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									                     Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                            Interdisciplinary Lesson

     Ohio Standards           Lesson Summary:
      Connections             In this lesson, students explore the technological
Technology
                              enhancement of various items used in everyday life and
                              predict future technological development of objects based
Technology and Society        on society’s needs and their investigation of historical data.
Interaction                   Students choose familiar tools or technologies. They write
                              short histories of the objects including time lines and
Benchmark C
Interpret and evaluate the
                              propose future design changes for the tool based on the
influence of technology       data.
throughout history, and
predict its impact on the     This lesson brings together technology, science, social
future.                       studies and library information literary skills. The students
Indicator 1
                              distinguish between inventions and innovations.
Describe how some
technological development     Estimated Duration: Four 50-minute class sessions
has been evolutionary, the
result of a series of
refinements to basic          Commentary:
inventions or innovations     This lesson shows the interrelationship between science,
over time.                    social studies and technology. The underlying theme
                              demonstrates that over time, technology allows people to
Indicator 2
Select a technology or tool
                              satisfy their needs not only through invention, but also
and predict how it will       through innovation. Innovation continues to satisfy human
change in the future.         needs and stimulates invention.
Science
                              Pre-Assessment:
Science and Technology        See Attachment A, Pre-Assessment.
Benchmark A
Explain the ways in which
                              Scoring Guidelines:
the processes of              Use pre-assessment responses to determine what students
technological design          know about invention, innovation and historical time
respond to the needs of       sense and plan additional work, if needed.
society.

Indicator 2
                              Post-Assessment:
Identify a problem or need,    Direct each student to write a short history of some
propose designs and              tool or technology commonly found in everyday life,
choose among alternative         predict at least three ways a tool or technology could
solutions for the problem.       change in the next 25 years and speculate which
                                 change is most likely to occur. The prediction and
                                 speculation must be based on:




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                      Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                             Interdisciplinary Lesson

Social Studies                    1. Research about the development and history of the
                                      device or technology;
Social Studies Skills and
Methods
                                  2. Technological change and innovation patterns;
                                  3. Predicted society’s needs.
Benchmark B                      Tell students they must include time lines for the historical
Use data and evidence to          information.
support or refute a thesis.
                                 Tell students they must use electronic and nonelectronic
Indicator 4                       information sources and properly cite them.
Develop and present a
research project including:   Scoring Guidelines:
a. Collection of data;        See Attachment C, Post-Assessment Rubric.
b. Narrowing and refining
   the topic;
c. Construction and support   Instructional Procedures:
   of the thesis.             Day One
                              1. Conduct pre-assessment.
Library                       2. Show a short video that focuses on invention and how
                                 inventions influence society.
Information Literacy
                              3. Review answers to pre-assessment by checking answers
Benchmark A                      with Attachment B. Discuss the length of time it took
Investigate information          some items to become popular or widely used. Discuss the
through independent              concepts of invention, innovation and technological
discovery, peer
                                 change as demonstrated in common objects. Clarify
collaboration, and inquiry
learning; read a variety of      invention and innovation concepts, if necessary. Be sure
literary material for            that students know the vocabulary works and definitions
academic need, personal          on Attachment D, Vocabulary List & Definitions.
interest and lifelong         4. Introduce the post-assessment assignment. Use
learning, and practice
                                 Attachment C, Post-Assessment Rubric.
responsible usage and
ethical behavior when         5. Brainstorm various items and technologies that students
using library media center       might investigate for the post-assessment project.
materials.                    6. Clearly identify the necessary components of the post-
                                 assessment project:
Indicator 1
                                 a. Write a short history of some tool or technology;
Access additional
resources provided in the        b. Construct a time line for the historical information;
high school library media        c. Make three predictions of how that tool or technology
center.                              might change in the next 25 years, based on research
                                     about the development and history of the object;
Indicator 2
                                     technological change and social need; changes may be
Evaluate library materials
and select formats based on          to the materials, the design or the function of the tool;
information need and             d. Determine the most likely change based on research
personal preference (e.g.,           about the development and history of the object,
e-book, digital media,               technological change and social need;
print).
                                 e. Use electronic and nonelectronic information sources
                                     and properly cite them.


