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					AP Human Geography
  Unit II: Population
 Chapter 3: Migration




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Monday Sept 10th      Ch. 1 Vocab Quiz                       Ch. 1 Vocab Quiz                        Ch. 1 Vocab Quiz
Tuesday Sept 11th     Ch 2 Population                        Read and Q/A sheet p. 34-36             Q/A sheet p. 34-36
Wednesday Sept 12th   - Where in the World Do People         PPT Notes                           -   - Population Density
                      Live and Why? -- - - Physiologic vs.   - Population Density                -     Formula worksheet
                      Arithmetic                               Formula worksheet                     - Km – miles conversion
                                                             - Km – miles conversion

Thursday Sept 13th    - If the World were 100 People         - 100 People Video                      - 100 People Video Response
                      - East Asia                            - East Asia PPT                         - East Asia Map
                                                             - East Asia Map                         - km – mi conversion
                                                             -

Friday Sept 14th      - South Asia                           - South Asian PPT                       - South Asia Map
                                                             - South Asia Map                        - Online Quiz
                                                             -Tokyo and Shanghai Video


Monday Sept 17th      - Europe                               - Europe PPT                            - Written Response
                      - North America                        - European Cities Video
                                                             - North America Video

Tuesday Sept 18th     Reliability of Population              - P. 43 & 44 read and respond           - P. 43 & 44 read and respond
Wednesday Sept 19th   Why do population rise or fall in      - Guns, Germs and Steel Video and       - Guns, Germs and Steel Video and
                      particular places?                     Questions                               Questions
                                                             Episode 1


Thursday Sept 20th    Continue                               Socratic Seminar                        Socratic Seminar
Friday sept 21st      Continue                               Erlich and Malthus PPT                  - Notes
                                                                                                     - Online Quiz


Monday Sept 24th      Population Growth at World,            - PPT Notes                             - Class discussion
                      Regional, National and Local Scales    - Lost Boys Video                       - Demographic Transition analysis
                                                             - Demographic Transition analysis       response
                                                             response

Tuesday Sept 25th     continue                               continue                                continue
Wednesday Sept 26th   Why does Population Composition        - PPT Notes                             - IMR comparison response
                      Matter?                                - IMR comparison response               - Population Pyramid comparisons
                                                             - Population Pyramid comparisons        response
                                                             response

Thursday Sept 27th    Government Population Polices          - PPT Notes                             - 1 Child Policy Response
                                                             - 1 Child Policy video
                                                             - 1 Child Policy Response

Friday Sept 28th      cont                                   cont                                    - Online Quiz


Monday Oct 1st        Six Thinking Hats for                  Six Thinking Hats for                   Six Thinking Hats for
                      Overpopulation                         Overpopulation                          Overpopulation Presentation
Tuesday Oct 2nd       Ch. 2 Test Prep                        Ch. 2 Test Prep                         Ch. 2 Test Prep
Wednesday Oct 3rd     Ch. 3: Migration                       Activator Haitian Migrants              Activator p. 68-70
                                                             What is Migration?                      FIB Notes P. 71-79
                                                             Why do People Migrate?

Thursday Oct 4th      Ch. 3: Migration                       Where do People Migrate                 FIB Notes 79-96
                                                             How Do Governments Affect
                                                             Migration?

Friday Oct 5th        Ch. 3 Test Prep                        Ch. 3 Test Prep                         Migration Vocab. Quiz


Tuesday Oct 9th       Population/Migration Test Prep
Wednesday Oct 10th    Population/Migration Test Prep
Thursday Oct 11th     Unit II Multiple Choice Test                                                   Test 50 Multiple Choice/Migration

                                                               3
                                                                                              vocab.
Friday Oct 12th               Unit II FRQ Test                                                FRQ Test




                                                          Activator:
Read p. 68-70 and answer the following questions
   1. Why do hundreds of Haitians risk their lives each year to reach the coast of Florida?


