Creating the Lesson Plan by E18n5B

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 100

									SESSION 6: LITERACY
AND ADAPTING
BOOKS
February 22, 2010
Dr. Wakeman
OBJECTIVES
 Finish UDL and verify understandings
 Build capacity for developing lesson plans
  that address necessary content at
  advanced levels
 Identify the components of reading

 Consider how to promote literacy with
  SWSCD
 Plan how to adapt a provided text as well
  as a chosen text
CREATING THE LESSON PLAN:
PART 1 “INITIAL PLANNING”
SPED 5274
PPT created by Alicia Saunders
SCORING MATRIX AND DESCRIPTION




      Print a copy of the Scoring Matrix to guide you throughout
      the process!
“INITIAL PLANNING” COMPONENTS
INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 1
       Brief description of classroom context and student(s)
        characteristics, including ESL, IEP and 504 accommodations.

        3 possible levels of achievement:
       Developing (Level 1)
           No description given for one or more of the following:
            classroom and available resources, characteristics of class
            and accommodations necessary for special needs.
       Acceptable (Level 2)
           Basic information about the classroom, resources,
            characteristics of the class and accommodations provided.
       Exemplary (Level 3)
           Candidate provides complete description of classroom
            including resources available for use during instruction,
            characteristics of the class and description of
            accommodations necessary for any special needs student(s).
IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE:
DEVELOPING (LEVEL 1)
     This lesson plan was designed for a self-
 contained classroom for students with Autism
 Spectrum Disorder. There are four students in
 grades K-3.
IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE:
ACCEPTABLE (LEVEL 2)
     This lesson was designed for an
 elementary, self-contained classroom for
 students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
 (ASD) in the content area of science. The
 class is comprised of four students with
 ASD in grades K-3, ages ranging from 5-8.
 Two students are symbolic learners, and
 two students are early-symbolic learners.
 The classroom uses several low-tech and
 high-tech assistive technology to
 accommodate the needs of the individual
 students.
IP ELEMENT 1 EXAMPLE:
EXEMPLARY (LEVEL 3)
       This lesson was designed for an elementary, self-
 contained classroom for students with Autism Spectrum
 Disorder (ASD) in the content area of science. The class is
 comprised of four students with ASD in grades K-3. Two
 students are symbolic learners. One male student, age 8, is
 fully verbal and communicative. One female student, age 7,
 has very limited verbal skills, but is a strong reader and
 comprehends written paired with pictorial text and
 directions. She is Hispanic, and English is her second
 language. The remaining two students are early-symbolic
 learners. One male student, age 5, is non-verbal and
 communicates using pictorial representations, but difficulty
 understanding written text or directions. One female
 student, age 6, has very limited functional communication,
 primarily using echolalia, and demonstrates great difficulty
 in understanding verbal or written directions. She can
 identify a few sight words and can write her name. The
 classroom uses several low-tech and high-tech types of
 assistive technology to accommodate the needs of the
 individual students, including: Boardmaker symbols,
 Writing with Symbols 2000, Cheap Talks, and Big Mack
 switches.
CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 1
   Did you describe your type of setting/classroom (self-
    contained, resource, etc.)?
   Did you describe your level of classroom (elementary,
    middle, or high school)?
   Did you name the academic content area being
    taught?
   Did you describe the disability composition of class
    (e.g., SCD or ASD) and number of students?
   Did you describe your students’ grade levels and
    ages?
   Did you state if any students are ESL?
   Did you describe each students’ access levels?
   Did you describe accommodations needed for students
    to communicate or access content?
   Did you describe any resources available for your
    instruction related to your lesson (if applicable)?
        INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 2
       Identification of specific learning objective(s) (outcomes) and
        standards addressed.