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                      Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                             Interdisciplinary Lesson

Indicator 3                   7. Direct students to generate a list of topic choices through
Locate resources using a         discussions with other students and to keep a list of their
title, subject, author,
keyword and advanced
                                 writing and project ideas.
searches in the library       8. Check student topic choices before they begin gathering
catalog or with appropriate      information.
online resources (e.g.,       9. Explain the acceptable citation format for this project
Boolean operators or             (MLA Style Manual, Modern Language Association; APA
limiters, copyright year or
material types.
                                 Guidelines, American Psychological Association).

Indicator 4                   Instructional Tip:
Select appropriate            Provide a copy of the lesson plans to the School Library
reference tools to answer     Media Specialist (SLMS) and determine resources best suited
questions.
                              to student needs.
Benchmark B                   a. Review steps for locating resources using a title, subject,
Determine and apply an            author, keyword and advanced searches in the library
evaluative process to all         catalog.
information sources chosen    b. Identify resources that reflect the needs of students who
for a project.
                                  learn at various rates and have different learning styles.
Indicator 1                   c. Promote the use of state-provided electronic resources and
Define terms which                select additional resources to support the curriculum.
determine information         d. If appropriate, provide a list of Internet resources or
validity.                         collaboratively determine Web sites to use for this project.
     a. Accuracy;
     b. Authority;
                              e. Review policies and procedures for checking out
     c. Objectivity;              materials.
     d. Currency;
     e. Coverage.             Day Two
                              10. Introduce resource materials—print and electronic—
Indicator 2
Determine the author’s
                                  available in the library-media center or other area for this
authority for all resources       project.
and identify points of        11. Restate the acceptable citation format for this project.
agreement and                 12. Remind students to use both electronic and print sources
disagreement among                of information.
sources.
                              13. Provide time for information gathering in the library
Benchmark C                       media center or other resource area.
Apply a research process      14. Instruct students to predict three ways that the tool or
model to conduct research         technology will change in the next 25 years based on
and meet information              evidence of development and demonstrated social need
needs.
                                  that they discover in their research.
Indicator 1                   15. Direct students to determine which change is most likely
Determine the essential           to occur, based on evidence of development and
questions and plan research       demonstrated social need.
strategies.




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                     Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                            Interdisciplinary Lesson

Indicator 2                    Day Three
Utilize basic and advanced     16. Assist students as they begin rough drafts and construct
search strategies to obtain
topic-appropriate
                                   their time lines.
resources.                     17. Supervise students as they edit and revise all written
                                   work, including their time lines.
Indicator 3                    18. Encourage students to share their information informally
Select and evaluate                with their peers.
appropriateness of
information from a variety
of resources, including        Day Four (technology options)
online research databases      19. Show students how to use the “table” function or the “
and Web sites to answer            draw” function in a word-processing application to
the essential questions.           create their time lines of past inventions and
Indicator 5
                                   innovations. Show a sample time line for students’
Identify relevant facts,           proposed inventions and innovations.
check facts for accuracy       20. Use a spreadsheet to record varied categories such as the
and record appropriate             seven technological systems: energy and power,
information.                       transportation, manufacturing, construction, information
Indicator 6
                                   and communication, medical and agricultural and related
Analyze the information            biotechnologies. These categories can be further broken
gathered through note-             down into subsets with topics such as durable consumer
taking, organize                   goods, home appliances and automotive technology in
information into a logical         which students projected that invention and innovation
sequence, and create a draft
product (e.g., report,
                                   would occur. Chart student responses from the data
research paper,                    given. Discuss the pattern(s) of their predictions.
presentation).
                               Differentiated Instructional Support:
Indicator 7                    Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to
Incorporate a list of
sources used in a project
                               help all learners either meet the intent of the specified
using a standard               indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance
bibliographic style manual     beyond the specified indicator(s).
(e.g., MLA and APA Style        Provide varied sources of information, including audio
manuals.).                         and video formats, whenever possible.
Indicator 8                     Allow alternative formats for the post-assessment such
Create and communicate             as multimedia presentations, Web page(s) or storyboards
findings through an                with commentary. These formats help visual learners
appropriate format.                organize, apply and store what they learn.
Indicator 9
                                Challenge students to investigate related topics:
Evaluate the research              predictions of future technological advances including
process and product as they        “smart” technologies that employ sensing ability,
apply to the information           memory and decision making.
need (e.g. does the process
reflect the actual
information.