   2. What is the difference between the 1970’s and 1981 to the present in regards to Haitian ‘boat people?”



   3. What was the immigration policy for Cuban immigrants during the Clinton administration?



   4. What is the central purpose young men and women leave home?



   5. What jobs do immigrants typically work?


   6. What is a remittance?



   7. What is the typical lifestyle of a Haitian immigrant in the United States?



   8. How much money do Haitians send back to their homeland annually? What percentage of Haitian GDP does this
      account for?



   9. What was the value of remittances by Mexican immigrants in 2003?



   10. How immigrants are there today in the United States, of those, how many are legal immigrants?



   11. Explain how immigrants can enter the United States and Canada with a temporary work visa?



   12. How has September 11, 2001 had an impact on immigration in the United States? (include details)



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Watch Haitian migration video and respond: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJJQdNR0R34&feature=player_detailpage




Essential Question: What is Migration? Why do People Migrate?
The following information corresponds to Chapter 3 in your textbook. Fill in the blanks to complete the definition or sentence. Note:
All of the information, in addition to your reading, is important, not just the blanks you fill in. p. 71 - 79

What is migration?
Human movement speeds the ___________________ and _______________ & intensifies
____________________ &______________ regions. Mobility ranges from __________ to __________.

_____________ movement is movement that begins and ends at home (daily routines creating
_____________________) Advances in ________________________ have expanded this. Seasonal
movement – “snowbirds” from the north______________ come to the winter sun in _____________ or
other Sunbelt States. Yet another example is _________________ movement along long-familiar routes
repeated over and over again.

_____________movement involves longer periods of time away before returning home.
___________________ - is an example of workers who do field work and follow the harvests before
returning home. _________________ is a system of residential relocation dictated by the seasonal
availability of pastures. Other forms of periodic movement are _________________ and
________________ service.

Permanent relocation is classified as ________________. ________________ migration = movement across
country borders (also called ___________________ migration) One who leaves (exits) is an_______________ and
____________ from the total population of a country. One who arrives (comes in) is an ___________________ and
_____ to the total population of the new country. Migration that occur within a


                                                                  5
country’s borders = _____________ ________________. The US population is the most ________ with an average
move once every ____ years. Major internal migrations in the US
are to the ______________ and the _______________

In __________ internal migration is generally from ________ to _________(as with most less developed countries
(LDCs). Migrants in Peru move to ___________(a primate city) looking for ____________ opportunities

Essential Question: Why Do People Migrate?
_____________ migration = involuntary movement caused by authority or power (eg. persecution, natural disaster)
_____________ migration= is a conscious choice of weighing options (perceived options may or may not be
accurate)

The distinction between the two is not always clear. Elements of authority & power may influence choice.
(e.g. British treatment of Irish AND the potato famine resulted in many choosing to migrate from Ireland.
Studies of migration find that in many cases (1) ______ migrate farther than _________, (2) _______ have more
choices of employment than ______, and (3) _________ earn less than ____ in the jobs they find at the destination.
But not all situations follow these findings.

The key difference is that ___________ migrants have options, while _________ migrants do not.

Forced Migration
The largest and most devastating forced migration was the ________________________________ which moved
millions of ____________ to ___________________, the ___________________, and _____________________
with huge loss of life. The vast majority of ____________ were taken to the_______________, to coastal ________
__________ and to ____________.

In A Colonizer’s Model of the World, James Blaut discusses the sheer loss to the _________ _____________ due to
the number of population that were ________________. The ___________ ________ ________ also changed the
________________, where today the majority of people are of _________________ descent
and few __________________ people remain.

       Tens of thousands of ___________ were shipped from
___________ to ________________ to a penal colony between 1788 and 1838.

      In the US the government took lands and forced the _______________________ to areas in the
___________.

       Stalin moved millions of _________________ to __________________ & _______________(When I was
“bad” my parents threatened to send me to Siberia!)

      The Nazis were responsible for forced migration of _____________.
      ______________________ happens today. __________________ or________________ where
governments sent back ______________ caught entering illegally. (e.g. Haitians.)