        3 possible levels of achievement:
       Developing (Level 1)
          More than one of the elements is missing, unclear or inappropriate.
           Stated as activities rather than learning outcomes.
       Acceptable (Level 2)
          Objective(s) clearly stated and provides purpose. Standards
           alignment is correct. One of the elements may be missing, unclear
           or inappropriate.
       Exemplary (Level 3)
          Candidate develops objectives based upon student data (Present
           Level of Performance). Objectives are measurable with precise
           outcomes at a mastery level which matches the developmental
           stage of student(s). Aligned with required standards (NC-SCOS),
           scope and sequence of curriculum and accommodations.
IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE:
DEVELOPING (LEVEL 1)
   The learner will distinguish between living and
    nonliving things.
IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE:
ACCEPTABLE (LEVEL 2)
 Subject: Life Science, Grade Level: 1
 Competency Goal 1: The learner will conduct
  investigations and make observations to build an
  understanding of the needs of living organisms.
       1.02 Investigate the needs of a variety of different
        animals: Air, Water, Food, Shelter, Space.
 Extended Content Standard: Investigate needs of
  plants and animals - Air, food, water and space.
 Mastery Objective: Student will sort pictures of
  animals or plants to indicate “lives in ocean” or
  “does not live in ocean.
IP ELEMENT 2 EXAMPLE:
EXEMPLARY (LEVEL 3)
   NCSCOS/1st grade/Science/Competency
    Goal 1:
    The learner will conduct investigations and make
    observations to build an understanding of the needs of
    living organisms.
       1.02 Investigate the needs of a variety of different animals:
        Air, Water, Food, Shelter, Space.
   Extended Content Standard: Investigate
    needs of plants and animals - Air, food, water and
    space.
   Mastery Objective:
     Symbolic: Student will sort objects/pictures of animals or
      plants into “lives in the ocean” or “does NOT live in the ocean”
      with 80% accuracy for 3 consecutive lessons.
     Early-Symbolic: When presented with a picture or object of
      an animal or plant, student will activate switch to indicate
      “yes” for lives in the ocean or “no” for does not live in the ocean
      with 80% accuracy for 2 out of 3 consecutive lessons.
CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 2
 Did you choose an ACADEMIC objective?
 Did you specifically list the NCSCOS standard
  and grade level?
 Did you list the Extended Content Standard
  for that NCSCOS competency goal and grade
  level?
 Did you create a MASTERY goal aligned with
  the students’ access level(s)?
 Is your MASTERY goal measurable, observable,
  and precise?
 Did you list specific criterion?
INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 3
     Identification of what the students must know
      prior to this lesson (prerequisites) that you will
      build upon.

  3 possible levels of achievement:
             Developing (Level 1)
               Prerequisite skills and concepts not clearly identified and/or
                incorrect for lesson objective.
             Acceptable (Level 2)
               Most prerequisite skills and concepts are clearly articulated
                but some important skills may have been missed.
             Exemplary (Level 3)
                Prerequisite skills and concepts are clearly articulated,
                 complete and are correct for the stated lesson objective(s).
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY?
   Students need to demonstrate awareness of
    science lessons.




   Developing
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY?

    Prerequisite skills these students need to know
     in order to complete the lesson include the main
     similarities and differences between humans and
     sea life, living and non-living things, and a
     variety of habitats.




    Acceptable
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR EXEMPLARY?
    Prerequisite skills required for completing this
     lesson include: an understanding of object and/or
     pictorial representations, the ability to activate a
     switch or Cheap Talk to indicate selection (early-
     symbolic students) or the ability to sort pictures
     or objects into a T-chart (symbolic students), the
     ability to distinguish between living and non-
     living things, and an understanding the
     difference between a land habitat and an ocean
     habitat.

    Exemplary
CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 3
 Did you describe the pre-requisite skills each
  student must know to complete the lesson?
 If this is a “building block” skill, what have the
  students already learned that is pertinent to
  completing this lesson?
 If AT is being used, what must the students know
  how to do in order to complete the lesson (i.e.,
  recognize picture symbols, activate a switch, use
  an eye gaze board, etc.)?
INITIAL PLANNING (IP): ELEMENT 4
     Identification of resources needed to teach this objective
      including appropriate technology to use.

