Ancient Egypt by dfbNK5e7


									Ancient Egypt

 History and Culture
 Centered
 around the
 The Nile River Valley:
   the only source of water
   annual flooding from snow melt and rains in
    southern mountains
   farmlands were covered for months
   deposits of rich soil and nutrients – the silt or
    “black land”
   vast areas of desert “red land”
   farmers dug canals from the river to irrigate
    during growing season
 deserts isolated Egyptians from other
 April to July extremely hot weather
 the Nile rises from June to Oct – highest
  mid-July to mid-Oct
 the Nile rises from June to Oct
     highest mid-July to mid-Oct
 floods 20 inches below or above ‘normal’
  levels were catastrophic
 fished year round
 cattle grazed near the river when it was low,
  moved when high
 cultivated barley, emmer wheat, beans,
  chickpeas, flax
 river and delta (lotus flower - symbol
  regeneration of life)
 Nile was the highway for travel and trade
  (until 19th cen.)
 Cataracts, or steep rapids divide Egypt from
  the rest of the Nile
 Upper and Lower Egypt:
   the Nile flows from the south to the Mediterranean
   Upper Egypt is higher in elevation, although in the
   Lower Egypt is lower in elevation, although in the
   Lower Egypt is dominated by the delta region
   Upper Egypt has a more mild climate, more rainfall
   different dialects in Upper and Lower Egypt
   King Menes (3100BC) united according to legend
   Narmer Plate suggests King Narmer unified
 Predynastic Period (late 6th-late 4th millennium
   early agricultural communities to urban settlements
   Upper similar to North African cultures
   Lower more similar to western Asiatic
 Protodynastic Period (ca. 3300Ð3100 B.C.)
   Lower Egypt increasingly influenced by Upper
    Egyptian culture, through trade, also cultural
    influences also from western Asia
   unified gradually with the spread of a uniform material
    culture and a series of conflicts
   Beginning of hieroglyphic writing
   Few names of kings (Dynasty 0) known
 ARCHAIC PERIOD (ca. 3100-2650 B.C.)
   Dynasty 1and 2
   Egypt unified under the rule of one pharaoh
    (mythical name: Menes; historical figures: Narmer
    and Aha).
   Capital at Memphis
   mud-brick burial monuments of kings at Abydos
   large tombs of officials at Saqqara
   Trade with Canaan and Nubia
      military raids into Nubia
Narmer Plate
 Old Kingdom: 2575-2130 BC
   Pharaohs ruled, viziers gave advice
   Great Pyramids built
 First Intermediate Period: 2130-1938 BC
   Disunity, chaos
 Middle Kingdom: 1938-1630 BC
   Nile was not as predictable, farming harder
   Rebellions and corruption common
   Occupied parts of Nubia/Kush, increased contact and
    trade w/Mediterranean world
 Second Intermediate Period: 1630-1539 BC
   Hyskos invasions, adoption of Egyptian lifestyle
 New Kingdom: 1539-1075 BC
   Empire stretches from Syria to Tygris/Euphrates
   Increased contact w/outside world
   Bury pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings
   Hatshepsut – female pharaoh 1472 BC
       Not coregent, dressed as a man; gave power to stepson
   Amenhotep IV becomes Akhenaten, Armana Period
    1380 BC
   Rule of Ramses II 1279BC
       Conquered Nubia – rich in gold, ivory, cattle, slaves
 Third Intermediate Period: 1075-712 BC
    North controlled by Pharoah, south by preist of Amun
    Lybians settled in delta area, conflicts with Assyrians
 Late Period: 712-332 BC
    Rule under the Nubians
    Rule under the Assyrians – placed an Egyptian Pharaoh on
    Rule under Persians
 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt: 332 BC–395 BC
    Rule under Alexander the Great
    Rule under the Ptolemaic dynasties – Cleopatra and Ptolemy
    Rule under the Romans – Caesar made a province
The jackal god of the dead
Presides over weighing of the heart
Mummified Osiris

Hathor: (Hat-Heru)
Mistress of heaven
Cow-headed goddess
Depicted with head or horns of

Horus: (Heru)
God of the sky
Depicted with head of a falcon
Son of Osiris and Isis
Protector of the reigning Pharaoh

Isis: (Aset)
The ‘throne’ of Egypt
Depicted with the hieroglyph
Wife of Osiris, mother of Horus
Goddess of truth
Personification of justice and purity
Crowned with the feather of justice