        Migrants from _______________ fled the _____________ and the __________ war, mainly to Pakistan and
Iran, and were repatriated back to ______________ by Pakistan & Iran with the help of the UNHCR.
Push and Pull Factors
___________________ (Br. Demographer) studied migration and proposed several LAWS OF MIGRATION many of
which are relevant today
1. ______________________________________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________________________________
                                                        6
5. ______________________________________________________________________________________


_____________________ also suggested the ______________ relationship between volume of migration and the
_____________ between source and destination.
The GRAVITY MODEL predicts interaction places on the basis of the population _______ and ___________
between them. The equation for the _____________________ is the _________________ of the two populations
divided by the distance between them.
         __________ ____________= conditions & perceptions that help a person decide to migrate
        __________ ____________= circumstances that attract a migrant to certain places
        A migrant will more likely perceive ______ factors more accurately than _______ factors.
When considering pull factors, the principle of Distance Decay is important. Migrants are
more likely to have a better understanding of _________________ than ______________.
Interaction with faraway places generally _____________ as ______________ increases.
        ___________________________= move in increments usually beginning with village to
town, later to a ____ and finally to a __________________, with each stage having a new set of pull factors.
        Along the way ________________________________ results in many not getting to their planned
destination.

Types of Push and Pull Factors
1. _______________ Conditions:
__________________ opportunities in W. Europe and N. America pull migrants in search of a better life.
       
_________________ Circumstances:
___________________________led to ________________ leaving by the hundreds of thousands after the
communist took control in 1975. Uganda expelled _____________ and ___________ of Asian descent in 1972.
        In the 1980s Castro expelled 125,000 ______________ in the “Mariel Boatlift”. Politically motivated
migrations are marked by both _____________ and _______________.

3. _____________ Conflict:
        Many people become _______________ ______________ (with and E) due to armed conflict and civil war. A
civil war in Rwanda between the __________ and __________ (Hotel Rwanda) resulted in almost a million deaths
and 2 million refugees who fled Rwanda.

4. __________________ Conditions:
        The Irish migration was a result of the famine resulting from the _______________ and political conditions
imposed on the Irish during British colonialism in Ireland (i.e. British control of Irish Catholic lands, penal laws
preventing Irish Catholics from buying land, voting, or carrying weapons)

        ___________________ (like those in California), _______________ (like Katrina), ______________ lead to
migrations. Some migrants eventually return, but some will never return.

5. __________________ and Traditions:
        When India gained its independence, British India was partitioned into ________________ and ___________
Pakistan. Fearing for their safety and cultural traditions, many ___________ in Pakistan migrated to _________ and
________ in India migrated to _______________.

6. ________________ Advances:
        _____________, ___________, ____________ stimulate millions of people to migrate by relaying
information about relatives, opportunities, and established communities in destinations.


                                                         7
        ______________________ occurs when a migrant sends word home (calls, writes, emails) to family and
friend and encourages more migration along the same chain.

        Chain migration builds on itself to create _______________________



Essential Question: Where Do People Migrate?                                    How Do Governments Affect Migration?
 The following information corresponds to Chapter 3 in your textbook. Fill in the blanks to complete the definition or sentence.
 Note: All of the information, in addition to your reading, is important, not just the blanks you fill in. p.79-96
 Global Migration Flows
A little history…the Age of Exploration provided new evidence of the geographic dimensions of the earth. European
 colonization followed whereby the colonizer takes over a place, installing its own style of government and either moving
 its own people in or by ruling through a puppet government. Colonization played a large part in the social, political, and
 economic systems of the colonized region and continues to have an impact today, long after independence has been attained.
                                                       The major flows of migration that resulted from colonialism are:
                                                       1.
                                                       2.
                                                       3.
                                                       4.
                                                       5.




