The Medieval Period / The Middle Ages 1066 - 1485 Medieval Outline (1066-1485) I. Invasion and Conquest II. Results of the Norman Conquest A. Social-Political Organizations B. Feudalism C. Castle Building D. Establishment of Law and Order 1. Domesday Book 2. Primogeniture 3. Women’s Status 4. Magna Carta E. Language III. Major Events and Institutions A. The Church B. The Crusades C. The Black Death IV. Literature V. The End! Invasion and Conquest Edward the Confessor’s death…who will be king? Harold II? William of Normandy? Battle of Hastings, 14 October 1066 Feudalism Feudalism Complicated system of land control that is held and managed by the lord to provide for the king’s needs. Fief (feef) The land that the Lord manages for the king. Fiefdom The practice of protecting the land. Castles Family living Defense Base from which the lord controlled the land St. Mawes Castle Castle Building 10 ft. of height / yr. Cold, damp Tapestries Herstmonceux Castle Edward’s Castle at Beaumaris Law and Order The Domesday Book King William “dom”= judgment Enables taxation Primogeniture: Playing favorites First Born: Inherits title and estate Second Born: Clergy Third Born: Knight Women Status in Society Lost status Became property of fathers and husbands Education Marriage Chivalry and Courtly Love Power Eleanor of Aquitaine Powerful Independent Queen of France Fearless The Magna Carta Latin meaning “Grand/Great Charter” A treaty among all of the lords. King John Signs at Runnymede 1215 Languages After the Norman Conquest, French became the dominant language in the courts and in commerce! DIGLOSSIA: language situation where two different languages are being used for two different purposes French (High) English (Low) aroma stench beef cow Upper Lower mutton sheep classes; classes; nobility swine pork peasants veal calf mansion house demand ask Language develops over time, is a mixture of influences, and is always evolving. The Church •The greatest factor for unifying medieval life was the shared Catholic religion. •Linked Norman present to the Anglo-Saxon past. •Connected England with the European continent. •Offered lodging for travelers and homes for widows and orphans. Canterbury Cathedral 1328 Europe Illuminated Manuscripts Most people didn’t own one. Status symbol. Hand copied by monks. Might take years to copy Dyes were costly. Used vellum from animal skins. The Crusades Military Campaigns to free the Holy Land from the Moslems. Lost the war, but benefited from contact with the Arab world: mathematics, medicine, and a more refined lifestyle. The Black Death 1346-1349 1/3 of population died Bubonic Plague Caused breakdown of feudal system Created new social classes Spread of the Black Death Literature Romance – Preferred by the nobility; tales of Courtly Love instill a sense of chivalry Ballads – Oral tradition preferred by lower classes Miracle / morality plays – Performed in local cathedrals and were enjoyed by the masses Geoffrey Chaucer – Father of English Poetry Soldier, Diplomat, Political Appointee, Master Storyteller Father of English Poetry Vernacular Frame Story Canterbury Tales A group of pilgrims on their journey to the shrine of Thomas a Becket… An original manuscript of The Canterbury Tales William Caxton The Printing Press! William Caxton’s signature The End!
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