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                   Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                          Interdisciplinary Lesson
Extensions:
 Recommend sources for students to research inventors and inventions. Suggest journals
   and Web search phrases.
 Direct students to interview parents or other individuals who have experience with some
   of the older tools and technologies and record their responses to technological change.
   Instruct students to compare and contrast these responses to their own feelings in
   response to change.
 Urge students to investigate patents and the process of applying for patent recognition in
   the United States.
 Provide articles for further research on intellectual property issues.
 Invite an engineer to speak about the processes he or she uses to solve problems and
   overcome challenges. Have students ask questions about how engineers learn from
   mistakes and failures. Discuss how cycles of product development lead to product
   improvement.
 Have students choose inventions and write about how their lives would be different if
   they did not have them.
 Have the students research the qualities of inventors that help them succeed.

Home Connections:
 Have students interview parents or other individuals who have experience with some of
  the older tools and technologies. Describe their responses to technological change.
 If available, have students bring examples of older technologies to class.
 Have students take a copy of Attachment A home for their parents to complete. Have
  them write in their journals about their discussion with their parents or grandparents.

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of
Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of
its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does
not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main
page; therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information
required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes
over time; therefore, the links provided may no longer contain the specific information
related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with
students.

Note: Some Web sites contain material that is protected by copyright. Teachers should
ensure that any use of material from the Web does not infringe upon the content owner's
copyright.

For the teacher:       video on inventions and innovations, list of Internet resources,
                       electronic databases and Web sites; optional: audio and video formats
                       and recorders



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                   Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                          Interdisciplinary Lesson

For the student:       access to the Internet and to the library resources, software for time
                       lines and spreadsheets
Electronic databases are available through INFOhio at www.infohio.org and click on Core
Collection.
Videos are available through Area Media Centers with links available through INFOhio at
www.infohio.org by clicking on Ohio Media Resources.

Vocabulary:
 historical time line – graphic arrangement of events and the time period (or specific
   dates) during which they occurred, organized chronologically
 innovation – an improvement of an existing technological product, system or method of
   doing something
 invention – the development of a new technological product, system or method of doing
   something that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation
 investigation – detailed and systematic observation, examination or inquiry
 prediction - the act of telling about something before it occurs based on some
   investigation, knowledge or inference
 technology – human innovation in action that involves the generation of knowledge and
   processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities. The
   innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived
   human needs and wants.

Library Connections:
In 2003, the State Board of Education and the Ohio Department of Education established
library guidelines that represent a standards-based education approach to school library
programs. Entitled Academic Content Standards K-12 Guidelines Library, Ohio’s library
guidelines provide a variety of content-specific, grade-level indicators describing
information literacy, literacy linked to library-based technologies, and media literacy
experiences for students. Featured on pages 204-219 are sample activities for making library
connections across academic content standards and disciplines. Also included are grade-
band models for student research and specific information concerning copyright and fair use
of materials laws. K-12 teachers are encouraged to utilize the library guidelines and
collaborate with the school library media specialist whenever possible. Ohio’s library
guidelines can be found under the heading of Library at www.ode.state.oh.us, keyword
search Library.

Research Connections:
Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for
Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 2001.




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                  Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                         Interdisciplinary Lesson
   1. Identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and
      ability to use knowledge. This process includes comparing, classifying, creating
      metaphors and creating analogies and may involve the following:
       Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and
          differences.
       Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences.
       Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form.
   2. Summarizing and note taking are two of the most powerful skills to help students
      identify and understand the most important aspects of what they are learning.
   3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition addresses students’ attitudes and beliefs
      about themselves as learners. They have positive affect on student learning.

Daniels, H., and Bizar, M. Methods that Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice Classrooms,
Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers, 1998.

    Authentic experiences help students develop real-world knowledge and skills and apply
    their learning in ways that prepare them for their careers and lives beyond school.

Edelson, D., Gordin, D., Pea, R. (1999). Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based
Learning, Technology and Curriculum Design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3-4),
391-450.

    Inquiry-based learning helps students to become resourceful, effective investigators and
    problem-solvers. Research reports that with effective teacher facilitation, student-
    centered inquiry projects can reverse patterns of underachievement. Inquiry-based
    projects can build learning communities that foster communication skills, interpretive
    abilities and an understanding of issues from a variety of perspectives.

