Snapshot of Prostate Cancer National Cancer Institute by liaoqinmei


									                                    A Snapshot of

        National Cancer Institute   Prostate Cancer
                                    Incidence and Mortality
                                                                                                                                                   U.S. Prostate Cancer Incidence
                                    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than                                                 350
                                    non-melanoma skin cancer, and the second leading

                                                                                                             Incidence per 100,000 Men
                                    cause of cancer-related death in men in the United
                                    States. African-American men have a higher incidence                                                  250

                                    rate and at least twice the mortality rate compared with                                              200
                                    men of other racial/ethnic groups.

                                    Prostate cancer incidence rates rose dramatically in the                                              100
                                    late 1980s, when screening with the prostate-specific
                                    antigen (PSA) test, which received initial U.S. Food and
                                    Drug Administration approval in 1986, came into wide                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                   1989       1993         1997        2001       2005         2009
                                    use. Since the early 1990s, prostate cancer incidence has
                                    been declining. Mortality rates for prostate cancer also
                                    have declined since the mid-1990s.                                                                             U.S. Prostate Cancer Mortality
                                    Well-established risk factors for prostate cancer include                                              100

                                                                                                             Mortality per 100,000 Men
                                    increasing age, African ancestry, and a family history of
                                    prostate cancer. Current evidence suggests that screening
                                    with a digital rectal exam (DRE) and/or PSA has at most
                                    only a small effect on prostate cancer mortality. Standard
                                    treatments for prostate cancer include watchful waiting or                                             40
                                    active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone
                                    therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.                                                         20

                                    It is estimated that approximately $11.9 billion is          1
                                    spent each year in the United States on prostate cancer                                                        1989       1993         1997        2001        2005        2009

                                                                                                                                                          Whites     African Americans            Hispanics*
                                    Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance,
                                    Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the National                                                         Asians/Pacific Islanders*
                                    Center for Health Statistics. Additional statistics and charts are                                                    American Indians/Alaska Natives*
                                    available at the SEER Web site.
                                                                                                                                                     * Incidence and mortality data not available before
                                    1                                                                                                                  1992.
                                        Cancer Trends Progress Report, in 2010 dollars.

                                                                                                                    NCI Prostate Cancer Research Investment
                                    Trends in NCI Funding for
                                    Prostate Cancer Research                                                                                                    $4.83B       $4.97B
                                                                                                                                                                                         $5.12B      $5.1B
                                                                                                                                                     $4.79B                                                     5
                                    The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) investment2 in                                                 350
                                    prostate cancer research increased from $296.1 million                                               300        $296.1M                 $293.9M     $300.5M
                                                                                                                                                                                                    $288.3M     4
                                    in fiscal year (FY) 2007 to $300.5 million in FY 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Billions of Dollars
                                                                                                         Millions of Dollars

                                    before decreasing to $288.3 million in FY 2011. In                                                   250
                                    addition to this funding, NCI supported $68.4 million                                                200
                                    in prostate cancer research in FY 2009 and 2010 using
                                    funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment                                                  150                                                                    2
                                    Act (ARRA).3                                                                                         100
                                    Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance.                                                                                                                                   1
                                        The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated
                                        with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For                                     0                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                     2007        2008        2009        2010        2011
                                        additional information on research planning and budgeting at
U.S. DEPARTMENT                         the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH.                                                                          Fiscal Year

OF HEALTH AND                       3
                                        For more information regarding ARRA funding at NCI, see                                                     Prostate Cancer Funding             Total NCI Budget
HUMAN SERVICES                          Recovery Act Funding at NCI.