  3 possible levels of achievement:

         Developing (Level 1)
            Listing of resources incomplete and not clearly thought out.
             Technology either missing or inappropriate for objective.
         Acceptable (Level 2)
              Listing of necessary resources given. Technology used within the
          lesson.
         Exemplary (Level 3)
             Resources used are integrated into the lesson and make a significant
              contribution to student learning. Technology well integrated into
          lesson or a strong rationale given for not using technology.
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR
EXEMPLARY?
     During this lesson, we will be using pictures and
      objects of plants and animals that live on land and
      in the ocean. We will also use a T-chart for sorting
      these items. In addition, we will use Big Mack
      switches and other AAC devices to reinforce
      vocabulary words, to allow the students to indicate
      choice about a topic, and to make requests during
      lesson activities. There will be two Big Mack
      switches, one Cheap Talk 4, and one Cheap Talk 8.
      These devices are primarily used for the early
      symbolic level learners, who require object and/or
      pictorial representation to aid in their
      comprehension of a subject.
     Exemplary
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR
EXEMPLARY?
   We will use pictures and objects to distinguish
    between plants and animals that live in the
    water or on land.




   Developing
DEVELOPING, ACCEPTABLE, OR
EXEMPLARY?
   We will be using high-tech and low-tech AAC
    devices for this lesson. We will also use objects
    and pictures to represent the land and aquatic
    animals and plants. Students will sort these
    items on a T-chart.




   Acceptable
CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 4
 Did you list low-tech AAC devices used (e.g.,
  picture symbols, Boardmaker symbols, digital
  pictures, etc.)?
 Did you list high-tech AAC devices used (e.g., Big
  Mack, Cheap Talks, DynaVox, Smart Board,
  Intellitools, etc.) ?
 Did you list other materials that are necessary
  for the lesson implementation (e.g., graph, T-
  chart, Venn Diagram, etc.)?
CREATING THE LESSON PLAN:
PART 2 “LESSON
INTRODUCTION”
SPED 5274
PPT created by Alicia Saunders
“LESSON INTRODUCTION” COMPONENTS




 * Refer to chapter from the textbook related to your content area and look
 for the “Task Analysis” Appendix (e.g., “A Task Analysis to Use for Teaching
 Math Stories”). The first few steps may help with the development of items
 5 and 6.
II. LESSON INTRODUCTION (LI): ELEMENT 5
  •   #5 Focus or Review
  •   3 possible levels of achievement:
      –   Developing (Level 1)
          •   States pre-skills rather than using questions to gauge readiness.
              Misses opportunity to motivate students and help them make
              connections.
      –   Acceptable (Level 2)
          •   Individual students checked for pre-skills. Limited questions used
              to gauge readiness for lesson. Focusing activity somewhat sets
              stage for attending to the lesson, but important connections
              missed.
      –   Exemplary (Level 3)
          •   Background knowledge and skills key to student success in this
              lesson checked to gauge readiness for the lesson. Clear
              connections made to prior learning or knowledge. If completely
              new instruction, focus has the potential to stimulate interest and
              motivate student to pay attention.
    LESSON INTRODUCTION: ELEMENT 5
    EXEMPLARY EXAMPLE
•   To create interest and focus on the new lesson, I presented the students with four
    different objects related to the lesson.
     – “Today, we are going to learn about something really exciting! I have some
         things I want you to look at first. I will give all of you a chance to look at each
         item and you can touch each one if you would like.”
•   The four items presented were: a glass mason jar with blue water with a foam
    dolphin, foam seaweed and foam starfish glued to the front of the jar, an orange
    sand bucket, a small glass container with sand in it, and a seashell. I asked the
    students,
     – “What do you think we will be learning about today?”
•    Students were given an array of three picture symbols for them to choose from to
    make a prediction about the lesson, including a farmhouse, an airplane, and the
    ocean.
     – “What do you think we are going to be talking about today? Are we going to talk
         about a big red barn? (Point to barn.) An airplane? (Point to airplane.) Or the
         ocean? (Point to ocean.)”
•   Each student made a prediction and I reinforced/redirected each selection. For
    example,
     – “John thinks today’s lesson will be about the ocean? You are right! Good job!
         Mary thinks we are going to learn about the barn. Let’s look at our items again.
         Do we find sand and seashells in the barn? Do we find blue water in the barn?
         No. Let’s try to predict again.”
•   I praised all correct predictions and redirected incorrect predictions to make a new
    choice by reviewing the materials before them and their response card options.
WHAT COULD BE REMOVED FROM THE PREVIOUS
EXAMPLE TO MAKE THIS A “DEVELOPING” EXAMPLE?