Osiris: (Asar)
King of the dead
God of vegetation and regeneration
Depicted as a mummy
Judge in the Double Hall of Ma’at

Ra: (Re)
Father of the gods
God of the sun
Depicted as a falcon with the sun as a

Seth: (Set)
God of Chaos and destruction
Depicted as ‘aardvark’ headed god
Brother to Osiris

Thoth: (Tahauti)
The great measurer
Moon god of wisdom and writing
Depicted as ‘ibis’ headed god
Often has scroll and pen
Records all that happens

White Crown:
This crown was worn by the Pharaohs and gods of Upper
Egypt before the two lands were unified.
Red Crown:
This crown was worn by the Pharaohs and gods of Lower
Egypt before the two lands were unified.
Double Crown:
Once Egypt was united under one Pharaoh they wore the
double crown of upper and lower Egypt, combing the white
and red crowns.
Blue Crown:
Later Pharaohs are also seen wearing the blue crown. It is
typically associated with warfare.

In the shape of a mirror or a knot, the ankh is a symbol of life. It was
often carried by deities or people in a funeral procession, or offered to
the king as the breath of life.
A cartouche is an elliptical outline representing a length of rope that
encloses the names of royal persons in hieroglyphs. It symbolized the
pharaoh's status as ruler of all that the sun encircled.
Crook and Flail:
The crook and flail are two of the most prominent items in the royal
regalia. Kings held them across their chest. The crook, in the shape of a
shepherd's staff, is a scepter symbolizing government and that may be
related to the concept of a good shepherd leading his flock.

The head cloth pulled tight across the forehead and tied at the
back, with two flaps hanging on the sides. Cobra (uraeus) and
vulture heads were worn on the forehead.
The Egyptian symbol for gold is a collar with beads along the lower
edge. Gold has long been associated with the gods and royalty. This
imperishable metal reflects the brilliance of the sun and the hope of
eternal life.
The blue lotus was a symbol of the sun god and the pharaohs. The
lotus thus became a symbol of rebirth, the renewal of life and the
promise of everlasting life.
This beetle would lay it’s eggs in a ball of dung and roll it, which
came to be associated with the sun being rolled across the sky. It
represents the rising sun god, and the pharaohs.
The was, a symbol of power and dominion, has a straight shaft, a
crooked handle in the shape of an animal head and a forked base. The
sekhem symbolizes divine power and has a straight shaft with an
enlarged cylindrical end.

The circular ring of shen represents the concept of eternity, having no
beginning and no end. It is associated with the solar disk, the serpent
that bites it’s tail, and divine birds are often seen carrying it.

The rearing cobra was a symbol of Lower Egypt. It is a symbol of royal
protection as it wards off the enemies of the royals and guides the way
to the fields of eternal peace.

