Enlightenment by hTb9vBH

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									ENLIGHTENMENT
An Age of Reason
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
 A term used to describe a movement among
  European intellectuals in the 18th century who
  sought to make progress toward a better society
  than the one they inherited.
 The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it
  was a set of attitudes. At its core was criticism, a
  questioning of traditional ideas, institutions,
  customs, and morals.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
 They  believed that all systems of thought
  and institutions were subject to the
  rational, scientific way of thinking, if
  people would only free themselves from
  the past, worthless traditions, especially
  religious ones.
 Reason, hope, natural law and progress
  were all words common to Enlightenment
  thinkers.
SOURCES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
 Renaissance Humanism
 Growing secularism

 Travel Literature

 The work of John Locke

 Heavily influenced by the Scientific Revolution

 The work of Isaac Newton
THE PHILOSOPHES
 Intellectuals  of the Enlightenment,
  predominately French
 Defined by one as “[One who] applies
  himself to the study of society with the
  purpose of making his kind better and
  happier.”
 Reason was to be applied, in the form of
  the scientific method, to all aspects of
  society. A spirit of criticism prevailed and
  was applied to everything, but especially
  politics and religion
VOLTAIRE
        Voltaire was the pen name of Francois
         Marie Arouet
        Known for his wit & biting sarcasm, he is
         known for his writings including Candide
         and A Treatise on Tolerance
        Remains one of the most celebrated
         Frenchmen of all time
VOLTAIRE
 His argument is simple: the most inhuman of
  crimes perpetrated by humanity in its history
  have been committed in the name of religion
 The most vicious have been those committed by
  Christians against other Christians.
VOLTAIRE
 His conclusion was religious toleration.
 Governments should remain strictly separate
  from religion and impose no national religion.
 Secular values should take precedence over
  religious values.
DEISM
 The emphasis of the philosophes on reason &
  toleration led to the development of Deism.
 Religion should be reasonable and result in moral
  behavior.
 The knowledge of the natural world had nothing
  to do with religion
 God was seen as a creator, not a redeemer.
THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU
    Dealt solely with political theory, his Spirit of the
     Laws (1748) sought to explain how different
     groups of people ended up with different and
     varying forms of government.
    His studies also led him to conclude that there
     was a single best form of government.
MONTESQUIEU
A  great admirer of the English political
  system after the Glorious Revolution
 English constitution separated powers
  into three independent branches:
  executive, legislative and judicial
 Since no one person was in charge, the
  maximum amount of political and
  economic freedom resulted
 He called this a system of checks &
  balances
CESARE BECCARIA
        An Italian, he was perhaps the most
         influential of all the philosophes
        His book, On Crimes and Punishments,
         radically changed the European outlook on
         prisons and justice
CESARE BECCARIA
 Argued   that judicial punishment should
  be used to protect society, not as
  retribution
 Putting criminals in jail protected society
  and they could be reformed while there
 All other forms of punishment – in
  particular torture and the death penalty –
  were excessive
 Punishment should be prompt and linked
  to the severity of the crime
 All trials should be open and public
DENIS DIDEROT
         Author and editor of the Encyclopedia
         An attempt to systemize and organize the
          sum total of all knowledge
         Collective effort of over 100 French
          thinkers
ENCYCLOPEDIA
 The central purpose of the work was to secularize
  learning
 Other major goal was to assist in the promotion
  of knowledge
 Ultimately responsible for the division of
  knowledge into natural sciences and social
  sciences
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU
         Published in 1762, his work The Social
          Contract is one of the most influential
          books of political philosophy in the
          Western tradition
         Heavily influenced the authors of the
          Declaration of Independence
ROUSSEAU
 At the heart of his thinking is the notion
  that all sovereignty lies in the hands of
  the people
 In order to protect themselves, they join a
  society – a social contract – in order to
  protect their rights
 Government is just an expression of the
  general will of the people
 Government should be a reflection of that
  general will and, if it fails at that, can be
  overthrown – the social contract is broken
ROUSSEAU
 Considered the thinker behind majority rule and
  participatory democracy – Rousseau felt that all
  should participate in society’s decisions
 Everyone was bound to society that way – you
  had rights because society decided you had them

								
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