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SESSION 6: LITERACY AND ADAPTING BOOKS February 22, 2010 Dr. Wakeman OBJECTIVES Finish UDL and verify understandings Build capacity for developing lesson plans that address necessary content at advanced levels Identify the components of reading Consider how to promote literacy with SWSCD Plan how to adapt a provided text as well as a chosen text CREATING THE LESSON PLAN: PART 1 “INITIAL PLANNING” SPED 5274 PPT created by Alicia Saunders SCORING MATRIX AND DESCRIPTION Print a copy of the Scoring Matrix to guide you throughout the process! “INITIAL PLANNING” COMPONENTS INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 1 Brief description of classroom context and student(s) characteristics, including ESL, IEP and 504 accommodations. 3 possible levels of achievement: Developing (Level 1) No description given for one or more of the following: classroom and available resources, characteristics of class and accommodations necessary for special needs. Acceptable (Level 2) Basic information about the classroom, resources, characteristics of the class and accommodations provided. Exemplary (Level 3) Candidate provides complete description of classroom including resources available for use during instruction, characteristics of the class and description of accommodations necessary for any special needs student(s). IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE: DEVELOPING (LEVEL 1) This lesson plan was designed for a self- contained classroom for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. There are four students in grades K-3. IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE: ACCEPTABLE (LEVEL 2) This lesson was designed for an elementary, self-contained classroom for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the content area of science. The class is comprised of four students with ASD in grades K-3, ages ranging from 5-8. Two students are symbolic learners, and two students are early-symbolic learners. The classroom uses several low-tech and high-tech assistive technology to accommodate the needs of the individual students. IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE: EXEMPLARY (LEVEL 3) This lesson was designed for an elementary, self- contained classroom for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the content area of science. The class is comprised of four students with ASD in grades K-3. Two students are symbolic learners. One male student, age 8, is fully verbal and communicative. One female student, age 7, has very limited verbal skills, but is a strong reader and comprehends written paired with pictorial text and directions. She is Hispanic, and English is her second language. The remaining two students are early-symbolic learners. One male student, age 5, is non-verbal and communicates using pictorial representations, but difficulty understanding written text or directions. One female student, age 6, has very limited functional communication, primarily using echolalia, and demonstrates great difficulty in understanding verbal or written directions. She can identify a few sight words and can write her name. The classroom uses several low-tech and high-tech types of assistive technology to accommodate the needs of the individual students, including: Boardmaker symbols, Writing with Symbols 2000, Cheap Talks, and Big Mack switches. CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 1 Did you describe your type of setting/classroom (self- contained, resource, etc.)? Did you describe your level of classroom (elementary, middle, or high school)? Did you name the academic content area being taught? Did you describe the disability composition of class (e.g., SCD or ASD) and number of students? Did you describe your students’ grade levels and ages? Did you state if any students are ESL? Did you describe each students’ access levels? Did you describe accommodations needed for students to communicate or access content? Did you describe any resources available for your instruction related to your lesson (if applicable)? INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 2 Identification of specific learning objective(s) (outcomes) and standards addressed. 3 possible levels of achievement: Developing (Level 1) More than one of the elements is missing, unclear or inappropriate. Stated as activities rather than learning outcomes. Acceptable (Level 2) Objective(s) clearly stated and provides purpose. Standards alignment is correct. One of the elements may be missing, unclear or inappropriate. Exemplary (Level 3) Candidate develops objectives based upon student data (Present Level of Performance). Objectives are measurable with precise outcomes at a mastery level which matches the developmental stage of student(s). Aligned with required standards (NC-SCOS), scope and sequence of curriculum and accommodations. IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE: DEVELOPING (LEVEL 1) The learner will distinguish between living and nonliving things. IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE: ACCEPTABLE (LEVEL 2) Subject: Life Science, Grade Level: 1 Competency Goal 1: The learner will conduct investigations and make observations to build an understanding of the needs of living organisms. 