National Institutes
of Health                           If you are reading a paper copy of this Snapshot: PDF Snapshots with hyperlinks to additional information and resources
                                                 can be found online at:
Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to
                                                                                   NCI Prostate Cancer Research Portfolio
Prostate Cancer                                                                  Cancer Control, Survivorship,       Scientific Model Systems
• The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO)                        and Outcomes Research
  Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial, is determining whether
  specific cancer-screening tests reduce deaths from these cancers. For                                                              Biology

  prostate cancer, trial results have shown that annual screening with                                                                 22%

  DRE and a PSA blood test did not reduce prostate cancer mortality.
• The Prostate Cancer Modeling project, conducted by the Cancer
  Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET), explores
  the natural history of prostate cancer, screening efficacy, screening                   Treatment
  policy, overdiagnosis, novel biomarkers, outcomes of care, and health                                                                       (Causes
                                                                                                                                             of Cancer)
  disparities in prostate cancer screening and treatment.                                                                                        13%

• The Prostate Cancer Program includes staff from NCI’s Medical
  Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Urologic Oncology branches                                             Early Detection,       Prevention
  who conduct clinical training, clinical research, and clinical care to                                   Diagnosis, and            10%
  improve the management of patients with prostate cancer.                                                       18%

• The Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) is exploring the
  role of the microenvironment—the cells and blood vessels that feed                  Percentage of Total Dollars by Scientific Area
  a tumor—in tumor initiation and progression. TMEN investigators                                   Fiscal Year 2011
  are studying how prostate cancer cells traffic to and form metastases          Data source: NCI Funded Research Portfolio. Only projects with
                                                                                 assigned scientific area codes are included. A description of relevant
  in the bone marrow.
                                                                                 research projects can be found on the NCI Funded Research Portfolio
• A new therapeutic cancer vaccine, sipuleucel-T (Provenge), was                 Web site.
  developed with substantial input from the National Cooperative
  Drug Discovery Group Program and has been approved for use in
                                                                               Selected Advances in Prostate
  some patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The vaccine, which is
  custom-made for each patient, boosts immune response to the tumor            Cancer Research
  and slows its growth.                                                        • Data from a randomized clinical trial of vitamin E and
• Nine prostate-cancer-specific Specialized Programs of Research                 selenium for prostate cancer prevention indicate that
  Excellence (SPOREs) work collaboratively to conduct scientific                 taking vitamin E supplements increases prostate
  studies for the clinical evaluation of biomarkers and early-phase clinical     cancer risk among healthy men. Published October
  trials of anti-prostate cancer agents and to develop inter-institutional       2011.
  systems to accelerate prostate cancer research.                              • Results from 13 years of followup of the PLCO trial
                                                                                 showed that annual screening using PSA testing and
Additional Resources for Prostate Cancer                                         DRE had no effect on mortality compared with usual
• The What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer booklet                       care. Published January 2012.
  provides information about prostate cancer diagnosis and staging,            • NCI researchers carried out a small early-phase clinical
  treatment options, and follow-up tests, as well as participation in            trial of a new treatment approach for metastatic
  research studies. Information specialists also can answer questions            castration-resistant prostate cancer that combines
  about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER.                                                immunotherapy to block a negative regulator of the
• The NCI Prostate Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date                          immune system with a cancer vaccine that targets PSA.
  information on prostate cancer treatment, prevention, genetics,                Published February 2012.
  causes, screening, testing, and related topics.                              • Researchers identified molecular markers that may
• The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test Fact Sheet describes                  define a subgroup of men with bone metastatic
  use of the PSA test in prostate cancer screening and follow-up, its            prostate cancer that need a distinct form of treatment.
  limitations and potential harms when used as a screening test, and             Published February 2012.
  ways researchers are trying to improve the PSA test.                         • Click here to access selected free full-text journal articles
• Information on treatment options for prostate cancer is available from         on advances in NCI-supported research relevant to
  PDQ, NCI’s comprehensive cancer database.                                      prostate cancer. Click here to search for additional
                                                                                 scientific articles or to complete a search tutorial on
• Clinical trials for prostate cancer can be found in NCI’s list of
  clinical trials.

NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health                                                                                           Last updated October 2012

To top