A symbol for Upper Egypt, Pharaohs wore a vulture on their head as a
sign of royal protection.
 Balance and Symmetry:
   balanced forms and compositions
   clear outlines
   simplified shapes
   flat areas of color
   create order and clarity
   reflected permanent aspects of life, formal images
   people of less importance might be seen in an active
   scenes were arranged in horizontal rows called
 Measured Proportions:
   artists used horizontal and vertical guidelines
   proportions related to width of the palm
   entire figure is 18 palms high (feet to hairline)
   face is 2 palms high
   shoulders are 16 palms from the bottom of
   elbows are aligned at 12 palms from the base
   knees are drawn at 6 palms from the base
 Scale and stance:
     size indicates relative importance
     women keep their legs together
     men’s legs are apart
     shoulders are seen from the front
     the torso and hips are seen in ¾ view
     legs and arms are in profile
     head is shown in profile
     the eyes are shown to the front
 During most of Egypt history
  the proportions of the
  human figure were related
  to the width of the palm of
  the hand. The entire figure
  from feet to hairline is
  eighteen palms high (the top
  of the head not included);
  the face is two palms high.
  The shoulders are aligned
  at 16 palms from the base
  of the figure, the elbows
  align at 12 palms from the
  base and the knees at 6.
 The following are commonly used poses and gestures:
    worshiping both arms extended forward with hands upraised
    presenting, offering both arms extended forward with an object held in one or
     both palms
    ready to receive offerings seated with one or both arms resting on one’s lap,
     palms down
    summoning one arm extended forward with the palm open
    protecting both arms extended out to the sides with the palms facing forward
    rejoicing both arms extended out to the sides with palms turned away from the
    praising crouched on one knee, one arm raised and the other held against the
     chest with clenched fist
    mourning arms raised with palms turned toward the face
                  Osiris Myth
 Background:
   Osiris and Set are brothers
   Osiris becomes a great king and Set becomes jealous
 The Plot
   Osiris has left Egypt to civilize other countries, Isis
    rules in his name while he’s gone
   Set obtains measurements of his body
   Set has a beautiful box made, with jewels and inlays
   Osiris returns and attends a party Set throws
   Set offers the beautiful box to whoever it fits
   Osiris gets in, and Set nails the box (coffin) shut and
    throws it into the river
                  Osiris Myth
 Isis grieves for Osiris:
    Isis discovers what has happens and grieves
    The coffin washed ashore in Byblos and a tamarisk
     tree encloses it within it’s trunk, growing huge
    The king of Byblos cut the tree and used it in his
    Isis hears about the tree, and travels to Byblos
    Isis befriends the maidservants of the palace and
     becomes the nurse of one of the princes
    Isis reveals herself and asks for the trunk and the
     coffin of Osiris
                  Osiris Myth
 Isis returns to Egypt
    She puts breaths life back into Osiris and conceives
    Set discovers this and steals the body while Isis is
    Set cuts the body into 14 pieces and scatters them
     through out Egypt (14 cities and temples were
    Isis returns, and goes to collect the parts of Osiris
    Anubis takes the body and embalms it, wrapping it up
     (the first mummy)
 The revenge of Horus
    Horus has grown to adulthood and seeks to avenge
     his father
    Horus defeats Set and unifies Egypt
               The Body and Death
 The Body
    Khet or Iru: form or appearance – the body in life
    Khat: the body after death, corpse
    Sah: the mummified body
 Parts of a person
    Ka: the spirit or essence of a person, the double of the person
    Ba: an individual’s distinctive manifestation – the non-physical
    Akh: fully resurrected and glorified form of the deceased in the afterlife
    Name: "living" part, assigned at birth
    Shadow: “living” part, has power and is capable of moving at great
 Life
    Ka comes into existence at birth, serving as the double of the person
    The ka is sustained through food and drink
    The name of a person is assigned at birth and allows the individual to
     enter into existence
          The Body and Death
 Death
   The dead travels to the hall of Maat
   The heart (conscious) is weighed against the feather of Maat
   If worthy, the dead meets Osiris and enters into The Fields of
    Peace, if unsuccessful they are devoured by the demon Ammut
   The Ka is separated from the body and returns to the creator,
    living on after the body dies
   The goal of the deceased is to rejoin the ka each day in order to
    live again
   Food offerings kept the Ka alive, by absorbing the spirit of the
   The Ba rejoins the mummy and receive the power of rebirth each
    day, making the person an ‘effective being’
           Book of the Dead
 Background:
   1st day after death, the soul travels to the
    afterlife for judgment
   the mummification process takes over 70
    days – this time is used to finish up tombs, ect
   Reu nu pert em hru or chapters coming forth
    by day was placed in most tombs by 1600 BC
