Chapter 6 Police Officers and Law Enforcement Operations by j13N7Ev


									Chapter 6
Police Officers and Law
Enforcement Operations
Who Are the Police?

   Policing is a difficult job
       Modest salaries
       Significant job stress
       Danger
   Many people who would make good
    police officers choose other

   There are many factors that
    determine who is hired
       Physical fitness
       Background
          Character
          Psychological wellness

          Prior criminal record

       Compensation offered by the agency
       Level of education of applicant
Educating the Police
   Some believe there are numerous
       Inculcates responsibility
       Helps communication
       Helps coping with stress
       Helps handle difficult situations
   Others believe empirical research does
    not prove advantages exist:
       Educated police are not superior from the
        client’s point of view
       Fewer citizen complaints but more internal
    Changing Profile of Police
   Police officers have traditionally been white
   Departments are becoming more diverse and
    actively seek to recruit women and minorities
        1968 National Advisory Commission on Civil
        1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act
   Since the 1970s, the percentage of minority
    group members and women has doubled
   Police gain legitimacy in the communities
    they serve when they employ officers from
    all demographic groups
Minority Police Officers
   Over the past two decades, police
    departments have actively recruited
   The extent to which officers reflect the
    racial composition of the communities
    they police is believed to affect police-
    community relations and the quality of
    police work
   Residents hold more favorable attitudes
    toward the police when they are viewed
    as insiders as opposed to outsiders
Women in Police Work

   Role of women in policing is
    restricted by:
       social barriers including gender conflict
        and stereotyping
       administrative barriers including:
          under-representation at senior
           administrative levels
          selective utilization of their skills and
Women in Police Work (contd.)

   Research has shown:
       In general, male and female officers
        perform in similar ways
       Women are fully capable of doing
        street police work and meeting the
        performance expectations of superiors
   Represent 10% of all sworn police

   Most states require preservice training
       Legal rules
       Weapons
       Social relations
   Field Training
       Generally comes after the academy
       Rookies teamed with more seasoned
       Veterans help teach techniques
       Recruits are further socialized into the
The Police Subculture
   Recruits learn the norms and values
    of this subculture during training
    and on the job
   Characterized by clannishness,
    secrecy, and isolation
   Four key issues in understanding
    the police subculture:
       Police “working personality”
       Role of police morality
       Isolation of the police
       Stressful nature of police work
Working Personality
   The working personality is a set of
    emotional and behavioral
    characteristics developed by a
    member of an occupational group in
    response to the work situation and
    environmental influences
   The working personality of the police
    is determined by their distinct
    subculture and governed by norms of:
       perceptions of danger
       authority
Moral Dilemmas Faced By
Police Officers
   The contradiction between the goal of
    preventing crime and their inability to do

   The fact that they must use their
    discretion to “handle” situations in ways
    that do not strictly follow procedures;

   “the fact that they invariably act against
    at least one citizen’s interest, often with
    recourse to coercive force that can maim
    or kill”
Isolation of Police

   Officers feel as if:
       They are looked upon with suspicion
       The public is hostile toward them
   Police solidarity
   Police mainly socialize with other
    police officers and their families
Police and Stress

   Policing is not the only criminal
    justice job that produces stress
   Because of the public nature of
    policing, citizens sometimes suffer
    from the effects of police stress
   There are many sources of negative
    stressors in policing that may
    produce a synergism
   Not all officers respond similarly to
Sources of Stress in Police Work

   Inherent sources
   System sources
   External sources
   Personal sources
The Effects of Stress

   Alcoholism
   Divorce
   Violence
   Depression or suicide
Police Patrol

   Patrol Can be:
       Reactive
       Proactive

    The expectation that police should
     immediately react to a citizens call has
     resulted in Incident Driven Policing
Reactive Police Patrol

   A patrol strategy that is initiated by
    an individual’s call for service
   Dispatchers and responding officers
    generally have some discretion
    about how such calls will be handled
   Calls for service often referred to as
Proactive Police Patrol

   Police cars cruise randomly through
    the streets
   Based on the premise that
    uniformed cops and marked police
    cars will send would-be criminals
    Purposes of Patrol

   Deter crime by being visible
   Maintain public order (peacekeeping)
   Respond quickly to emergencies
   Arrest criminals
   Aid citizens in distress
   Facilitate movement of people and
   Create a sense of safety and security
Sworn Officers and Index Offenses

   These major cities have varying numbers of police officers
    and crimes for every 1,000 residents. As you can see, the
    amount of crime and numbers of police do not always
Time Allocated to Patrol Activities
In Wilmington, Delaware

   The time spent on each activity was calculated
    from records for each police car unit. Note the
    range of activities and the time spent on each.
Differential Police Response:
Research Findings

   Fast police response accounted for
    less than 5% of serious arrests
   Most calls do not require a fast
    response by the police
   Differential response does not
    alienate citizens if they are informed
   It can save significant department
Distribution of Sworn Police