1.02 Investigate the needs of a variety of different animals: Air, Water, Food, Shelter, Space. Extended Content Standard: Investigate needs of plants and animals - Air, food, water and space. Mastery Objective: Student will sort pictures of animals or plants to indicate “lives in ocean” or “does not live in ocean. IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE: EXEMPLARY (LEVEL 3) NCSCOS/1st grade/Science/Competency Goal 1: The learner will conduct investigations and make observations to build an understanding of the needs of living organisms. 1.02 Investigate the needs of a variety of different animals: Air, Water, Food, Shelter, Space. Extended Content Standard: Investigate needs of plants and animals - Air, food, water and space. Mastery Objective: Symbolic: Student will sort objects/pictures of animals or plants into “lives in the ocean” or “does NOT live in the ocean” with 80% accuracy for 3 consecutive lessons. Early-Symbolic: When presented with a picture or object of an animal or plant, student will activate switch to indicate “yes” for lives in the ocean or “no” for does not live in the ocean with 80% accuracy for 2 out of 3 consecutive lessons. CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 2 Did you choose an ACADEMIC objective? Did you specifically list the NCSCOS standard and grade level? Did you list the Extended Content Standard for that NCSCOS competency goal and grade level? Did you create a MASTERY goal aligned with the students’ access level(s)? Is your MASTERY goal measurable, observable, and precise? Did you list specific criterion? INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 3 Identification of what the students must know prior to this lesson (prerequisites) that you will build upon. 3 possible levels of achievement: Developing (Level 1) Prerequisite skills and concepts not clearly identified and/or incorrect for lesson objective. Acceptable (Level 2) Most prerequisite skills and concepts are clearly articulated but some important skills may have been missed. Exemplary (Level 3) Prerequisite skills and concepts are clearly articulated, complete and are correct for the stated lesson objective(s). DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? Students need to demonstrate awareness of science lessons. Developing DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? Prerequisite skills these students need to know in order to complete the lesson include the main similarities and differences between humans and sea life, living and non-living things, and a variety of habitats. Acceptable DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? Prerequisite skills required for completing this lesson include: an understanding of object and/or pictorial representations, the ability to activate a switch or Cheap Talk to indicate selection (early- symbolic students) or the ability to sort pictures or objects into a T-chart (symbolic students), the ability to distinguish between living and non- living things, and an understanding the difference between a land habitat and an ocean habitat. Exemplary CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 3 Did you describe the pre-requisite skills each student must know to complete the lesson? If this is a “building block” skill, what have the students already learned that is pertinent to completing this lesson? If AT is being used, what must the students know how to do in order to complete the lesson (i.e., recognize picture symbols, activate a switch, use an eye gaze board, etc.)? INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 4 Identification of resources needed to teach this objective including appropriate technology to use. 3 possible levels of achievement: Developing (Level 1) Listing of resources incomplete and not clearly thought out. Technology either missing or inappropriate for objective. Acceptable (Level 2) Listing of necessary resources given. Technology used within the lesson. Exemplary (Level 3) Resources used are integrated into the lesson and make a significant contribution to student learning. Technology well integrated into lesson or a strong rationale given for not using technology. DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? During this lesson, we will be using pictures and objects of plants and animals that live on land and in the ocean. We will also use a T-chart for sorting these items. In addition, we will use Big Mack switches and other AAC devices to reinforce vocabulary words, to allow the students to indicate choice about a topic, and to make requests during lesson activities. There will be two Big Mack switches, one Cheap Talk 4, and one Cheap Talk 8. These devices are primarily used for the early symbolic level learners, who require object and/or pictorial representation to aid in their comprehension of a subject. Exemplary DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? We will use pictures and objects to distinguish between plants and animals that live in the water or on land. Developing DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY? We will be using high-tech and low-tech AAC devices for this lesson. We will also use objects and pictures to represent the land and aquatic animals and plants. Students will sort these items on a T-chart. Acceptable CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 4 Did you list low-tech AAC devices used (e.g., picture symbols, Boardmaker symbols, digital pictures, etc.)