 No anticipatory set (materials to engage students).
 Students were told what they would be learning about.
WHAT COULD BE REMOVED FROM THE PREVIOUS
RESPONSE TO MAKE THIS AN “ACCEPTABLE”
EXAMPLE?




 Students     still were shown materials by the
    teacher but were not given the opportunity to
    explore the materials.
•    Students still were asked, “What do you think we
     will be learning about today?” but students who
     needed responding methods (e.g., AAC device,
     pictures) were not provided with accommodations.
•    No reinforcement or redirection were given for
     any attempted responding by students.
CHECKLIST- ELEMENT 5
 Did you gain students’ attention?
 Did you include an anticipatory set (e.g.,
  materials to explore, a personally-relevant story,
  an adapted text, etc.)?
 Did you check each student for prior learning?

 Did you make connections between prior
  knowledge and lesson topic?
 Did you include a sample script?
II. LESSON INTRODUCTION (LI): ELEMENT
6
•   #6 Statement of objective in student terms
•   3 possible levels of achievement:
    –   Developing (Level 1)
        •   Objective is unclear with no specific performance set for what
            students will know how to do. Students not given an idea of what
            candidate will look for in his or her performance.
    –   Acceptable (Level 2)
        •   Objective is briefly stated and provides clear purpose. Limited
            performance expectations given. What candidate expect students
            to do as a part of the lesson may or may not be given.
    –   Exemplary (Level 3)
        •   Connections made between earlier learning and present lesson.
            New skill, concept or purpose is clearly stated for the student in
            behavioral terms and is specific to performance. Relevance is
            established for the student and informally tells what you expect to

            observe students doing as a result of your lesson.
LESSON INTRODUCTION: ELEMENT 6
EXEMPLARY EXAMPLE
•   The previous lesson focused on discriminating between living and
    non-living things. This lesson will focus on the ocean habitat and
    plants and animals which live in that habitat. A KWHL chart will
    be used to identify students’ prior knowledge, examine what
    students want to learn, direct the investigation, and show what
    was learned in the lesson.
    –   “Today, we are going to learn about things that live in the ocean.
        Last week, we talked about things that live, or breathe and eat, and
        things that are not living. There are a lot of things that live in the
        ocean. Let’s look at what we know about the ocean and ocean life.
        (Point to K on chart). Will you help me make a list of things we
        know?”
        •   Symbolic students are given the opportunity to generate their own answers.
        •   Early symbolic students are given a printed choice board of pictures paired with
            text to determine what they already know.
    –   “Now, what would you like to know about ocean life?” (Point to W on
        chart).
        •   Students use same response method as listed above to generate response.
    –   “How are we going to find out more about ocean life?” (Point to H on
        chart).
        •   Students use same response method as listed above to generate response.
KWHL CHART




An example of a KWHL chart from Teaching to Standards: Science
Courtade, Jimenez, Trela, and Browder (2008) Attainment Company, Verona, WI.
SAMPLE STORY-BASED MATH PROBLEM
ELSB STUDENT BOOK SAMPLE PAGE
CHECKLIST
 Did you review/make a connection with the prior
  lesson or prior knowledge?
 Did you state the objective in “student friendly” terms?

 Did you allow students to generate their own
  prediction about the lesson? How did you do this for
  each level of student?
 Did you include a sample script?

 Did you include an example of how you gained the
  learner’s attention?
BUILDING LITERACY FOR STUDENTS AT THE
PRESYMBOLIC AND EARLY SYMBOLIC LEVELS




         Chapter 3 /Chapter 5
         Browder and Spooner



                                  39
      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT &
      PERMISSIONS
   Several of the slides used in this presentation were
    originally created by one or more of the following
    individuals and are used here with their permission.
    For permission to reuse any portion of this
    presentation, please contact dbrowder@uncc.edu for
    additional information.
      Diane Browder, Ginevra Courtade, Bree Jimenez,
       Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell, Katherine Trela, Shawnee
       Wakeman, Tracie-Lynn Zakas.
GOAL OF LITERACY FOR ALL CHILDREN
 National   Reading Panel’s 5 components of
  reading:
     Phonemic Awareness

