Looking Toward the West

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					Looking Toward the West
Chapter 6 Study Guide

   1. Sooner – people who snuck past the government officials to mark their land claim
       in advance
   2. land speculator – people who bought up large areas of land in the hope of selling
       it later for a large profit
   3. boomer – name for settlers and homesteaders
   4. exoduster – a group of African Americans that migrated west to escape racial
       violence in the south
   5. reservation – a tract of public land set apart for a special purpose…the use of an
       Indian tribe
   6. dry farming – planting crops that did not require a great deal of water and keeping
       the fields free of weeds; a type of farming practiced in semi-arid or dry grassland
       areas without irrigation…drought resistant crops and clearing weeds
   7. bonanza farms – resulted from the combination of big business and new
       agricultural techniques
   8. placer mining – the mining of minerals using loose dirt and water (panning)
   9. long drive – transporting cattle from ranges to cow towns
   10. deflation – drop in the prices/values of goods
   11. monetary policy – the federal government’s plan for the make-up and quantity of
       the nation’s money supply
   12. stereotypes – oversimplified, fixed ideas widely believed about a group of people
   13. “buffalo soldier” – Name for African American calvary men by the Native

Identification Terms:
   14. Morrill Land-Grant Act – provided ways for settlers to acquire western lands
   15. Homestead Act – provided ways for settlers to acquire western lands, 160 acres
   16. Battle of Little Bighorn – Custer’s Calvary was wiped out
   17. Massacre at Wounded Knee – American soldiers killed more than 200 unarmed
   18. homesteaders lifestyles – often had to struggle even for the necessities, hardships
        led settlers to depend on one another, example…barnraising, quilting bees etc
   19. Dawes Act – 1887 Act gave separate plots of land to each Native American
        family headed by a male
   20. Bland-Allison Act – required the federal government to purchase more
        silver…increasing the money supply and inflation
   21. the Grange – pressured state legislatures to regulate the businesses that farmers
        relied on
   22. “free silver” benefit for farmers – increase in crop prices
   23. farmers complaints – high tariffs on manufactured goods
   24. Interstate Commerce Act – passed to regulate railroad rates and practices
   25. Populist – supported a progressive income tax, free silver, and an eight hour work
   26. progressive income tax – the percentage of tax a person pays increases as their
       income increases
   27. Turner thesis – 1893, claimed the frontier had played a central role in forming the
       American character, helped create the strong, individualistic American Spirit
   28. farm mechanization – resulted in an increase in farm production and stress of debt
       in years with poor crop yields
   29. end of open range – invention of barbed wire used to fence in the open range ded
       the cattle boom
   30. myths of west – settlers were nearly all white males

Other Topics to Consider:
William Jennings Bryan – ran as the Democratic and Populist party nominee in the
presidential election of 1896
William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody – American who became famous by playing up the
myths of the American West in his Wild West show
Juliette Low – in 1912, this American woman founded the American Girl Scouts because
she feared that civilization had made girls too soft

Open Response Possibilities:
   1. The conquest of the Native Americans resulted from a clash of cultures. Based on
      prior knowledge and class activities and discussion provide evidence to both
      support and refute this statement.

   2. Discuss the rationalization used by white Americans to justify violating treaties
      and taking Native American land. Under what biases were the reformers
      operating who wanted to “civilize” the Native Americans? What assumptions did
      the federal government make in passing the Dawes Act? What examples of these
      issues do we continue to see in the world today?
      Many agreements between Native Americans and settlers had differing concepts
      of land ownership. Settlers felt they had a greater right to western lands than the
      Native Americans because they produced more food and wealth than the Native
      Americans. The experiences of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce illustrate how
      violent conflicts arose among settlers, the federal government, and Native
      Americans. One way the government sought to change Native Americans was by
      requiring them to farm individual plots of land.
           Dawas Act
           Chief Joseph = the chief that led the Nez Perce’ in their flight from the
              U.S. Army

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