Ogle, Donna. “KWL: A Teaching Model That Develops Active Reading of Expository
Text.” Reading Teacher 39:6 (1986): 564-570.

    The KWL is a teaching technique that helps students recall prior knowledge. It was
    originally developed as a model for active thinking during reading. It has been modified
    to include “H” to encourage students to think about how they can learn more.

Technology for All Americans Project, Measuring Progress: A Guide to Assessing Students
for Technological Literacy, Reston, VA: International Technology Education Association,
2004.

    Standards-based student assessment supports the systematic, multi-step process of
    collecting evidence on student learning, understanding and abilities and using that
    information to inform instruction and provide feedback to the learner, thereby enhancing
    learning. Students should be assessed often using a variety of tools and methods. The
    design of student assessments should follow set principles, such as utilizing authentic


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                  Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                         Interdisciplinary Lesson
    assessment that provides students the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and
    abilities in real-world situations. Note: the complete publication and other resource
    materials are available online at the Ohio page of the ITEA Center to Advance the
    Teaching of Technology and Science [CATTS] web link:
    http://www.iteaconnect.org/EbD/CATTSresources/CATTSresourcesOH01.htm

General Tips:
Have students conduct an online search for information using keywords: history of
technology, innovations, inventions technology time line.

Attachments:
Attachment A, Pre-Assessment
Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Answer Sheet
Attachment C, Post-Assessment Rubric
Attachment D, Vocabulary List and Definitions




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                    Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                           Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                      Attachment A
                                      Pre-Assessment


Directions: Column A lists 10 tools or technologies created some time ago. Column B
            shows changes or improvements to those tools or technologies. Match Column
            A (the older form) to Column B (the newer form), by writing the letter in the
            space provided.
            Note the space after each item in Column B. In each space, write the decade
            when you think that change or improvement (Column B) came into existence.

             Column A                  Column B                              Decade

  1.          Bandage                  A.) Pantyhose

  2.          Can opener               B.) Cellular telephone

  3.          Cloth diaper             C.) Refrigerator

  4.          Eye glasses              D.) Digital Video Disk (DVD)

  5.          Fountain pen             E.) Band-Aid®

  6.          Ice box                  F.) Jet plane

  7.          Instant photography      G.) Electric can opener

  8.          Nylon stockings          H.) Ballpoint pen

  9.          Propeller airplane        I.) Contact lenses

 10.          Telephone                J.) Disposable diaper

 11.          Video tapes              K.) Digital photography


All of the items in Column A are considered “inventions” while Column B lists
“innovations” of many kinds. Based on each list, write your own definition of each term.

Invention:                                     Innovation:




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                   Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                          Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                         Attachment B
                                  Pre-Assessment Answer Sheet


Directions: Column A lists 10 tools or technologies created some time ago. Column B
            shows changes or improvements to those tools or technologies. Match Column
            A (the older form) to Column B (the newer form), by writing the letter in the
            space provided.
            Note the space after each item in Column B. In each space, write the decade
            when you think that change or improvement (Column B) came into existence.

           Column A                      Column B                             Decade

  1. E       Bandage                     A.) Pantyhose                    1960

  2. G       Can opener                  B.) Cellular telephone           1940, ‘70, ‘80, ‘90

  3. J       Cloth diaper                C.) Refrigerator                 1870’s patent, 1910

  4. I       Eye glasses                 D.) Digital Video Disk (DVD)     1990

  5. H       Fountain pen                E.) Band-Aid®                    1920

  6. C       Ice box                     F.) Jet plane                    1930

  7. K       Instant photography         G.) Electric can opener          1930

  8. A       Nylon stockings             H.) Ballpoint pen                1938 patent 1940

  9. F       Propeller airplane          I.) Contact lenses               1890, 1940, 1960

 10. B       Telephone                   J.) Disposable diaper            1950

 11. D       Video tapes                 K.) Digital photography          1980



All of the items in Column A are considered “inventions” while Column B lists
“innovations” of many kinds. Based on each list, write your own definition of each term.