     ___________

     Vocabulary

     Fluency

     __________________

 Debate: Phonics vs. Meaning-based
  Reading
WHAT IS EMERGENT LITERACY?
 Involves  the reading an writing behaviors
  of children that precede then develop into
  conventional literacy
 Success for development is influenced by
  the literacy events in children’s lives
 Students with SCD may have fewer
  opportunities to___________
  ______________ ________________________
CHALL’S STAGES OF READING
DEVELOPMENT
    Pre-Reading (birth to 6yo)- Pretends to read, models
     adult reading behaviors, uses pictures, can retell a
     story
1.   Initial Reading (6-7yo)- Develops letter-sound
     relationships
2.   Confirmation/ Fluency (7-8yo)- becomes a more fluid
     reader
3.   Reading to Learn (8-14yo)- Uses reading to acquire
     new knowledge
4.   Multiple Viewpoints (14-18yo)- Critically analyzes
     readings
5.   Construction/Reconstruction (18yo +)- Makes
     judgments on readings based on high levels of
     abstractions
EMERGENT LITERACY AND
FUNCTIONAL READING
   __________ Reading:
      1. Acquisition of specific sight words that
         have immediate functional use
      2. Alternative way to learn reading skills
      3. Way to gain quick success in reading
   _______ ___________Approach- Limitations
      1. Students may not have functional
         comprehension
      2. May not teach words in a larger
         language context
FUNCTIONAL READING
    Is it still appropriate?
    1. Provide two concurrent forms of reading
        instruction
       –    One that promotes literacy
       –    One that promotes sight word
            identification
    2. Provide literacy instruction at the
        elementary stage, and functional reading at
        secondary stage
    3. Make sight word instruction a part of the
        literacy program
SUGGESTIONS FOR SOLUTIONS
 Integrate  sight word instruction into the
  emergent literacy program
 Adapt books to include_________ ________
  ____________
 Embed high frequency words and pictures
  into existing text
LITERACY FOR STUDENTS WITHOUT
DISABILITIES
 Experts  recommend a_________ _________
 Elements include:

   Guided reading
   Specific word study
     Sight words

     Decoding/phonics

   Writing
   Self-selected, independent reading
LITERACY FOR STUDENTS WITH
SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVE
DISABILITIES
                                       What can we do?
   What may be difficult or
    deficit
      Experiences that may                Expose students with
       lead to literacy
       connections                          SCD to as many life
                                            experiences as possible
       The sole use of a phonics          Use approaches that
        or a whole word
        approach                            allow for expression of
                                            literacy skills using
                                            different modalities
       A belief that literacy is          Provide highly qualified
        the ability to read and
        understand written                  teachers who can deliver
        words, with no                      literacy standards, and
        exceptions                          make those standards
                                            meaningful
HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR LITERACY
   Attitudes
     Educators and families need to believe that
      exposure to literacy will benefit the child with
      SCD
     Students will be affected by both high and low
      expectations
     All students should be expected to engage in,
      and interact with literacy activities along side
      their peers without disabilities
     Students with SCD should have access to the
      same materials as their peers
HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR LITERACY
 StateStandards for Literacy and Students
 with SCD
  The expectation of learning and
   exposure to literacy should be apparent,
   regardless of the level of disability
  Teachers will be the interpreters of the
   content standards for students with
   disabilities
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR
LITERACY INSTRUCTION
LIFE EXPERIENCES AS A BASIS FOR
LITERACY
             For most children
 Literacy begins_____ ________

 Early preparation at home = literacy
  readiness skills
 Children often enjoy reading and re-
  reading favorite stories
 ____________ _____________ contributes to
  reading readiness skills
LIFE EXPERIENCES AS A BASIS FOR
LITERACY


    Children with significant cognitive
  disabilities may have less opportunities
     and exposure to the activities that
      contribute to early literacy skills
LINKING COMMUNICATION AND
LITERACY
 There  is a strong relationship between
  ______ ___________ and______________
 Understanding that all people, places,
  things and actions have names and can be
  described is one of the foundations of
  literacy
WHAT DO WE DO
WHEN A CHILD HAS A
SERIOUS
COMMUNICATION
DEFICIT?
How do we create the link between
communication and literacy?
ALTERNATIVE AND AUGMENTATIVE
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
                        Two types of AAC


