VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 2 POSTED ON: 11/4/2012
A Snapshot of National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality U.S. Prostate Cancer Incidence Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than 350 non-melanoma skin cancer, and the second leading Incidence per 100,000 Men 300 cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. African-American men have a higher incidence 250 rate and at least twice the mortality rate compared with 200 men of other racial/ethnic groups. 150 Prostate cancer incidence rates rose dramatically in the 100 late 1980s, when screening with the prostate-specific 50 antigen (PSA) test, which received initial U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 1986, came into wide 0 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 use. Since the early 1990s, prostate cancer incidence has been declining. Mortality rates for prostate cancer also have declined since the mid-1990s. U.S. Prostate Cancer Mortality Well-established risk factors for prostate cancer include 100 Mortality per 100,000 Men increasing age, African ancestry, and a family history of 80 prostate cancer. Current evidence suggests that screening with a digital rectal exam (DRE) and/or PSA has at most 60 only a small effect on prostate cancer mortality. Standard treatments for prostate cancer include watchful waiting or 40 active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy. 20 It is estimated that approximately $11.9 billion is 1 0 spent each year in the United States on prostate cancer 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 treatment. Whites African Americans Hispanics* Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the National Asians/Pacific Islanders* Center for Health Statistics. Additional statistics and charts are American Indians/Alaska Natives* available at the SEER Web site. * Incidence and mortality data not available before 1 1992. Cancer Trends Progress Report, in 2010 dollars. NCI Prostate Cancer Research Investment Trends in NCI Funding for Prostate Cancer Research $4.83B $4.97B $5.12B $5.1B $4.79B 5 The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) investment2 in 350 prostate cancer research increased from $296.1 million 300 $296.1M $293.9M $300.5M $288.3M 4 $285.4M in fiscal year (FY) 2007 to $300.5 million in FY 2010 Billions of Dollars Millions of Dollars before decreasing to $288.3 million in FY 2011. In 250 3 addition to this funding, NCI supported $68.4 million 200 in prostate cancer research in FY 2009 and 2010 using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment 150 2 Act (ARRA).3 100 Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance. 1 50 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For 0 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 additional information on research planning and budgeting at U.S. DEPARTMENT the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH. Fiscal Year OF HEALTH AND 3 For more information regarding ARRA funding at NCI, see Prostate Cancer Funding Total NCI Budget HUMAN SERVICES Recovery Act Funding at NCI. National Institutes of Health If you are reading a paper copy of this Snapshot: PDF Snapshots with hyperlinks to additional information and resources can be found online at: http://www.cancer.gov/aboutnci/servingpeople/cancer-statistics/snapshots Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to NCI Prostate Cancer Research Portfolio Prostate Cancer Cancer Control, Survivorship, Scientific Model Systems • The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) and Outcomes Research 3% Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial, is determining whether 11% specific cancer-screening tests reduce deaths from these cancers. For Biology prostate cancer, trial results have shown that annual screening with 22% DRE and a PSA blood test did not reduce prostate cancer mortality. • The Prostate Cancer Modeling project, conducted by the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET), explores the natural history of prostate cancer, screening efficacy, screening Treatment Etiology 23% policy, overdiagnosis, novel biomarkers, outcomes of care, and health (Causes of Cancer) disparities in prostate cancer screening and treatment. 13% • The Prostate Cancer Program includes staff from NCI’s Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Urologic Oncology branches Early Detection, Prevention who conduct clinical training, clinical research, and clinical care to Diagnosis, and 10% Prognosis improve the management of patients with prostate cancer. 18% • The Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) is exploring the role of the microenvironment—the cells and blood vessels that feed Percentage of Total Dollars by Scientific Area a tumor—in tumor initiation and progression. TMEN investigators Fiscal Year 2011 are studying how prostate cancer cells traffic to and form metastases Data source: NCI Funded Research Portfolio. Only projects with assigned scientific area codes are included. A description of relevant in the bone marrow. research projects can be found on the NCI Funded Research Portfolio • A new therapeutic cancer vaccine, sipuleucel-T (Provenge), was Web site. developed with substantial input from the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group Program and has been approved for use in Selected Advances in Prostate some patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The vaccine, which is custom-made for each patient, boosts immune response to the tumor Cancer Research and slows its growth. • Data from a randomized clinical trial of vitamin E and • Nine prostate-cancer-specific Specialized Programs of Research selenium for prostate cancer prevention indicate that Excellence (SPOREs) work collaboratively to conduct scientific taking vitamin E supplements increases prostate studies for the clinical evaluation of biomarkers and early-phase clinical cancer risk among healthy men. Published October trials of anti-prostate cancer agents and to develop inter-institutional 2011. systems to accelerate prostate cancer research. • Results from 13 years of followup of the PLCO trial showed that annual screening using PSA testing and Additional Resources for Prostate Cancer DRE had no effect on mortality compared with usual • The What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer booklet care. Published January 2012. provides information about prostate cancer diagnosis and staging, • NCI researchers carried out a small early-phase clinical treatment options, and follow-up tests, as well as participation in trial of a new treatment approach for metastatic research studies. Information specialists also can answer questions castration-resistant prostate cancer that combines about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. immunotherapy to block a negative regulator of the • The NCI Prostate Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date immune system with a cancer vaccine that targets PSA. information on prostate cancer treatment, prevention, genetics, Published February 2012. causes, screening, testing, and related topics. • Researchers identified molecular markers that may • The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test Fact Sheet describes define a subgroup of men with bone metastatic use of the PSA test in prostate cancer screening and follow-up, its prostate cancer that need a distinct form of treatment. limitations and potential harms when used as a screening test, and Published February 2012. ways researchers are trying to improve the PSA test. • Click here to access selected free full-text journal articles • Information on treatment options for prostate cancer is available from on advances in NCI-supported research relevant to PDQ, NCI’s comprehensive cancer database. prostate cancer. Click here to search for additional scientific articles or to complete a search tutorial on • Clinical trials for prostate cancer can be found in NCI’s list of PubMed. clinical trials. NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health Last updated October 2012
"Snapshot of Prostate Cancer National Cancer Institute"