? Did you list high-tech AAC devices used (e.g., Big Mack, Cheap Talks, DynaVox, Smart Board, Intellitools, etc.) ? Did you list other materials that are necessary for the lesson implementation (e.g., graph, T- chart, Venn Diagram, etc.)? CREATING THE LESSON PLAN: PART 2 “LESSON INTRODUCTION” SPED 5274 PPT created by Alicia Saunders “LESSON INTRODUCTION” COMPONENTS * Refer to chapter from the textbook related to your content area and look for the “Task Analysis” Appendix (e.g., “A Task Analysis to Use for Teaching Math Stories”). The first few steps may help with the development of items 5 and 6. II. LESSON INTRODUCTION (LI): ELEMENT 5 • #5 Focus or Review • 3 possible levels of achievement: – Developing (Level 1) • States pre-skills rather than using questions to gauge readiness. Misses opportunity to motivate students and help them make connections. – Acceptable (Level 2) • Individual students checked for pre-skills. Limited questions used to gauge readiness for lesson. Focusing activity somewhat sets stage for attending to the lesson, but important connections missed. – Exemplary (Level 3) • Background knowledge and skills key to student success in this lesson checked to gauge readiness for the lesson. Clear connections made to prior learning or knowledge. If completely new instruction, focus has the potential to stimulate interest and motivate student to pay attention. LESSON INTRODUCTION: ELEMENT 5 EXEMPLARY EXAMPLE • To create interest and focus on the new lesson, I presented the students with four different objects related to the lesson. – “Today, we are going to learn about something really exciting! I have some things I want you to look at first. I will give all of you a chance to look at each item and you can touch each one if you would like.” • The four items presented were: a glass mason jar with blue water with a foam dolphin, foam seaweed and foam starfish glued to the front of the jar, an orange sand bucket, a small glass container with sand in it, and a seashell. I asked the students, – “What do you think we will be learning about today?” • Students were given an array of three picture symbols for them to choose from to make a prediction about the lesson, including a farmhouse, an airplane, and the ocean. – “What do you think we are going to be talking about today? Are we going to talk about a big red barn? (Point to barn.) An airplane? (Point to airplane.) Or the ocean? (Point to ocean.)” • Each student made a prediction and I reinforced/redirected each selection. For example, – “John thinks today’s lesson will be about the ocean? You are right! Good job! Mary thinks we are going to learn about the barn. Let’s look at our items again. Do we find sand and seashells in the barn? Do we find blue water in the barn? No. Let’s try to predict again.” • I praised all correct predictions and redirected incorrect predictions to make a new choice by reviewing the materials before them and their response card options. WHAT COULD BE REMOVED FROM THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE TO MAKE THIS A “DEVELOPING” EXAMPLE? No anticipatory set (materials to engage students). Students were told what they would be learning about. WHAT COULD BE REMOVED FROM THE PREVIOUS RESPONSE TO MAKE THIS AN “ACCEPTABLE” EXAMPLE? Students still were shown materials by the teacher but were not given the opportunity to explore the materials. • Students still were asked, “What do you think we will be learning about today?” but students who needed responding methods (e.g., AAC device, pictures) were not provided with accommodations. • No reinforcement or redirection were given for any attempted responding by students. CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 5 Did you gain students’ attention? Did you include an anticipatory set (e.g., materials to explore, a personally-relevant story, an adapted text, etc.)