1.       __________ AAC
     •     When nothing is added to the individual
              •   Facial expressions
              •   Sign Language
2.       __________ AAC
     •     The use of a devise, program, system
              •   Voice Output Devices
              •   Picture Exchange Communication System
              •   Picture Symbol
ALTERNATIVE AND AUGMENTATIVE
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
 The AAC should be easy for the student to
  access.
 The AAC selected should be at that
  students cognitive level
 The introduction to AAC should include
  students preferences and understanding
     Hanukkah verses Christmas
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY: EXAMPLES*
                   Big Mac™ Voice output
                    (Ex: Repeated Story
                    Lines)
                   Cheap Talk-offers array
                    of choices (Ex:
                    Prediction Question;
                    Comprehension)
                (Browder & Spooner, p. 80)
MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE
   Adapting Materials
       Materials may
         Include object representations paired with words and
          symbols
         Rewritten with a simple level of vocabulary

         Use AAC for the presentation of the material, and for
          student comprehension
         May use other adaptations for students with sensory
          deficits
       Materials should remain
         Grade appropriate
         Age appropriate
QUICK REVIEW OF PROMPTING
RESPONSE PROMPTING
Post response prompting: feedback only
 Reading format: can be expressive or
  receptive
 Prompt: simple correction of any word
  missed
 Ex: “No, the word is coffee.”
RESPONSE PROMPTING
Simultaneous prompting
 Reading format: usually expressive

 Prompt: teacher models answer on every
  trial (probes are independent)
 Ex: “Read hamburger.”
RESPONSE PROMPTING
Time delay (constant or progressive)
 Reading format: expressive or receptive
 Prompt: Teacher models correct answer
  first (0 delay); the remainder of trials are
  at a delay of 4-5 seconds (increments if
  progressive)
 Ex:
RESPONSE PROMPTING
Least intrusive prompts
 Reading format: receptive

 Prompt: give graduated levels of assistance until
  the student points to the correct word
 Ex: gesture to word, point to word, place
  student’s hand on correct word
STIMULUS PROMPTS
 Stimulus fading
   Reading format: expressive or receptive
   Prompt used: correct word is
    highlighted with color or picture cue
    which is faded across trials
   Ex:


         red red red
cat cat   cat
BREAK
CREATING AND USING
TACTILE EXPERIENCE BOOKS
FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH
VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
Sandra Lewis
Joan Tolla


      Lewis and Tolla
LITERACY NEEDS OF CHILDREN
WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
 A VI will affect a child’s ability to observe the
  symbols and events that are key to the
  development of early literacy skills
 A child should be exposed to Braille and the
  experiences of sighted readers at an early age
 A child with VI may have a difficult time
  developing the meaningful concepts gained
  through life experiences
 The child with VI will learn from part to whole
 Child with VI may not experience immersion into
  literacy in the same way a sighted child



                  Lewis and Tolla
ILLUSTRATIONS IN BOOKS FOR
YOUNG READERS
 Pictures in books provide necessary
  ___________ _________ for sighted
  children
 They can access a greater understanding
  of unfamiliar concepts with the use of
  pictures
 Pictures provide a bridge between
  _____________ and ______ ___________
  behaviors

               Lewis and Tolla
TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS FOR
STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
   Raised Line drawings
      Pros:
        Offer a tactile rendering of the picture
      Cons:
        Attempts to present a 3-D world in 2 dimensions
        Abstract concepts cannot be recreated in a tactile
         form
   Story Boxes and Book Bags- Objects that represent
    key concept in the story are gathered
      Pros:
        Offer the child an opportunity to interact with
         the book
      Cons:
        Does not address the need to be exposed to books
         in which the text and activities are presented on
         the same page
TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS
 TactileExperience Books
   Artifacts from an event experience by
    the child are actually incorporated onto
    the pages of a simple, sturdy book.
   Sighted peers can help to collect
    materials and make the books




                Lewis and Tolla
TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS
   Making a Tactile Experience Book
     Objects can be collected during an naturally
      occurring event
     Objects should be items that the student has
      actually had contact with
     The book should be easily handled by the child
     Metal rings to bind the pages
     Affix the objects to the page
     Large objects can be stored in Zip-Lock bags
     Keep the “decorations” simple
     Braille text should be in a predictable and
      consistent place
     Visual text should also be included, so the story
      can be shared with those who do not read Braille
     Install repeated themes through-out the book
                      Lewis and Tolla
TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS
 Benefits