   varying qualities – could commission a nice
    one, or buy one ‘off the rack’
   not a bound book, but papyrus
             Book of the Dead
   ‘deceased’s guidebook to a happy afterlife’
   included passwords, clues, revealed routes so
    dead could find their way, answer questions,
    and navigate hazards
 Funeral Procession:
     hired mourners, patting dirt on their heads
     cow & calf for funeral feast
     offering of food and drink for the ka
     gathering of grave goods
              Book of the Dead
 Grave Goods:
     home furnishings – tables, chairs, etc
     funerary boat
     jewelry and amulets
     Shabtis – servants for the afterlife
     canopic jars
 Opening of the Eyes and Mouth:
   restores mummy’s ability to see, eat, and breathe
   mummy can recite spells and give commands
                 Book of the Dead
 Judgment in the Hall of Double Ma’at:
      Anubis at the Scales
      Ammut ready to eat the impure
      Thoth recording the findings
      feather of Ma’at on scale, Ma’at on top
 The Fields of Peace:
      like Egypt, but better
      can become a khu
      can eat and drink
      can plow and reap the harvest
      can have relationships
      never in a state of servitude, always in power
     The Art of Mummification
 Overview:
   entire process took over 70 days from beginning to
   priests had a very extensive knowledge of the human
   it wasn’t until the mid 1300 AD that autopsies became
 Process:
   first step is to remove the organs that decayed rapidly
   the brain was removed by pulling pieces out through
    the nose
   the heart was left in the body because it was believed
    to be the center of a person’s intelligence
 The Art of Mummification
 Canopic Jars:
   the stomach, intestines, lungs, and liver were
    preserved separately from the body
   the four sons of Horus protected the organs
   DUAMUTEF was the jackal headed god who
    protected the stomach
   HAPY was the baboon headed god who
    protected the lungs
   IMSETY was the human headed god who
    protected the liver
   QEBEHSENUEF was the falcon headed god
    who protected the intestines
     The Art of Mummification
 Moisture Removal:
   the body would be washed in a solution of natron – a
    naturally occurring salt
   after the organs were removed, the body was dried
    with clean natron, filling the hollow body cavities
   the drying of the body would take 35-40 days
 Prepping the Body:
   after the body was dried, the natron would be
    replaced with fresh natron bags, soaked linen, and
    aromatic spices
   the skull was also stuffed with linen
   false eyes would be added (original eyes had sunk)
   make-up would make the corpse look more life-like
     The Art of Mummification
 Wrapping the Body:
   hundreds of yards of long, thin linen were
    used to wrap the body
   fingers and toes would be wrapped
    individually, then as a foot/hand
   amulets would be added between the
    wrappings for protection
   the mummy was coated with warm resin
    several times
   a final cloth was used to wrap the body as a
   the wrapping process took about 15 days
 Sacred writing:
   Used to record information and administer the kingdom
   Called the writing of the gods, associated with Thoth
   Used to carve inscriptions on temples
   Lost literacy and the Rosetta Stone – 19th Cent. Jean
   Written in horizontal lines or columns
Rosetta Stone
 Generally read from right to left – based on
  the orientation of human and animal figures
  (they face the beginning of the text)
 Writing had ‘magical powers’ – wrote the
  name of the deceased on tombs and carvings
  so the gods would hear the prayers
 Removing the name of a pharaoh was to
  forget them (as with Tutankhamen and
   Daily Life: Trades and Crafts
 Clay pots and baskets
     mud from the Nile
     used to cook food
     containers for grains, water, wine, beer, flour, oils
     baskets were made from reeds or leaves of date
 Artisans:
     superior to common laborers
     learned trade from ‘master’
     did not typically sign pieces
     exceptional ability was rewarded through increased
  Daily Life: Trades and Crafts
 Carpenters:
   products include: roofing beams, furniture, statues
   tools: saws, axes, chisels, adzes, wooden mallets,
    stone polishers, and bow drills
   wood was scare and imported
 Stonemasons and Sculptors:
   had to adhere to strict stylistic rules
   stone was shaped and smoothed by masons using
    stone hammers
   for bas-reliefs draftsmen outline images on the stone
    before a team of sculptors began carving then with
    copper chisels
   stone vessels were made by shaping the stone with
    abrasives such as quartz sand
   interiors were carved out using a crank-shaped drill
  Daily Life: Trades and Crafts
 Bead Making:
   used semi-precious stones
   drilled hole in bead after shaping
 Brick makers and potters:
   used iqdou or Nile mud
   brick makers mixed mud with sand
   bricks were slapped into wooden molds and dried in
    the sun
   potters mixed mug, cow dung, water and straw
   exterior of vessels were covered with a red slip before
  Daily Life: Trades and Crafts
 Merchants and trade:
   good years meant trading excess grain
   barter system economy
   stone weights were used to determine grain value
 Mistress of the House:
     women could earn wages
     women could own property and employ workers