? Did you check each student for prior learning? Did you make connections between prior knowledge and lesson topic? Did you include a sample script? II. LESSON INTRODUCTION (LI): ELEMENT 6 • #6 Statement of objective in student terms • 3 possible levels of achievement: – Developing (Level 1) • Objective is unclear with no specific performance set for what students will know how to do. Students not given an idea of what candidate will look for in his or her performance. – Acceptable (Level 2) • Objective is briefly stated and provides clear purpose. Limited performance expectations given. What candidate expect students to do as a part of the lesson may or may not be given. – Exemplary (Level 3) • Connections made between earlier learning and present lesson. New skill, concept or purpose is clearly stated for the student in behavioral terms and is specific to performance. Relevance is established for the student and informally tells what you expect to observe students doing as a result of your lesson. LESSON INTRODUCTION: ELEMENT 6 EXEMPLARY EXAMPLE • The previous lesson focused on discriminating between living and non-living things. This lesson will focus on the ocean habitat and plants and animals which live in that habitat. A KWHL chart will be used to identify students’ prior knowledge, examine what students want to learn, direct the investigation, and show what was learned in the lesson. – “Today, we are going to learn about things that live in the ocean. Last week, we talked about things that live, or breathe and eat, and things that are not living. There are a lot of things that live in the ocean. Let’s look at what we know about the ocean and ocean life. (Point to K on chart). Will you help me make a list of things we know?” • Symbolic students are given the opportunity to generate their own answers. • Early symbolic students are given a printed choice board of pictures paired with text to determine what they already know. – “Now, what would you like to know about ocean life?” (Point to W on chart). • Students use same response method as listed above to generate response. – “How are we going to find out more about ocean life?” (Point to H on chart). • Students use same response method as listed above to generate response. KWHL CHART An example of a KWHL chart from Teaching to Standards: Science Courtade, Jimenez, Trela, and Browder (2008) Attainment Company, Verona, WI. SAMPLE STORY-BASED MATH PROBLEM ELSB STUDENT BOOK SAMPLE PAGE CHECKLIST Did you review/make a connection with the prior lesson or prior knowledge? Did you state the objective in “student friendly” terms? Did you allow students to generate their own prediction about the lesson? How did you do this for each level of student? Did you include a sample script? Did you include an example of how you gained the learner’s attention? BUILDING LITERACY FOR STUDENTS AT THE PRESYMBOLIC AND EARLY SYMBOLIC LEVELS Chapter 3 /Chapter 5 Browder and Spooner 39 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & PERMISSIONS Several of the slides used in this presentation were originally created by one or more of the following individuals and are used here with their permission. For permission to reuse any portion of this presentation, please contact email@example.com for additional information. Diane Browder, Ginevra Courtade, Bree Jimenez, Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell, Katherine Trela, Shawnee Wakeman, Tracie-Lynn Zakas. GOAL OF LITERACY FOR ALL CHILDREN National Reading Panel’s 5 components of reading: Phonemic Awareness ___________ Vocabulary Fluency __________________ Debate: Phonics vs. Meaning-based Reading WHAT IS EMERGENT LITERACY? Involves the reading an writing behaviors of children that precede then develop into conventional literacy Success for development is influenced by the literacy events in children’s lives Students with SCD may have fewer opportunities to___________ ______________ ________________________ CHALL’S STAGES OF READING DEVELOPMENT Pre-Reading (birth to 6yo)- Pretends to read, models adult reading behaviors, uses pictures, can retell a story 1. Initial Reading (6-7yo)- Develops letter-sound relationships 2. Confirmation/ Fluency (7-8yo)- becomes a more fluid reader 3. Reading to Learn (8-14yo)- Uses reading to acquire new knowledge 4. Multiple Viewpoints (14-18yo)- Critically analyzes readings 5. Construction/Reconstruction (18yo +)- Makes judgments on readings based on high levels of abstractions EMERGENT LITERACY AND FUNCTIONAL READING __________ Reading: 1. Acquisition of specific sight words that have immediate functional use 2. Alternative way to learn reading skills 3. Way to gain quick success in reading _______ ___________Approach- Limitations 1. Students may not have functional comprehension 2. May not teach words in a larger language context FUNCTIONAL READING Is it still appropriate? 