 Study the migration streams on the map above or in your book, pages 90--91
     • In recent centuries, the rate of                   emigration increased sharply between 1835 – 1935. Even with a
      strong return flow the net outflow from             was enormous.
     • When                      took control of                they transported large numbers of “                 ” workers to
           areas controlled by                 in East and South Africa. Today, there are substantial minorities of Indians in
           those regions who control a good share of the commerce and wealth which has lead to             .
     •    The British also encouraged the migration to South Asian to the SE Asian areas of the                   ,               ,
           and         . The British also encouraged emigration from India and surrounding regions to                   countries
           like                &              and                , (Find these on a map!)
 Regional Migration Flows
     •                   migration flows occur over an                   _.                         migration is generally to a neighboring
          country for short term                  reasons,                    reasons, or                    reasons (fleeing war, etc)
     •                                         = coastal cities with access to trade
          developed during colonialism as a place where _
          goes, and a                       are located, and where
          is concentrated. (Give an example of infrastructure                          )
     •    The                         of                 are islands of development,
           pulling poor people with the prospect of jobs and a better life in
           Nigeria. The mostly              men sent                 home to support
           their families. At the end of the boom in the 1980s, the government
           became a _            factor forcibly making the workers leave.
     •    Study the regional scale on the map to the right to get a better
          understanding of the economic influences and the pull of
                           in Nigeria. (Can you identify Nigeria? Look it up!)

The map on the bottom right (and on page 93) shows migration flows of Chinese immigrants seeking economic opportunities in
the late 1800’s & early 1900’s. Many remained and are today a substantial portion of the national populations of (14%)
        (32%) (76%) and          (3%) but due to

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its large population (4th largest in the world) this is one of SE Asia’s largest clusters of Chinese.
    • The effects of migration can be seen in most countries around the world today, many of them
       dating back as early as the age of exploration and colonization.
       The influence of minorities can have both positive and
       negative effects on the society where they are found.




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•                   is an example of cultural groups reconnecting across borders. In the early 20th century, fewer than 50,000
      residence lived in what was then called         . Following WWI, Britain controlled this region and encouraged      to return to
the region. By 1948 as many as _              Jews resided there and the United Nations (created after WWII) intervened to
partition the area and create an independent state of           .
• This prompted a new stream of migration – 600,000 _                                    fled or were pushed out of the territory
    to neighboring nations of                   ,             ,             ,
• Today, Israel’s population is about                        and continues to grow through                   and substantial
                                       .
•                     and                are great motivators of migration, whether voluntary or involuntary. As many as
    million Europeans emigrated following WWII.
• Thousands of                     fled the communist take-over of            aided by the US gov’t use of the                   . The
     result is a core of                    culture in the greater                  area, leading                      _ to declare
     itself                         and                         some 20 + years after the massive immigration. IN 1980 another
     exudus was the result of a push factor of the                 gov’t . More than 125,000              came to the US and qualified
     for refugee status under US regulations of political persecution (from communism) In 1995 the US established the wet
                      , dry     policy (discussed in the Field Notes) to slow the flow of Cuban migrants to the US.

National Migration Streams (internal or intrastate) Again, a little history….
 There were two major migrations in the US before 1950 – one was the
 western movement and the second to the south. After the Civil War and again
 after WWI many African Americans migrated north to work in the industrial
 NE and Midwest. In the 1970s the trend began to reverse when African
 Americans began to return to the South, but from urban areas to urban areas,
 not rural areas. The map at the right shows the changing center of population
 in the US according to the Census bureau. While it is primarily westward, note
 the trend to the south. The majority of the US population is still east of the
 Mississippi River.
     • In Russia the migration stream is             toward the                      . Traditionally, Russia has been centered in
          the West, but attempts were made to consolidate the eastern frontier by
          building                             and establishing                       on the Pacific.
     •                            the communist policy to assimilate all people within the Russian borders into the Russian
          culture. To make this happen, more than 30 million           moved out to fill in the country. After the collapse of
          communism some returned, but their impact is still felt.
     •                     has also experienced internal migration, due to the number of legal and illegal emigrants to the US
          creating                      in the north and pulling workers from farther south. One group is an indigenous group,
                             , which are often treated as poorly in their country as Mexicans are treated in our
 country. Guest Workers
 Due to major population losses in WWII, European nations had a need for workers creating a migration flow into the Western
 European region, first from Eastern Europe and then from other regions (primarily from colonial connections or trading
 partners)
     • French workers came primarily from                           (Fr controlled much of NW Africa as colonies)
     • German workers came primarily from                           .
     • British workers came from the                      . _      , and _                 (also areas controlled during the
      colonial period)
     • The term                             suggests that the workers would fill the void of those lost in the war, and then
          return to their home country. Instead, they                                                  because they were needed
          and because they wanted to stay. Guest workers often do not have all rights of full citizenship. The often work on
          farms or in the                   industry, sending home                                           to provide for their
          families. In fact many countries depend on these                                             as a part of their economy.
     • Guest Workers are                  migrants who have visas, usually short term. Despite the short or long term stay,
          guest workers change the        ,                 , and                  mosaic of the places where they go. The
          cultural landscape of the host country begins to reflect the        ,                  ,               , etc the migrants
          who work there.