   What does the distribution of officers tell us about
    the role of the police in urban areas? How might
    smaller departments differ from large departments?
Preliminary Investigations

   Generally conducted by patrol
    Good preliminary investigations are
    a major factor in crime solving
   Part of the investigation is the
    incident report which gives details
    about the crime, witnesses and all
    other pertinent factors
Follow-Up Investigations

   Conducted by detectives following
    reports from the initial investigation
    by patrol officers
   Television over-dramatizes this
    aspect of policing
   Citizen cooperation is important
   Many times the offender is known,
    or known of, and the detectives
    simply locate him or her
Four Investigative Functions

   Suspect identified & detective
    gathers evidence
   No suspect identified & detective
    seeks his or her identity
   Maintaining surveillance over known
    suspect before a crime is committed
   No suspect, no crime but a hunch
    something may be up & therefore
    needs watching
The Apprehension Process

   Apprehension of a felony suspect results from a
    sequence of actions by patrol officers and
    detectives. Coordination is key to solving crimes.
How Effective Are Investigations?

   Much time is spent on
    nonproductive work
   Chances of making an arrest are
    most closely linked to when it was
       33% chance if reported in progress
       10% chance if reported 1 minute later
       5% if more than 15 minutes elapse
        before reporting the crime
Preventive Police Patrol

   Police cars cruise randomly through
    the streets
   Based on the premise that
    uniformed cops and marked police
    cars will send would-be criminals
Factors Related to Patrol

   Police administrators ask “Where
    should police officers be sent, when
    and in what numbers?”
       Hot Spots of crime and Directed Patrol
        is a strategy designed to direct
        resources to known high-crime areas
       Hot Times of crime
Kansas City Preventive Patrol

   Empirical research
   Tested results of:
       Preventive patrol, (P)
       Proactive patrol, (Pr)
       Reactive patrol, (R)
   Districts randomly
Kansas City Patrol Experiment
   Crime rates
   Crime reporting rates
   People’s fear of crime
   Opinion about police effectiveness
   Police response time
   Respect for the police in control
   Citizen fear in the proactive beats
Probability of Arrest as a
Function Time After Crime

   The probability of arrest declines sharply when
    the police are not called within seconds. What
    does this imply for patrol policies?
Decision Making Delays

   Different kinds of situations account
    for delays in calling the police
Foot Patrol Experiments

   Did not reduce crime
   Did result in less fear of crime
   Gave officers greater satisfaction
Single Officer Patrols

   Officer safety
   Officer effectiveness
   Fewer arrests
   Fewer injuries
   Fewer complaints
   Fewer resisting arrests
   Similar productivity
Can Proactive Patrol Affect
Crime Rates?

   It may not be the mere presence of
    police that deters crime, but how
    they approach the job
   Aggressive patrol and “crackdowns”
    in crime “hot spots” may help
    reduce criminal activity
“Broken Windows Model”

   Neighborhood disorder creates fear
   Neighborhoods give out crime-
    promoting signals
   Police need citizens’ cooperation
   Department precinct to enforce
    public order offenses that detract
    from the quality of life in the
    For Aggressively Enforcing
    Public Order Offenses
   It reduces residents’ fear of crime, serious crime, and
    urban decay

   Dealing with low-level offenders leads to serious

   Quality of life is improved by not having to deal with
    “street people”

   Support for citizens to uphold neighborhood
    standards for behavior

   Improved citizen cooperation and officer familiarity
    with offenders in the community
    Against Aggressive Enforcement
    of Public Order Offenses
   Police resources should be focused on
    serious crime
   The link between disorder, fear, and
    crime is uncertain
   Aggressive policing against those
    using public spaces in attacking the
    poor, not helping them
   Civil liberties of the poor are infringed
    when the police aggressively enforce
    public order offenses
Four Components of
Community Policing

   Decentralizing decision making to
    include residents
   Making police more accountable to
    the public
   Changing the focus of patrol
    activities to non-emergency
   Community-based crime prevention
SARA and Problem-Oriented
Policing (POP)
   POP is a strategy to seek and find out
    what is causing citizen calls for help.
    SARA is a four step process to do that:
       Scanning the social environment to
        identify problems
       Analysis of the problem by collecting
       Response to the problem by developing
        and employing remedies
       Assessment of the remedies to evaluate
        the extent to which the problem has been
Community-Oriented Policing
   Problem solving is best done at the
    neighborhood level, not in some distant
    headquarters. Locally situated police
    working with residents are a good
    problem-solving team

   Citizens must actively participate with
    police in fighting crime. Power must be
    shared with local groups to give way to a
    “bottom-up” decision-making process
Community-Oriented Policing

   The effective police officer will be
    one whose skills produce well-
    managed communities. Therefore,
    training and recruitment efforts
    must be altered

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