1. Provide two concurrent forms of reading instruction – One that promotes literacy – One that promotes sight word identification 2. Provide literacy instruction at the elementary stage, and functional reading at secondary stage 3. Make sight word instruction a part of the literacy program SUGGESTIONS FOR SOLUTIONS Integrate sight word instruction into the emergent literacy program Adapt books to include_________ ________ ____________ Embed high frequency words and pictures into existing text LITERACY FOR STUDENTS WITHOUT DISABILITIES Experts recommend a_________ _________ Elements include: Guided reading Specific word study Sight words Decoding/phonics Writing Self-selected, independent reading LITERACY FOR STUDENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVE DISABILITIES What can we do? What may be difficult or deficit Experiences that may Expose students with lead to literacy connections SCD to as many life experiences as possible The sole use of a phonics Use approaches that or a whole word approach allow for expression of literacy skills using different modalities A belief that literacy is Provide highly qualified the ability to read and understand written teachers who can deliver words, with no literacy standards, and exceptions make those standards meaningful HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR LITERACY Attitudes Educators and families need to believe that exposure to literacy will benefit the child with SCD Students will be affected by both high and low expectations All students should be expected to engage in, and interact with literacy activities along side their peers without disabilities Students with SCD should have access to the same materials as their peers HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR LITERACY StateStandards for Literacy and Students with SCD The expectation of learning and exposure to literacy should be apparent, regardless of the level of disability Teachers will be the interpreters of the content standards for students with disabilities GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR LITERACY INSTRUCTION LIFE EXPERIENCES AS A BASIS FOR LITERACY For most children Literacy begins_____ ________ Early preparation at home = literacy readiness skills Children often enjoy reading and re- reading favorite stories ____________ _____________ contributes to reading readiness skills LIFE EXPERIENCES AS A BASIS FOR LITERACY Children with significant cognitive disabilities may have less opportunities and exposure to the activities that contribute to early literacy skills LINKING COMMUNICATION AND LITERACY There is a strong relationship between ______ ___________ and______________ Understanding that all people, places, things and actions have names and can be described is one of the foundations of literacy WHAT DO WE DO WHEN A CHILD HAS A SERIOUS COMMUNICATION DEFICIT? How do we create the link between communication and literacy? ALTERNATIVE AND AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Two types of AAC 1. __________ AAC • When nothing is added to the individual • Facial expressions • Sign Language 2. __________ AAC • The use of a devise, program, system • Voice Output Devices • Picture Exchange Communication System • Picture Symbol ALTERNATIVE AND AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS The AAC should be easy for the student to access. The AAC selected should be at that students cognitive level The introduction to AAC should include students preferences and understanding Hanukkah verses Christmas ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY: EXAMPLES* Big Mac™ Voice output (Ex: Repeated Story Lines) Cheap Talk-offers array of choices (Ex: Prediction Question; Comprehension) (Browder & Spooner, p. 80) MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE Adapting Materials Materials may Include object representations paired with words and symbols Rewritten with a simple level of vocabulary Use AAC for the presentation of the material, and for student comprehension May use other adaptations for students with sensory deficits Materials should remain Grade appropriate Age appropriate QUICK REVIEW OF PROMPTING RESPONSE PROMPTING Post response prompting: feedback only Reading format: can be expressive or receptive Prompt: simple correction of any word missed Ex: “No, the word is coffee.” RESPONSE PROMPTING Simultaneous prompting Reading format: usually expressive Prompt: teacher models answer on every trial (probes are independent) Ex: “Read hamburger.” RESPONSE PROMPTING Time delay (constant or progressive) Reading format: expressive or receptive Prompt: Teacher models correct answer first (0 delay); the remainder of trials are at a delay of 4-5 seconds (increments if progressive) Ex: RESPONSE PROMPTING Least intrusive prompts Reading format: receptive Prompt: give graduated levels of assistance until the student points to the correct word Ex: gesture to word, point to word, place student’s hand on correct word STIMULUS PROMPTS Stimulus fading Reading format: expressive or receptive Prompt used: correct word is highlighted with color or picture cue which is faded across trials Ex: red red red cat cat cat BREAK CREATING AND USING TACTILE EXPERIENCE BOOKS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS Sandra Lewis Joan Tolla Lewis and Tolla LITERACY NEEDS OF CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS A VI will affect a child’s ability to observe the symbols and events that are key to the