Insect Taxonomy V by HC121104192359

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 5

									           CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF INSECTS


                           THE WINGED INSECTS: HEMIPTEROIDS

Order Psocoptera— Psocids, booklice (3 suborders, 35 families, ~3000 spp.)
       —minute to small size (generally <6 mm)
       —relatively large head with mandibulate mouthparts
       —clypeus is also relatively large, appears swollen
       —large compound eyes; ocelli present only in winged forms
       —antennae with 11 or more segments, generally filiform
       —prothorax generally smaller than meso- or metathorax
       —if present, fore- and hind wings both membranous with reduced venation
               —fore- and hind wings coupled at rest, held tent-like over abdomen
               —wings may be absent, or hind wings may be vestigial
       —legs relatively thin; tarsi with 2 or 3 segments
       —abdomen has 10 segments; 11th is a dorsal epiproct, paired paraprocts
       —Suborder Trogiomorpha
               —antennae with >20 segments; tarsi with 3 segments
       —Suborder Troctomorpha
               —antennae with 11-17 segments, which are ringed (annulate)
       —Suborder Psocomorpha
               —antennae with 13 segments, lacking rings

Order Phthiraptera— Lice (4 suborders, >16 families, ~3000 spp.)
       —minute to small size
       —body is flattened dorsoventrally
       —mouthparts are mandibulate, or beak-like, piercing/sucking mouthparts
       —compound eyes are reduced or absent
       —antennae are filiform, or small and contained in grooves
       —thoracic segments either patially or completely fused
       —claws are well-developed; form pincer-like structure with tarsi
       —lack wings
       —metamorphosis is simple
       —all species are obligate ectoparasites of birds or mammals
       —Suborder Anoplura: sucking lice
               —head narrower than prothorax; mouthparts haustellate
       —Suborder Amblycera: biting lice
               —mouthparts mandibulate; palps on maxillae
               —antennae clubbed, usually concealed in groove
       —Suborder Ischnocera: biting lice
               —mouthparts mandibulate; lack palps on maxillae
               —antennae filiform, not in groove
           CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF INSECTS

Order Thysanoptera— Thrips (8 families, ~5000 spp.)
       —minute to small, generally (<15 mm, most <5 mm)
       —body is slender and elongate
       —sucking mouthparts; proboscis is stout and located on anterior part of head
              —3 stylets (1 from left mandible, 2 from laciniae of maxillae)
       —compound eyes small to large; ocelli only in winged forms
       —antennae with 4-9 segments; directed anteriorly
       —wings are similar in size, narrow, with fringe of hairs (setae) on both edges
       —legs have 1-2 claws and are bladder-like at tip
       —tarsi with 1 or 2 segments
       —ovipositor present or absent
       —metamorphosis intermediate between simple and complete
       —Family Phlaeothripidae: large thrips
              —last abdominal segment tubular
              —females lack ovipositor (only group for which this is true)
       —Family Aeolothripidae: broad-winged or banded thrips
              —last abdominal segment broadly rounded or conical
              —ovipositor curved upward; antennae with 9 segments
              —front wings with rounded tips
       —Family Thripidae: Common thrips
              —last abdominal segment broadly rounded or conical
              —ovipositor curved down; front wings with pointed tips
              —antennal sensoria located preapically
       —Family Merothripidae: Large-legged thrips
              —last abdominal segment broadly rounded or conical
              —ovipositor curved down; front wings with pointed tips
              —antennal sensoria located apically; 8 segments in antennae
       —Family Heterothripidae: Heterothripid thrips
              —last abdominal segment broadly rounded or conical
              —ovipositor curved down; front wings with pointed tips
              —antennal sensoria located apically; 9 segments in antennae
           CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF INSECTS