     main role was within the family
     equal with men before the law (could sue for
      damages or divorce)
     weaving
     perfume making
     baking
     needlework
   Daily Life: Trades and Crafts
 Transportation:
      the Nile was the ‘highway’ that joined the country
      didn’t travel by land until the 19th century
      watercraft had a high stern and bow
      by the New Kingdom, boats had cabins at both ends
      skiffs were made of papyrus reeds that were tied together
      wooden boats had square sails and oars
      boats could move easily along the Nile up to the 1st cataract
      wheel was likely introduced by the Hyksos
      copied horse-drawn chariots (used by royals only or for warfare)
                 Daily Life: Food
 Flooding:
     the river rises starting in July
     the low-lying plains are flooded on either side of the Nile
     the flood deposited soil rich in nutrients
     the river rose 27 feet on average
     8 feet higher and villages flooded
     8 feet lower meant too little soil, nutrients, and moisture
 Farming:
   the flood plains supported a rich variety of plants and
   most people were farmers
   when the flood waters receded, farmers blocked canals
    used for irrigation
   they used a shaduf to get more water from the Nile (this
    was a bucket on a pulley system)
              Daily Life: Food
 Animals:
   livestock supplied meat, milk, hides and dung (for
    cooking fuel)
   draft animals were used for farming
   herdsmen and shepherds lived semi-nomadic
    pasturing their animals
 Food Staples:
   principle crops were barley and emmer
   main staples were beer and bread (barley bread was
    eaten or soaked in water and fermented for the beer)
   grew a large variety of vegetables and fruits
   fishing and domesticated animals (pigs, sheep, goats)
    supplemented the diet
            Daily Life: Food
 Hunting and Fishing:
   Pharaohs and nobles went on hunting,
    fishing, and fowling expeditions – recreation
    and ritual significance
   hunting showed the physical prowess of the
   fishing allowed the poor to substitute for meat
    with they could not otherwise afford
        Monumental Architecture
 Mastabas
   built on the west side of the Nile
   burial chamber down a steep
    shaft below a flat surfaced
    stone building
   filled with the luxuries of life
 Step Pyramid of Djoser (3rd
   designed by Imhotep
   the first Mastaba was square,
    not rectangular
   Mastabas were stacked on top
    of each other, creating a step
   6 tiers in total
Evolution of pyramids
     Monumental Architecture
 Pyramids of Giza (3rd
  and 4th Dynasties)
   the Great Pyramid of
   Pyramids of Kafhre and
 Bent Pyramid (4th
   changes in angle from
    52° to 43.5°
   has two entrances – two
         Monumental Architecture
 Sphinx (4th Dynasty)
   roughly 4,640 years old
   originally commissioned by
   body 150 ft long (paws 50 ft
    long, head 30x14 ft)
   paint residue suggests it was
    originally painted
   the nose was shot off by
    Turkish target practice
   beard has worn away
   has been buried by the sand
    several times
   erosion on the body has given
    the stone a wavy effect
         Monumental Architecture
 Valley of the Kings (New
   on the west side of the Nile
    (the land of the dead)
   tombs of kings, queens,
    and nobles
   cut into the limestone of
    dried river bed
   tombs were filled with
    luxuries of life
   tomb of King Tutankhamen
    – discovered intact in 1922
    Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
 Rule:
   18th dynasty, ruled from 1352-1336 BC
   Wives – Nefertiti, Merytaten, Kiya, Mekytaten,
   Son/Nephew – Tutankhamen
   Co-regent – Smenkhare? – coincides with
    disappearance of Nefertiti theory that Nefertiti
    was elevated as a Pharaoh with Akhenaten
     Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
 Reforms:
   16/17th year of rule – changes name from Amenhotep IV to
   Priests of Amon-Re were powerful
   Raise worship of the Aten – the disk of the sun
   Movement of the capital to new site “untainted by other gods”
    Akhetaten (modern el-Amarna)
   Reverts temples in Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis to the power of
    the throne, removes priest’s power
   New form of worship – only Pharaoh and royal family can
    worship directly, the people worship through them
   New temple style – an open area with a platform that Akhenaten
    would worship from, and the people would worship Akhenaten to
    worship the Aten
     Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
 Art Reform of the Amarna
   Replaced traditional idealized
    human form
   Head is elongated and the
    body has excessive adiposity
    (wide hips, thin waist, almost
    womanish figure)
   Emergence of ‘daily’ art of the
    royal family
   Theories of deformity: hyper-
    pituitary gland, growth
   Religious ideals – the pharaoh
    as the mother and father
     Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
 Removal from history:
   Young Tutankhamen rises to
   Strong aristocracy influences
    return to traditional religion
   City of Akhetaten is deserted –
    people left in droves
   Removal of name from temples
   Turning of blocks with his name
   Either left off ‘king lists’ or left as
    ‘he was a bad king’

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