    Refugees
    Refugees usually leave their home on              with only their few                        (including small children) on their
             . They are unprepared to take care of the basic necessities of food, clothing, or shelter.
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     •    In 1951 the                                 established the international law specifying who is a refugee & what legal
          rights they have. The main goal was to help European refugees at the end of WWII.
     • The UNHCR (                                                                ) helped                      most of those refugees.
     • The number of refugees has grown steadily. In 1970 the majority were                               dislocated by the creation
           of Israel.
• Refugee is defined as “a person who has a ‘well--‐founded’ fear of being persecuted for reasons of              ,             ,
                       ,                     of a particular social group or political opinions”. An
                  (IDP) do not cross international borders and are not counted. (e.g. victims of Hurricane Katrina)
• The United Nations and international law distinguish between                          (who have crossed one or more borders) and
                                        who leave their home but remain in their country. When a _                    meets the official
    criteria, they become eligible for assistance and possible                         (protection). Refugees cannot be forced back
    to their homeland until the UNHCR deems it safe and assists in the process of                                .
•   In the early 21st c _                                                                                      has had the largest
number of refugees in the world. The second largest number of refugees is found in                   and                   .
•   In West Africa, civil war in                                                                   and                       sent
thousands streaming into                               &                                           (find them on a map)
•                                                      (Join STAND to learn more) has the worst refugee crisis in Africa today
(with two decades of civil war with the Muslim and Arabs in the north and the black African and Christians in the south.
Boundaries drawn by the Europeans and the imposition of Islamic Sharia religious laws have intensified the struggle. Over
2.2 million have died and more than 5 million have been                           with many in Uganda and Chad. In Darfur (NE
Sudan) The militia, called the                         and supported by the gov’t, is waging a campaign of          against the
Muslims who are darker skinned Africans. Both the US and the UN call this a genocide as defined as “acts committed with
intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group” The conflict continues……
     • The wars in Kuwait and Iraq have created millions of refugees in the last 20 years. The                      abandoned their
           homes in Iraq and moved into                 &           . The US created a secure zone (no fly zone) in the North of
           Iraq in an attempt to persuade the displaced Kurds to return.
     • The Soviet invasion of                         in 1979 led to Afghans streaming into Iran and                       . The US
           supported the                      against the Soviets with weapons and supplies. The withdrawal of Soviets troops
           lead to a govt by the               which resulted in more refugees. After 9/11 the US sent troops to Afghanistan to
           find
                                    .
     • Sri Lanka has been the site of civil war between the minority                    (Hindu) and the dominant
          (Buddhists) – resulting in many displaced persons.
     • In SE Asia – b/w 1 & 2 million fled _                                                             following the withdrawal of
           the US and the takeover of a communist regime. 300,000                                      fled endless violence to
           refugee camps in _                                 . Today the largest refugee camps in the realm of SE Asia are in
                                                with victims of the 2004                               , the 2008                and
           repressive rule.
     • In Europe, the collapse of                        led to violence and ethnic cleansing forcing many to leave their homes.
     •                      in S. America has a serious displaced person problem because of _                   associated with