Order Hemiptera— Bugs, cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, scale insects, aphids, spittle bugs,
       whiteflies, psyllids (3-4 suborders, ~100 families, ~50,000 spp.)
       —small to large in size
       —compound eyes often large; may be reduced or absent
       —antennae variable
       —piercing mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified into needle- or beak-like stylet;
               stylet fits into grooved labium
               —entire structure above called a beak or rostrum
       —metathorax usually much smaller than pro- and mesothorax
       —most species have wings; some apterous or with hind wings absent
               —venation reduced in many species
       —almost all undergo simple metamorphosis
       —Suborder Heteroptera: true bugs
               —basal portion of front wings leathery, apical portion membranous (called
                         hemelytra)
               —beak arises from front of head
               —antennae with 4 or 5 segments
               —most species with 2 or 3 tarsal segments
               —Infraorder Enicocephalomorpha, Family Enicocephalidae: Gnat Bugs
                         —front wings entirely membranous
                         —small (2-5 mm)
                         —head elongate, somewhat pointed
               —Infraorder Dipsocoromorpha, Families Dipsocoridae & Schizopteridae:
                         Jumping Ground Bugs
                         —minute (<2 mm), oval shaped
               —Infraorder Nepomorpha: Aquatic Bugs
                         —all are aquatic, rarely inhabit shore lines
                         —antennae short, usually concealed in groove on underside of head
                         —Family Nepidae: Water Scorpions
                         —Family Belostomatidae: Giant Water Bugs
                         —Family Corixidae: Water Boatmen
                         —Family Gelastocoridae: Toad Bugs
                         —Family Naucoridae: Creeping Water Bugs
                         —Family Notonectidae: Backswimmers
                         —Family Pleidae: Pygmy Backswimmers
               —Infraorder Gerromorpha: Semiaquatic Bugs
                         —all are semiaquatic or live on shores near water
                         —antennae are long, not concealed
                         —3 pair of trichobothria on head
                         —Family Mesoveliidae: Water Treaders
                         —Family Hydrometridae: Water Measurers, Marsh Treaders
                         —Family Hebridae: Velvet Water Bugs
                         —Family Veliidae: Broad-Shouldered Water Striders
                         —Family Gerridae: Water Striders
               —Infraorder Leptopodomorpha: Shore Bugs
                         —all are semiaquatic or live on shores near water
                         —antennae are long, not concealed
                         —3 pair of trichobothria on head
                         —Family Saldidae: Shore Bugs
   CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF INSECTS

     —Infraorder Cimicomorpha
            —all terrestrial
            —antennae generally conspicuous
            —generally herbivorous, a few are predators
            —Family Tingidae: Lace Bugs
            —Family Miridae: Leaf Bugs, Plant Bugs
            —Family Nabidae: Damsel Bugs
            —Family Anthocoridae: Minute Pirate Bugs
            —Family Cimicidae: Bed Bugs
            —Family Reduviidae: Assassin Bugs, Ambush Bugs
     —Infraorder Pentatomorpha
            —all terrestrial
            —antennae generally conspicuous
            —generally herbivorous, a few are predators
            —Family Aradidae: Flat Bugs
            —Family Piesmatidae: Ash-Gray Leaf Bugs
            —Family Berytidae: Stilt Bugs
            —Family Lygaeidae: Seed Bugs
            —Family Largidae: Largid Bugs
            —Family Pyrrhocoridae: Red Bugs
            —Family Coreidae: Squash Bugs, Leaf-Footed Bugs
            —Family Alydidae: Broad-Headed Bugs
            —Family Rhopalidae: Scentless Plant Bugs
            —Family Cydnidae: Burrower Bugs
            —Family Thyreocoridae: Negro Bugs
            —Family Scutelleridae: Shield-Backed Bugs
            —Family Pentatomidae: Stink Bugs
            —Family Acanthosomatidae: Acanthostomatid Stink Bugs
—Group “Homoptera”
     —front wings uniform in texture; can be leathery or membranous
     —Suborder Auchenorrhyncha: cicadas and hoppers
            —tarsi with 3 segments; antennae short, bristle-like; always active
            —beak arises from back of head
            —Family Cicadidae: Cicadas
            —Family Membracidae and Aetalionidae: Treehoppers
            —Family Cercopidae: Froghoppers, Spittle Bugs
            —Family Cicadellidae: Leafhoppers
            —Families Delphacidae, Derbidae, Cixiidae, Kinnaridae,
                    Dictyopharidae, Fulgoridae, Achilidae, Tropiduchidae,
                    Flatidae, Acanaloniidae, and Issidae: Planthoppers
     —Suborder Sternorrhyncha: psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, scale insects
            —tarsi with 1 or 2 segments; often lacking legs
            —antennae usually long, filiform
            —beak arises between front coxae; often lacking
            —often sedentary
            —Family Psyllidae: Psyllids, Jumping Plantlice
            —Family Aleyrodidae: Whiteflies
            —Families Aphididae, Eriosomatidae, Adelgidae, and Phylloxeridae:
                    Aphids
CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF INSECTS

        —Families Margarodidae, Ortheziidae, Kerridae, Coccidae,
              Aclerdidae, Cryptococcidae, Kermesidae, Asterolecaniidae,
              Lecanodiaspididae, Cerococcidae, Dactylopiidae, Diaspididae,
              Conchaspididae, Phoenicoccidae, Pseudococcidae, and Eriococcidae:
              Scale Insects, Mealybugs

								
To top