     They describe personal experiences
     Early book skills are presented
     Grapheme-phoneme connections are
      made
     Motor skills can be honed
     Reinforces spatial, temporal, and
      number concepts
     Explains a “bigger world” to a child who
      can not experience it through sight
                  Lewis and Tolla
TACTILE ILLUSTRATIONS
 Cautions

  Takes  time and planning
  Consider the “messy-ness” of the
   items included in the story
  Watch for choking hazards




             Lewis and Tolla
ADAPTING MIDDLE SCHOOL
GRADE-APPROPRIATE
LITERATURE TO INCREASE
STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN
LITERACY LESSONS
SUMMARIZE
   Pre-read text
   Summarize each chapter to capture main
    idea, provide details (e.g., Spark Notes)
   Re-write chapter summary using
    considerate text:
     Grade 2-3 listening comprehension
       level (Send plain text file to Lexile
       Framework for Reading™ website,
       obtain Lexile level, adjust if needed to
       Level 400-600)
    (MetaMetrics, Inc., 2005)
SUMMARIZE (CONT’D)
   Re-write chapter summary using considerate
    text:
       Add graphics (picture symbols) to key vocabulary
       Add definitions to text
       Add explanations to text
       Use Repeated Story Line to support main idea of
        each chapter
EXAMPLE: DEFINITION, REPEATED
STORY LINE
Dad had a special way of calling all of us together
  quickly. It was called the assembly call.
  Assemble means to get together. Dad would
  blow a whistle. Then, we would all line up in the
  front of the house. One time, there was a small
  fire in the driveway. Dad called us together and
  we put out the fire with buckets of water.

Dad was proud of his family.
EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY
Main Idea: Dad saved
  money by buying food
  & clothes in bulk,
  saying that a family
  was “cheaper by the
  dozen”. Children
  often wore the same
  clothing styles.
Vocabulary: Clothes-
  supports main idea
  and has functional
  value
PHYSICALLY ALTERING THE BOOK*
  Limit chapters to 5-6 pages
 Laminate/sheet protectors for each page
   for durability
 Add page fluffers or turners if needed
 Place in binder or bind with cover that
   resembles books of peers without
   disabilities.
 Teacher-Overhead copy
(Browder & Spooner, p. 79)
LITERACY RESOURCES
FOR STUDENTS WITH
SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVE
DISABILITIES

  Compiled by:
  Project MASTERY/NAAC at UNC Charlotte
  By: Bree Jimenez
HTTP://TARHEELREADER.ORG/

•   All ages (K – adult)
•   Free
•   Easy-to-read
•   Wide range of topics
•   Can be speech enabled and accessed using
    multiple interfaces (i.e. switches, alternative
    keyboards, touch screens, and dedicated AAC
    devices).
•   Downloaded as slide shows in PowerPoint,
    Impress, or Flash format.
•   You may write your own books.
HTTP://WWW.DONJOHNSTON.COM/DOWNLO
ADS/ROL_GUIDES/INDEX.HTML

•   Read: OutLoud Assignment Templates
    and Outline Templates

•   Subjects (Templates)
    – Reading Strategies Assignment;
    – Reading Strategies Outline Templates;
    – Nine KWL Outline Templates with Varied
      Levels of Support;
    – Fiction and Non-Fiction Outline Templates
COMMERCIALLY ADAPTED BOOKS: DON
JOHNSTON, INC. *
   Books available in
    alternate formats:
        CD has text-to-
          speech output,
          highlights by word
          or sentence,
          chapter quizzes,
          switch access for
          page-turning, word
          files can be
          downloaded to
          word-prediction
          software
        Cassette recording
        Paperback
       (Browder & Spooner,
       p. 83)
WWW.INTELLITOOLS.COM

 Free membership
 Activity share (over 1,000)
 Free 30 day trial to Classroom Suite
NEWS-2-YOU
 Online  newspaper for individuals with
  special needs.
 Subscription needed ($$)