Essential Question: How Do Governments affect Migration?
 Efforts to restrict migration are not new (e.g. _                in China, _             in Germany, _      in Korea, & the
                                                                  along the Rio Grande)
     •     Immigration laws like the _                              of 1892 – 1907 were designed to prevent Chinese from
            immigrating to
     •     The                          passed the Immigration Restriction Act, which ended all _                   . It remained
            in effect until modified in 1972 and again in 1979. Two Major Waves of US Immigration (before 1930 & today)
     •     In the 1800s the US opened its doors to mostly
            (mostly N). The later 1800’s saw more immigrants from
                        &               Europe. Congress passed legislation in 1921 to deter immigration from this region.
     •     Many countries practice                               . South Africa demanded _______ European descent, New Zealand
     --‐   , Brazil --‐                                           & Singapore --‐ _




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Chapter 03: Migration                         Multiple Choice
1. Cuban illegal immigrants who actually make it to the United States’ shores will be
a) arrested and deported.
b) allowed to stay.
c) sent to Puerto Rico.
d) put back on their boats and sent back to sea.

2. Today, an estimated ___________ illegal immigrants live in the United States.
a) 100,000
b) 1,000,000
c) 10,000,000
d. 75,000,000

3. What percentage of Haiti’s GNP comes from remittances sent by Haitians living in the United States?
a) 1
b) 5
c) 10
d) 15

4. The vast majority of legal agricultural workers in Canada are
a) Canadian.
b) unemployed Americans.
c) Mexicans.
d) European student guest workers.

5. The type of movement that involves journeys that begin at and bring us back to our home base is called
a) periodic.
b) immigration.
c) migratory.
d) cyclic.

6. More than 5,000,000 Mexicans legally immigrated to the U. S. between 1981 and 2002.
Cyclical movement
a) begins at our home base and brings us back to it .
b) begins abroad and ends in the USA.
c) begins and ends abroad after a long period of time.
d) begins at home in the USA and ends abroad.

7. Commuters in Washington, DC may travel up to _____ miles each way to work daily.
a) 5
b) 10
c) 25
d) 100

8. Most nomadic movement takes place according to travel patterns that are
a) repeated time and time again.
b) very irregular.
c) limited to desert regions .
d) periodic in nature.

9. Which of the identified types of movement creates your activity space?
a) periodic
b) migratory
c) cyclic
d) emigration




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10. All of the following are examples of periodic movements except
a) going to college.
b) transhumance.
c) commuting to work.
d) migrant workers.

11. A periodic form of movement that involves a system of pastoral farming whereby livestock and their keepers adjust their location
to the seasonal availability of pastures is called:
a) nomadic herding.
b) transhumance.
c) livestock farming.
d) ranching.

12. A common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million Americans is
a) summer camp.
b) vacations.
c) military service.
d) sabbatical leaves.

13. The long-term relocation of an individual, household, or group to a new location outside the community of origin is called
a) resettlement.
b) emigration.
c) migration.
d) transmovement.

14. During the first decades of the twentieth century, African American families in the United States migrated primarily to
a) the north.
b) the west.
c) the northwest.
d) other southern states farther west.

15. Which US states experienced net outmigration during the 1990s & net immigration from 2000-2004?
a) Louisiana, Alabama, Pennsylvania
b) Texas, Florida, Maine
c) Wyoming, Maryland, Maine
d) Wyoming, Illinois, Maryland

16. In the United States during the late twentieth century, internal migration streams were moving people from
a) west to east and south to north.
b) west to east and north to south.
c) east to west and south to north.
d) east to west and north to south.

17. Internal migration in Peru is fairly simple with the majority of migrants moving to
a) Iquitos on the Amazon.
b) Ecuador.
c) Lima.
d) new farmland in rural areas

18. Irish migration to North America in the mid-1800s is an example of
a) forced migration.
b) migration which reflects both forced and voluntary aspects of migration.
c) voluntary migration.
d) cyclical migration.




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19. Gender studies of migration indicate that men ______________ than women.
a) are more mobile
b) migrate farther
c) have more employment choices and income
d) all of the above

20. The smallest number of slaves involved in the Atlantic slave trade was sent to
a) British Caribbean.
b) Brazil.
c) French Caribbean.
d) British North America.