development of early literacy skills A child should be exposed to Braille and the experiences of sighted readers at an early age A child with VI may have a difficult time developing the meaningful concepts gained through life experiences The child with VI will learn from part to whole Child with VI may not experience immersion into literacy in the same way a sighted child Lewis and Tolla ILLUSTRATIONS IN BOOKS FOR YOUNG READERS Pictures in books provide necessary ___________ _________ for sighted children They can access a greater understanding of unfamiliar concepts with the use of pictures Pictures provide a bridge between _____________ and ______ ___________ behaviors Lewis and Tolla TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS Raised Line drawings Pros: Offer a tactile rendering of the picture Cons: Attempts to present a 3-D world in 2 dimensions Abstract concepts cannot be recreated in a tactile form Story Boxes and Book Bags- Objects that represent key concept in the story are gathered Pros: Offer the child an opportunity to interact with the book Cons: Does not address the need to be exposed to books in which the text and activities are presented on the same page TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS TactileExperience Books Artifacts from an event experience by the child are actually incorporated onto the pages of a simple, sturdy book. Sighted peers can help to collect materials and make the books Lewis and Tolla TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS Making a Tactile Experience Book Objects can be collected during an naturally occurring event Objects should be items that the student has actually had contact with The book should be easily handled by the child Metal rings to bind the pages Affix the objects to the page Large objects can be stored in Zip-Lock bags Keep the “decorations” simple Braille text should be in a predictable and consistent place Visual text should also be included, so the story can be shared with those who do not read Braille Install repeated themes through-out the book Lewis and Tolla TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS Benefits They describe personal experiences Early book skills are presented Grapheme-phoneme connections are made Motor skills can be honed Reinforces spatial, temporal, and number concepts Explains a “bigger world” to a child who can not experience it through sight Lewis and Tolla TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS Cautions Takes time and planning Consider the “messy-ness” of the items included in the story Watch for choking hazards Lewis and Tolla ADAPTING MIDDLE SCHOOL GRADE-APPROPRIATE LITERATURE TO INCREASE STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN LITERACY LESSONS SUMMARIZE Pre-read text Summarize each chapter to capture main idea, provide details (e.g., Spark Notes) Re-write chapter summary using considerate text: Grade 2-3 listening comprehension level (Send plain text file to Lexile Framework for Reading™ website, obtain Lexile level, adjust if needed to Level 400-600) (MetaMetrics, Inc., 2005) SUMMARIZE (CONT’D) Re-write chapter summary using considerate text: Add graphics (picture symbols) to key vocabulary Add definitions to text Add explanations to text Use Repeated Story Line to support main idea of each chapter EXAMPLE: DEFINITION, REPEATED STORY LINE Dad had a special way of calling all of us together quickly. It was called the assembly call. Assemble means to get together. Dad would blow a whistle. Then, we would all line up in the front of the house. One time, there was a small fire in the driveway. Dad called us together and we put out the fire with buckets of water. Dad was proud of his family. EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY Main Idea: Dad saved money by buying food & clothes in bulk, saying that a family was “cheaper by the dozen”. Children often wore the same clothing styles. Vocabulary: Clothes- supports main idea and has functional value PHYSICALLY ALTERING THE BOOK* Limit chapters to 5-6 pages Laminate/sheet protectors for each page for durability Add page fluffers or turners if needed Place in binder or bind with cover that resembles books of peers without disabilities. Teacher-Overhead copy (Browder & Spooner, p. 79) LITERACY RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVE DISABILITIES Compiled by: Project MASTERY/NAAC at UNC Charlotte By: Bree Jimenez HTTP://TARHEELREADER.ORG/ • All ages (K – adult) • Free • Easy-to-read • Wide range of topics • Can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces (i.e. switches, alternative keyboards, touch screens, and dedicated AAC devices). • Downloaded as slide shows in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. • You may write your own books. HTTP://WWW.DONJOHNSTON.COM/DOWNLO ADS/ROL_GUIDES/INDEX.HTML • Read: OutLoud Assignment Templates and Outline Templates • Subjects (Templates) – Reading Strategies Assignment; – Reading Strategies Outline Templates; – Nine KWL