 Weekly newspaper – adapted with picture
  symbols, key vocabulary, worksheets,
  recipes
PICTURE RESOURCES
FOR AUTHORING YOUR OWN BOOKS

             $$ cost $$                          Free
                                       Hundreds of free pictures –
   Writing with Symbols                all topics (geography,
http://www.mayer-
  johnson.com/ProdDesc.aspx?SKU
                                        science, animals, etc.)
  =M165                                 http://www.pics4learning.com/


                                       Google
   Boardmaker
    http://www.mayer-johnson.com/
                                       Learning Magic (samples of free
                                        pictures)
   www.learningmagicin                 http://www.learningmagicinc.com/
    c.com
                                       Microsoft Clip Art
HTTP://EDUCATION.UNCC.EDU/ACCESS/ADAPTED
BOOKS.HTM

 Free (must have Writing with Symbols) to
  download books
 Elem – HS

 general curriculum text (e.g., Macbeth)

 Adapted books with picture symbols,
  considerate text, and repeated story-lines
OTHER RESOURCES

•   UNC Charlotte Access Grants
    http://education.uncc.edu/access
•   Attainment Company
    www.attainmentcompany.com/
•   Baltimore City Schools
    www.baltimorecityschools.com
•   Slater Software
    www.slatersoftware.com/
• The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies
  http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/
• List of Elem. Level books with repeated story-lines
http://www.aacintervention.com/repeatl.htm
• Download free printable books (new each month) – with
  worksheets
http://www.learningpage.com/free_pages/home/winter_wow.html
•   AHSA – online access to articles – Free
http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/
MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE
 Followingthe Students _________ to
 Ensure Meaning
  All students tend to demonstrate
   greater learning capacity if presented
   with material that peaks their interest
  Using areas of interest may help the
   student to form clear associations
   between words, symbols, and activities
MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE
   ___________ ____________
      Choices can include:
         Reading material

         Length of time

         Writing implement

         Writing surface

      Giving students a choice of literacy activities
       will most likely increase their length of
       engagement
      Emphasis should be on the _____________ in
       literacy, and not on the means.
MAKING LITERACY ACCESSIBLE
 Identifying ____________
   Preference assessments
   Use many people to ascertain the
    student’s preference:
     Self reporting

     Previous teachers

     Personal observation

     Parents, siblings, and caregivers
NATURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR
LITERACY INSTRUCTION
 Analyze the school, home, or community setting to
  determine the natural literacy opportunities
 Utilize technology and accommodate each student to
  increase natural engagement in literacy opportunities
 Allow students to actively engage in the literature.
 Examples of where to find some natural opportunities:
      Restaurants

      Waiting rooms
      Classroom

      Library

      Computer
CREATING MEANINGFUL LITERACY
OPPORTUNITIES
   Examples:
       Schedules and planners

       “check off” completed tasks

       Using pic-syms paired with text to give
        directions to an activity or request
       Use objects paired with text to allow the
        student to engage in the task
       Create daily journals with text and pictures
        that detail the student’s activities, so the
        student can participate in the retelling their
        day
TEAM APPROACH
 Collaboration will lead to enhanced
 literacy learning
 The educational team may include:
     Teachers

     Para-professional

     Speech-language pathologists

     Therapists

     Administrators

     Parents

     Peers
ACTIVITY
 In  break out groups, read either the
  elementary, middle, or high school selections
  (middle and high school between the hash
  marks) and use the worksheet on Moodle.
  Describe ideas how to adapt the book/selection
  for a variety of students with different needs
    -students with VI, HI, physical impairments,
     autism
 You have 20 minutes in your group. Select a
  report to share your thoughts (save them on an
  eboard with your reporter’s name in the title).
NEXT- WHAT ABOUT THE TEXT YOU
BROUGHT?

 Focus on the
  worksheet
  questions and your
  book/chapter
 What would you do
  to make the text
  more accessible?
REVIEW
 There may not be grade level content
  standards for literacy skills- remember
  these may be foundational to providing
  access to the content for SWSCD.
 Adapting books is great way to engage all
  students in age appropriate literature.
 Encourage you to find adapted books or
  materials to share with your colleagues.
REVIEW OF OBJECTIVES
 UDL?
 Feeling better about first 2 parts of
  lesson plan assignment?
 Components of reading?
 Promote literacy with SWSCD?
 Adapt text?

								
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