Invention: Answers will vary and should be       Innovation: Answers will vary and should be
similar to vocabulary list                       similar to vocabulary list




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                                               Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                                                    Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                                                 Attachment C
                                                             Post-Assessment Rubric

                                       4                                 3                                 2                            1

Identification of Tool                                                                      Omits major or significant         Fails to include
                         Provides complete history        Includes many changes with
or Technology and                                                                           changes in history of tool or      history of tool or   ____
                         from invention to present.       minor errors.
Record of Change                                                                            technology.                        technology.

                                                          Demonstrates logical              Shows illogical sequencing         Omits major
                         Demonstrates logical
      Time line                                           sequencing and structure with     and structure; omits major         points; sequences    ____
                         sequencing and structure.
                                                          minor points missing.             points.                            inaccurately.

                         Makes prediction consistent                                        Makes prediction inconsistent
  Prediction (1) of                                       Makes prediction consistent
                         with previous change or                                            with previous innovation and       Omits prediction of
 Change in Tool or                                        with previous innovation and                                                             ____
                         innovation based on data and                                       technology without providing       change.
    Technology                                            technology.
                         evidence.                                                          supporting data.

                         Make prediction consistent                                         Makes prediction inconsistent
  Prediction (2) of                                       Makes prediction consistent
                         with previous change or                                            with previous innovation and       Omits prediction of
 Change in Tool or                                        with previous innovation and                                                             ____
                         innovation based on data and                                       technology without providing       change.
    Technology                                            technology.
                         evidence.                                                          supporting data.

                         Make prediction consistent                                         Makes prediction inconsistent
  Prediction (3) of                                       Makes prediction consistent
                         with previous change or                                            with previous innovation and       Omits prediction of
 Change in Tool or                                        with previous innovation and                                                             ____
                         innovation based on data and                                       technology without providing       change.
    Technology                                            technology.
                         evidence and evidence.                                             supporting data.

                                                          Identifies the prediction most    Identifies the prediction most
                         Identifies the prediction most                                                                        Fails to identify
                                                          likely to occur, making limited   likely to occur, but contradicts
 Identification of       likely to occur, reflecting                                                                           one change as
                                                          ties to previous change or        evidence of change or                                   ____
Most Likely Change       previous change or innovation                                                                         more likely to
                                                          innovation and technology         innovation and technology
                         and technology patterns.                                                                              occur.
                                                          patterns.                         patterns.




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                                            Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                                              Attachment C
                                                    Post-Assessment Rubric, Continued

                                                     Gathers information from                                   Shows no evidence of
                      Gathers information from
                                                     electronic sources and at      Gathers information from    gathering information from
 Collection of Data   both electronic and                                                                                                      ____
                                                     least one nonelectronic        only electronic sources.    nonelectronic or electronic
                      nonelectronic sources.
                                                     source.                                                    sources.

  Demonstrates
                      Clearly, logically presents                                   Shows minimal
  Technological                                      Shows some technological                                   Fails to show technological
                      evolutionary technological                                    technological development                                  ____
Development Over                                     development over time.                                     development over time.
                      development over time.                                        over time.
      Time

                      Clearly, logically
   Information                                       Clearly, logically
                      demonstrates social need                                      Demonstrates social need    Fails to address social need
Demonstrates Social                                  demonstrates social need                                                                  ____
                      with two or more specific                                     with an example.            or provide an example.
       Need                                          with a specific example.
                      examples.


                      Cites all researched           Cites most of the researched   Cites some of the
                      material accurately            material, reasonably           researched material         Cites none of the researched
Citation of Sources
                      following the designated       following the designated       without following the       material.
                      style.                         style.                         designated style.



                                                                                                                                               ____
                                                                                                                                Total Points




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                   Technology Keeps Moving – Grade Nine
                          Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                     Attachment D
                              Vocabulary List and Definitions


Historical time line: graphic arrangement of events and the time period (or specific dates)
                      during which they occurred, organized chronologically


Innovation:           an improvement of an existing technological product, system or
                      method of doing something



Invention:            the development of a new technological product, system or method of
                      doing something that has never existed before, created by study and
                      experimentation


Investigation:        detailed and systematic observation, examination or inquiry


Prediction:           the act of telling about something before it occurs based on some
                      investigation, knowledge or inference


Technology:           human innovation in action that involves the generation of knowledge
                      and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend
                      human capabilities. The innovation, change, or modification of the
                      natural environment to satisfy perceived human needs and wants




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