              power of political machines.
Ramita Gowda, Marisa Parnes, Sam Cherfas, Greg Vuong, David Shulman

Period 7

10/19/12

Question E: To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore
Roosevelt in regard to world affairs and ONE of the following: Labor, Trusts, Conservation

    I.       Opening Paragraph

In the late nineteenth century, progressive sentiments swept the nation, and many Americans were
eager for reform and growth of their society and nation. When Theodore Roosevelt assumed the
presidency in 1901, the eclectic nature of his past experiences lent to his political ideology. Throughout
his two-term presidency, Roosevelt would establish his domestic policy as a vehicle for both reforming
and protecting American society from radical change. In his foreign policy, Roosevelt supported the
demonstration of American power in his invervention of imperialist affairs. While he managed to
preserve traditional American ideology, Roosevelt expanded the role of the federal government through
regulation of domestic trusts and world affairs.

    II.      Outline body paragraphs, 4 specifics each

Topic sentence: Responding to international competition and growing European powers, Roosevelt
sought to increase American global influence.

    -     In 1902, as part of the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt annexed Cuba and forced the Platt
          Amendment upon the Cuban constitution. This amendment gave America many political and
          economic rights in Cuba, and prevented other foreign powers from intruding.
    -     In 1902, Roosevelt sent troops to support a rebellion that broke out in Panama, which
          established a new government that supported work on the Panama Canal.
    -     In dealing with competition for Latin American colonization, Roosevelt passed the Roosevelt
          Corollary, as a continuation of the Monroe Doctrine, to establish American domination of the
          western hemisphere.
    -     He supported the expansion of the navy, and by 1906, the American navy was only surpassed by
          Great Britain.
    -     In dealing with the Japanese threat in the Pacific, Roosevelt sent 16 battleships, known as the
          “Great White Fleet”, around the world in 1906 to demonstrate America’s strength to foreign
          communities.



At the start of the 20th century, trusts controlled 4/5ths of the industries in the United States.
    -       In his 1902 state of the union speech his initiative was “trust busting” – the breaking of
            monopolies
    -       Roosevelt sought to limit the influence of manipulative trusts such as – Standard Oil,
            Northwestern securities, and the American Tobacco company(1911) through legislative
            measures such as the Sherman anti-trust act
    -       “Square Deal” – denouncing of special treatment towards capitalists and large monopolizing
            businesses during his speaking tour to the nation in 1902
    -       In his second term as president he saw corporate regulation as a more effective method
            than trust busting monopolies and this was the underlying cause of the 1906 Hepburn act.



Conclusion: Theodore Roosevelt advocated cautious domestic reform and similarly, he increased
American involvement in foreign affairs. Roosevelt’s decisions and actions as president helped establish
the United States as a world power.

				
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