Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860

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					Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860                                                                   What do you need to know about the election of 1844?

What is Manifest Destiny?                                                                                                 Van Buren versus Calhoun for the Democratic nomination

           Phrase originated with John L. O’Sullivan in 1845                                                             Van Buren, representing the north, opposed annexing Texas

           The idea that the US had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization from the Atlantic              Pro-slavery Calhoun supported annexing Texas
            to the Pacific                                                                                                Democrats nominated a dark horse (lesser known) candidate: James K. Polk
           Was later used to justify American imperialism in the Pacific and Caribbean                                   Polk favored:
           Causes for expansion:                                                                                                o      Annexation of Texas
                   o     Nationalism                                                                                             o      “Reoccupation” of all Oregon
                   o     Population increase                                                                                     o      Acquisition of California from Mexico
                   o     Economic development and the need for new markets and new sources of raw                         Polk and the Democrats ran on an expansionist platform
                   o     Technological advances
                                                                                                                          Fifty Four Forty or Fight: Polk’s manifest destiny campaign slogan in the election of 1844
                                                                                                                           referring to Oregon’s northern border with Alaska
What do you need to know about manifest destiny and Texas?                                                                Henry Clay, Polk’s Whig opponent, began campaigning against Texas annexation then
          Mexico got its independence from Spain in 1823                                                                  switched during the election
          To attract settlers to Texas (Mexico’s northern frontier) Mexico invited settlement by
           Americans                                                                                                      Many NY voters abandoned the Whig Party to support the anti-slavery Liberty party
          Stephen Austin led 300 American families to settle in Texas                                                    Polk’s election was seen by the Democrats as a mandate for manifest destiny
          By 1830 Americans outnumbered Mexicans in Texas three to one
          Friction between Mexico and American settlers began in 1829                                         How did Polk fulfill his campaign promises?
                   o     Mexico outlawed slavery                                                                          John Tyler pushed the annexation of Texas through Congress, before leaving office
                   o     Required all immigrants to convert to Catholicism
                                                                                                                          Oregon: reached a settlement with the British to divide Oregon at the 49 th parallel (the line
                   o     When settlers refused to obey Mexican law, Mexico closed Texas to American                        established in 1818 for the Louisiana Purchase)
                   o    American southerners ignored Mexico and continued settlement
                                                                                                                          California
           Revolution and Independence                                                                                          o      Polk sent a representative to negotiate the sale of California and New Mexico, but
                   o     General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna made himself military dictator of Mexico in
                                                                                                                                        the Mexican government refused
                         1834                                                                                                    o      Polk instigated a war to win California
                   o     Santa Anna began attempting to enforce Mexican law on Texas                           What do you need to know about the Mexican-American War?
                   o     American settlers led by Sam Houston revolted and declared Texas independent
                                                                                                                          Polk ordered US General Zachary Taylor to move his army into the area disputed with Mexico
                         in 1836
                   o     Santa Anna led an army to put down the rebellion                                                 The Mexican Army crossed the Rio Grande and captures a US Army patrol killing 11 April 24,
                                      Attacked the Alamo in San Antonio
                                                                                                                           Polk persuaded congress to declare war on Mexico
                                       An army led by Sam Houston captured Santa Anna at the battle of
                                       San Jacinto                                                                        Generals
                   o    Santa Anna signed a treaty granting Texas independence and all the territory                             o      General Zachary Taylor led the 6,000 US soldiers into Northern Mexico
                        north of the Rio Grande River                                                                            o      General Winfield Scott and 14,000 US soldiers invaded central Mexico and
           Annexation of Texas                                                                                                         captured Mexico City in September of 1847
                   o     Sam Houston became the first President of the Republic of Texas or Lone Star
                   o     Houston applied for the annexation of Texas as a territory or as a new state
                   o     Presidents Jackson and Van Buren both denied annexation requests
                                      Opposition from northerners to the expansion of slavery
What do you need to know about the effects of the Mexican-American War?                                     How did the US economy expand at the same time as western expansion?
           Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)                                                                        Railroads:
                  o     Mexico recognized the Rio Grande River as the southern boundary of Texas                             o      Replaced canal building of the 1820’s & 1830’s
                  o     Mexico gave up the Mexican Cession (California and New Mexico) in exchange for                       o      Early growth occurred in the Northeast & Midwest
                        $15 million dollars                                                                                  o      Cheaper, faster transportation increased trade between the Northeast & Midwest
                  o     Some Senate Whigs opposed the treaty because it expanded US slavery                                         and movement of people
                  o     Some Southern Democrats opposed the treaty because the US did not annex all                          o      Would later be an advantage of the North during the Civil War
                        of Texas
                                                                                                                      Telegraph:
                  o     The Senate ratified the treaty by the required 2/3 majority
                                                                                                                             o      1844 developed by Samuel Morse
           Wilmot Proviso:                                                                                                  o      Along with Railroads allowed for faster communication over long distances
                  o     Proposed an amendment to a bill that would forbid slavery in any of the new
                        territories acquired from Mexico
                  o     Passed the House of Representatives, but defeated in the Senate
           Acted as a cause of the Civil War by renewing the conflict over spreading slavery into new

What were some other examples of Manifest Destiny?
           Gadsden Purchase (1853)
                  o     President Pierce bought present-day southern New Mexico and Arizona for $10
                  o     Needed for an east-west railroad around the Rocky Mountains
           1867 Secretary of State William Seward negotiated an agreement to purchase Alaska from

What do you need to know about settling the west?
           Mountain men
                  o     First nonnative group to settle the far west
                  o     Fur traders and trappers
                  o     Provided information about trails and frontier conditions for later settlers
           Settlers to California and Oregon
                  o     Oregon, California, Santa Fe and Mormon Trails
                  o     West across the great plains to the Rockies and over the Rockies before the snow
           Discovery of Gold in California in 1848 set off a gold rush from 1848 and 1850
                  o     California’s population boomed from 14,000 in 1848 to 380,000 by 1860
                  o     Gold rush attracted settlers from around the world (by 1860 1/3 of western miners
                        were Chinese)

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