chapter 16 section 4 the end of the war power point lecture shorter version1

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					The Last Year of the
       War
Chapter 16, Section 4
I. The Last Year of the War
A. During 1917:
   1. Allies lost many battles.
   2. Russians withdraw from the war.
   3. Central Powers had the advantage.
B. German military official:
   1. General Ludendorff took a military
      gamble.
      a. March 1918, German army came
          within 50 miles of Paris.
      b. Stopped by French, Moroccan, and
          American troops with 100s of tanks
          at the Second Battle of the
          Marne.
 The Last Year of the War
C. 1918, ~2 million American & Allied troops
   advanced toward Germany.
   1. End of September, General Ludendorff
       told German leaders they lost the war.
D. Allies wouldn’t negotiate with Emperor
   William II.
   1. German people were angry and
       exhausted by war’s end.
   2. November 9, William II left the
       country.
The Last Year of the War
     E. German Social Democratic party, led
        by Friedrich Ebert, declared
        Germany a democratic republic.
        1. November 11, the new German
           government signed an armistice
           with the Allies that ended the
           war.

     F. December 1918, a group of radical
        socialists formed the German
        Communist Party.
        1. They tried to seize power.
        2. New government backed by the
           army defeated them.
        3. The revolutionary leaders were
           killed.
   The Last Year of the War
G. Middle-class Germans became deeply
   afraid of communism because of the
   attempted take over.
II. The Peace Settlements
A. January 1919, representatives of Allied nations
   met in Paris for final settlement of the war.

B. President Woodrow Wilson -“Fourteen
   Points,” to create a lasting peace.
   The points included proposals for:
   1. open treaty negotiations
   2. reducing military strength & ensuring self-
      determination (right of each people to have
      its own country)
   3. new world order based on democracy and
      cooperation among nations
   4. create an association of nations to
      guarantee political independence for all
      countries called the League of Nations
      The Peace Settlements
C. The Paris Peace Conference was complicated by many
   factors.
   1. Secret treaties made before the war promising
      territories to certain nations.
   2. National interests created problems as well.
   3. British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George wanted
      Germany to pay for the war.

D. The French wanted national security
   1. Stripping Germany of all weapons.
   2. Having them make huge payments, called
      reparations.
   3. French Premier, Georges Clemenceau wanted a
      buffer state between Germany and France in the
      German Rhineland.
The Peace Settlements
 E. The “Big Three”, made most of the important
    decisions at the Paris Peace Conference.
     1. Germany was not included.
     2. Russia was in a civil war.
     3. Italy had a small role.
           The Peace Settlements
F.    The Treaty of Versailles was the final peace settlement
      of the Great War.
     1. It was five separate treaties with the defeated nations:
         Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
     2. The treaty declared Germany was guilty of starting the
         war.
     3. Germany had to pay reparations for all damages
         suffered by the Allies. (refer to cost of the war)
The view as you approach Versailles.
This is the back side of Versailles.
  The many gardens are here.
                  Back side of Versailles




Hall of Mirrors
G. Germany reduced its military forces
  1. Returned territories of Alsace and Lorraine to
     France.
  2. Sections of eastern Germany became part of a new
     Polish state.
  3. German land on both sides of the Rhine became a
     demilitarized zone.
     a. Supposed to prevent future aggression against
        France.


H. German government accepted the peace terms.
   Refusing meant resuming the war.
  1. German people felt the Treaty of Versailles was
     harsh and unfair peace.
       The Peace
      Settlements
I.   The peace treaty broke up the Ottoman Empire.
     1. France got Syria & Lebanon.
     2. Britain got Iraq & Palestine.

				
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