21. Which of the following is not one of Ernst Ravenstein’s laws of migration?
a) Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration.
b) Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
c) The majority of migrants move short distances.
d) The majority of urban migrants are uneducated.

22. Between 1788 and 1838, tens of thousands of convicts were shipped from Britain to which of the following continents?
a) Africa
b) North America
c) Australia
d) Asia

23. One of the “laws” of migration as derived by Ravenstein states that
a) urban residents are more migratory than rural.
b) rural residents are more migratory than urban.
c) urban residents are less migratory than rural.
d) rural inhabitants hardly ever migrate.

24. Ravenstein, in his study of migration, suggested that there is an inverse relationship between the volume of migration and the
distance between the source and destination. That is, the number of migrants _____ as the distance they know they must travel
increases.
a) increases
b) decreases
c) remains the same
d) decreases and then rises

25. What is the model which states that spatial interaction between places (e.g. migration) is directly related to the population size and
inversely related to the distance between them?
a) gravity model
b) model of emigration
c) distance decay model
d) intervening opportunity model

26. According to Ravenstein, migrants who move longer distances tend to choose
a) warmer destinations.
b) open “frontier” areas.
c) big-city destinations.
d) to migrate as a family unit.

27. What push factor compelled more than 50,000 Asians to leave Uganda in 1972?
a) It was too hot and crowded.
b) Food was in short supply.
c) Uganda’s economy collapsed.
d) Ugandan leader Idi Amin expelled them.



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28. Chain migration occurs when:
a) The migrant uses technology to find a job in a new place.
b) The migrant chooses a destination & communicates with other to tell family and friends at home about the new place.
c) The migrant travels with large numbers of other migrants.
d) The migrant follows a travel path established by family members.

29. Of the 10,000 inhabitants of the Caribbean island Montserrat, 7,000 have left the island and the remaining 3,000 have moved to
the north coast of the island because of
a) hurricanes.
b) the collapse of the banana economy.
c) volcanic eruptions.
d) civil war.


30. European migration to colonies reached its peak during this period:
a) 1700-1800.
b) 1800-1835.
c) 1835-1935.
d) post World War II.

31. British colonial authorities stimulated migration of people from this region to colonies such as Singapore, Fiji, and Trinidad.
a) Africa
b) South Asia
c) Europe
d) South America

32. European colonialism stimulated the movement of ___________ to the cities (islands of development) of Southeast Asia where
they have become a significant minority population.
a) Africans
b) Indians
c) Europeans
d) Chinese

33. Major routes of human migration before 1950 include all of the following except:
a) eastern United States to western United States.
b) China to the United States.
c) Europe to Australia.
d) China to India.

34. Major islands of sub-Saharan development have occurred in:
a) South Africa and Nigeria.
b) Somalia and Sudan.
c) South Africa and Angola.
d) Congo and Ethiopia.

35. Major concentrations of Chinese immigrants are found in all of the following places except:
a) Java.
b) southern Malaysia.
c) East Timor.
d) southern Vietnam.

36. There are between 300,001 and 800,000 refugees from _______
a) Iraq and Afghanistan.
b) Burundi and Sudan.
c) Sudan and Iran.
d) Iraq and Sudan.


                                                                   15
37. In 1850, the center of the U.S. population was located in:
a) West Virginia.
b) Ohio.
c) Indiana.
d) Illinois.