Outline Templates with Varied Levels of Support; – Fiction and Non-Fiction Outline Templates COMMERCIALLY ADAPTED BOOKS: DON JOHNSTON, INC. * Books available in alternate formats: CD has text-to- speech output, highlights by word or sentence, chapter quizzes, switch access for page-turning, word files can be downloaded to word-prediction software Cassette recording Paperback (Browder & Spooner, p. 83) WWW.INTELLITOOLS.COM Free membership Activity share (over 1,000) Free 30 day trial to Classroom Suite NEWS-2-YOU Online newspaper for individuals with special needs. Subscription needed ($$) Weekly newspaper – adapted with picture symbols, key vocabulary, worksheets, recipes PICTURE RESOURCES FOR AUTHORING YOUR OWN BOOKS $$ cost $$ Free Hundreds of free pictures – Writing with Symbols all topics (geography, http://www.mayer- johnson.com/ProdDesc.aspx?SKU science, animals, etc.) =M165 http://www.pics4learning.com/ Google Boardmaker http://www.mayer-johnson.com/ Learning Magic (samples of free pictures) www.learningmagicin http://www.learningmagicinc.com/ c.com Microsoft Clip Art HTTP://EDUCATION.UNCC.EDU/ACCESS/ADAPTED BOOKS.HTM Free (must have Writing with Symbols) to download books Elem – HS general curriculum text (e.g., Macbeth) Adapted books with picture symbols, considerate text, and repeated story-lines OTHER RESOURCES • UNC Charlotte Access Grants http://education.uncc.edu/access • Attainment Company www.attainmentcompany.com/ • Baltimore City Schools www.baltimorecityschools.com • Slater Software www.slatersoftware.com/ • The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/ • List of Elem. Level books with repeated story-lines http://www.aacintervention.com/repeatl.htm • Download free printable books (new each month) – with worksheets http://www.learningpage.com/free_pages/home/winter_wow.html • AHSA – online access to articles – Free http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/ MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE Followingthe Students _________ to Ensure Meaning All students tend to demonstrate greater learning capacity if presented with material that peaks their interest Using areas of interest may help the student to form clear associations between words, symbols, and activities MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE ___________ ____________ Choices can include: Reading material Length of time Writing implement Writing surface Giving students a choice of literacy activities will most likely increase their length of engagement Emphasis should be on the _____________ in literacy, and not on the means. MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE Identifying ____________ Preference assessments Use many people to ascertain the student’s preference: Self reporting Previous teachers Personal observation Parents, siblings, and caregivers NATURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR LITERACY INSTRUCTION Analyze the school, home, or community setting to determine the natural literacy opportunities Utilize technology and accommodate each student to increase natural engagement in literacy opportunities Allow students to actively engage in the literature. Examples of where to find some natural opportunities: Restaurants Waiting rooms Classroom Library Computer CREATING MEANINGFUL LITERACY OPPORTUNITIES Examples: Schedules and planners “check off” completed tasks Using pic-syms paired with text to give directions to an activity or request Use objects paired with text to allow the student to engage in the task Create daily journals with text and pictures that detail the student’s activities, so the student can participate in the retelling their day TEAM APPROACH Collaboration will lead to enhanced literacy learning The educational team may include: Teachers Para-professional Speech-language pathologists Therapists Administrators Parents Peers ACTIVITY In break out groups, read either the elementary, middle, or high school selections (middle and high school between the hash marks) and use the worksheet on Moodle. Describe ideas how to adapt the book/selection for a variety of students with different needs -students with VI, HI, physical impairments, autism You have 20 minutes in your group. Select a report to share your thoughts (save them on an eboard with your reporter’s name in the title). NEXT- WHAT ABOUT THE TEXT YOU BROUGHT? Focus on the worksheet questions and your book/chapter What would you do to make the text more accessible? REVIEW There may not be grade level content standards for literacy skills- remember these may be foundational to providing access to the content for SWSCD. Adapting books is great way to engage all students in age appropriate literature. Encourage you to find adapted books or materials to share with your colleagues. REVIEW OF OBJECTIVES UDL? Feeling better about first 2 parts of lesson plan assignment? Components of reading? Promote literacy with SWSCD? Adapt text?
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