38. A person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular
social group, or political opinion is officially a:
a) patriot
b) refugee
c) displaced person
d) gypsy

39. In terms of total number of refugees, _____ is the geographic realm most severely affected by refugee problems.
a) Russia
b) Central America
c) South America
d) tropical Africa

40. The intervention of what country in the civil war in Afghanistan caused great numbers of refugees to leave the country?
a) India
b) the Soviet Union
c) the United States
d) Pakistan

41. One recent refugee crisis in Southwest Asia took place in 1991, when, in the aftermath of the Gulf War, the __________
population of northern Iraq was forced to leave their villages and flee across the Turkish and Iranian borders.
a) Christian
b) Kurdish
c) Indian
d) Jewish

42. The Afghan Taliban (Islamic fundamentalists) movement, spawned in Pakistan, created a counter migration of 2.5 million
Afghanis to ________ when they came to power.
a) Pakistan
b) Russia
c) India
d) Iran

43. Today, the largest refugee numbers in Southeast Asia are reported from
a) Cambodia.
b) Myanmar (Burma).
c) Vietnam.
d) Laos.

44. In 1995, the collapse of which of the following European countries produced the largest refugee crisis in Europe since the end of
World War II?
a) Turkey
b) Yugoslavia
c) Greece
d) Romania

45. In 1997, the only country in the western hemisphere that had a serious refugee problem was
a) Brazil.
b) Colombia.
c) Jamaica.
d) Haiti.


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46. Which is not an example of a fortified barrier to migration?
a) the United States - Canadian border
b) the Great Wall of China
c) the Berlin Wall
d) fences along the Rio Grande River

47. In the period from 1882-1907, the United States Congress passed exclusionary immigration laws designed to keep __________
out of the immigrant stream.
a) Irish
b) Mexicans
c) Chinese
d) Russians

48. The practice of excluding people with criminal records, health problems, or subversive political beliefs from immigrating is
referred to as
a) selective immigration.
b) prejudice.
c) asylum refusal.
d) chain migration.

49. Since September 2001, there has been a greater concern about immigration control to
a) illegal immigrations impact on unemployment rates.
b) the spread of infectious diseases.
c) interrupt drug trafficking.
d) prevent terrorism.

50. In 2004, Asylum seekers from __________ were automatically detained by the U.S. government.
a) Morocco and India
b) Libya and Ethiopia
c) Libya and Mali
d) Sudan and Somalia


                                                          Essay
51. Define cyclic movement and periodic movement. Give examples (perhaps, from your own experience) of each. Describe your
own activity space.


52. Look at the map (figure 3.8). Choose three numbered migrations and describe the migrations by type, by who was involved, and
the period and consequences of the migration.


53. Discuss the geography of the refugee problem. Discuss the difference between intranational and international refugees and give
examples of each type.


54. Define push and pull factors and discuss, with examples, the various types of push and pull factors.

55. What are some of the economic, social, and security issues involved in the debate over United States immigration policy?
Describe the several categories of migrants (legal, illegal, temporary worker, refugee etc.) currently residing in the United States.




                                                                    17
                                                          Geographic Concepts
activity spaces The space within which daily activity occurs.
asylum Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state.
chain migration Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a
place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate
there).
colonization Physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either
moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
cyclic movements Movement—for example, nomadic migration—that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
deportation The act of a government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrant's home country.
distance decay The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
explorers A person examining a region that is unknown to them.
forced migration Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
global‐scale migration migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions.
gravity model A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the
respective places and the distance between them.
guest workers Legal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term.
immigration The act of a person migrating into a new country or area.
immigration laws Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
immigration wave Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration
from one origin to the same destination.
internally displaced persons People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as
they flee.
internal migration Human movement within a nation‐state, such as ongoingly westward and southward movements in the United
States.
international migration Human movement involving movement across international boundaries.
intervening opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
islands of development Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high
concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
kinship links Types of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already
found success.
laws of migration Developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.
migrant labor A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of
workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
migration A change in residence intended to be permanent. See also chain, forced, internal, international, step, and voluntary
migration.
military service Another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given
year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to
several years.
nomadism Movement among a definite set of places—often cyclic movement.
periodic movement Movement—for example, college attendence or military service—that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
pull factors Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.
push factors Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale.
quotas Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year.
refugees People who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country.
regional scale Interactions occurring within a region, in a regional setting.
remittances Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the
economy in many poorer countries.
repatriation A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a
non‐governmental organization.
Russification the Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union.
selective immigration Process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor
health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating.
step migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city.
transhumance A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
voluntary migration in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move.



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