Olive Sector Assessment Ultimate

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Organophosphate and carbamate use in olive

In this assessment the EPA has documented what it understands is the current state of the olive
industry in New Zealand (your sector), based on publicly available information and feedback from the
sector. When complete, this sector assessment will form part of the EPA’s formal application for
reassessment of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.

To help complete the assessment, we need your input.

This document contains:
 A profile of your sector
 Some information on your sector’s use of organophosphates and carbamates and alternatives you
   may use
 A preliminary assessment of the risks
 Possible options for managing risks

We acknowledge this document is not complete. Where there are gaps in our data please
include information to help us fully understand the current situation. We have put some
specific questions in grey boxes throughout the document for you to answer.

We need you to:
 Correct inaccuracies and provide us with additional information about your sector by editing this
   document using “tracked changes” or printing the document out and writing onto it.
 Change or add information about yield, sales values, employment figures, major pests, and
   insecticide use patterns, in the tables that we have started to populate.
 Answer the questions about your research, pest management programmes, proposed controls,
   and the impacts the loss of organophosphates and carbamates would have on your sector.
 Suggest additional or alternative management options (controls) that would be practical and

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                                                                             APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

Sector profile
We need to know the size and characteristics of your sector to help us understand the extent of the
impact if organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were restricted or removed. The tables below
contain the information we already have. Please add anything that you feel is missing or incorrect.

Size of the sector
    Table 1: Sector statistics

      Year                                 2007              2008            2009             2010

      Hectares planted                     2,485             2,173           2,173            2,173

      Yield (tonnes)                       1,600             1,600           1,600            1,600

      Main growing region/s                Auckland, Northland, Hawkes Bay, Wairarapa, Marlborough

Olives New Zealand promotes the interests of commercial olive production representing over 200
olive growers. Olives New Zealand is also a Product Group affiliated to Horticulture New Zealand .

    Table 2: Crop sales value ($ millions)

      Year                                  2007             2008            2009              2010

      Exports (FOB) – olive oil              0.5             0.8              0.6              0.8

      Domestic sales – olive oil             2.3             2.3              2.3              2.3

      Total sales                           2.8              3.1             2.9               3.1

Sector demographics
    Table 3: Sector demographics

      Year                               2002         2007           2008            2009         2010

      Number of growers                               400            400             400          400

      Number of employees
      (directly employed )

      Number of employees in
      supporting businesses (e.g.
      packhouses , rural

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Approach to pest management
Pest management systems
It is important to understand how the sector manages insecticide use.

      1. Describe the management systems you have in place to regulate insecticide use.
         Comment on any sector-wide programmes or private standards used by growers, and
         estimate what percentage of your sector follows these practices. Please reference or
         attach your sources.
      The objectives of Olives New Zealand are to: implement Olives New Zealand (ONZ) quality assurance
      certification programme, promote research to establish unique characteristics of NZ Extra Virgin Olive Oil
      (EVOO’s) and set product standards supportable by NZ EVOO’s .

Organophosphate and carbamate use
As far as we understand the olive industry only use organophosphates and carbamates for the
importation of nursery stock. According to MAF procedures, imported nursery stock must be grown for
a minimum period of 12 months in post-entry quarantine and will be inspected, treated and/or
tested for regulated pests as specified in the “Inspection, Testing and Treatment Requirements for
Olea”, at the expense of the importer. Twelve months is an indicative minimum quarantine period and
this period may be extended if material is slow growing, pests are detected, or treatments/testing are

Under these requirements, pesticide treatment (dipping) for cuttings or whole plants may be
undertaken using organophosphate insecticides including acephate, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and
pirimiphos methyl. This activity is analysed in the Biosecurity Sector Assessment .

Outside of biosecurity activities you may use organophosphates or carbamates on your crop. If so,
please specify these in question 2 and outline the use scenarios in table 4 .

      2. Please list pests on which you use organophosphates and carbamates and identify the
            substances you use on them.

      Pest                                                  Substance

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                                                                                  APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

Non organophosphate and carbamate use
As there were no organophosphate or carbamate products registered for use on olives, alternative
registered products were not identified. Please indicate if you are using any insecticides and highlight
any of these that are critical to you.

     Table 4: Insecticides used on olives

                                                                      Application    Application       Application
              Active         Product      Chemical     Application
 Pest                                                                 rate           frequency/        interval
              ingredient     name         group        method
                                                                      (g/ha)         season            (days)

        3. If you are using organophosphates or carbamates please comment on why you prefer them to
           the alternatives you have listed in Table 4.

        The use of synthetic insecticides creates potentially serious threats to the New Zealand olive industry
        even if this usage is by only a small minority of growers (currently <10%) .

        4. Tell us about pest control research undertaken by your sector, and any trials
           underway or completed that would reduce your reliance on organophosphates and
           carbamates. This could include a description of cultural or chemical control methods
           that have been tried in the past and met with mixed success, or that are being
           investigated currently. If you have identified alternatives please give us a timeline for
           when they will be available for use (Reference or attach sources).
        Example: Collectively New Zealand growers spend $x each year on research of which $y is spent
        researching pest control. Currently projects are underway to establish the potential for...

        5. List pests that are likely to pose a future threat to your sector, and comment on what
           is being used to combat them elsewhere. This could include existing and potential
        The main pests of olives in New Zealand are birds and small mammals

        Minor pests include thrips, scale and puriri

        The ONZ Best Practice Manual indicates that “most New Zealand groves do not harbour arthropod pests
        at levels sufficient to cause economic levels of damage... This enviable situation can probably be
        attributed to the large numbers of beneficial species that are also present in our groves and that are

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                                                                               APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

      known to feed on the pest species...” Pest pressure from neighbouring external populations has been
      noted: the pests simply migrate into the grove from nearby native bush (Puriri) or pasture (grass grub) .
      New Zealand does not have the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, endemic in the Mediterranean and the
      USA. This pest would be hugely damaging if established in New Zealand .

Risks and Benefits

As no organophosphates or carbamates are registered for use on olives the EPA was unable to
evaluate the risks related to use. If you provide us with use information, we will model the risks and
recommend risk management options. Please note that if we do not receive any information about
use one option may be that some approvals for organophosphates and carbamates may be revoked
and they will no longer be available for use on olives.

High risk substances may require a benefits case to be made in order to retain their use. Useful
benefits information should include the type of information provided in the following hypothetical

If our industry were not able to use X and Y organophosphates and carbamates then we estimate that
the cost of control would increase by $200/hectare on an average annual basis. Approximately 80%
of the olive growing area would be affected, mainly in the North Island (50% affected in Northland). As
well as the additional cost of control we believe that the production levels would reduce by 10% and
this would mean that there would be less work for pickers and pressers, and the total export value
would decrease by 15%. This would be a long term effect (probably 10 years) while alternative
products were developed and registered for use.

      6. Please briefly describe how your industry would be affected by changes in the availability of
           organophosphates and carbamates, include potential changes to employment.

      7. How do you think changes in the availability of organophosphates and carbamates might affect
           production/yield, and the value of your sector over the next 10 years? Please show your

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                                                                          APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

Alternative risk management options and controls
If you are using organophosphates and carbamates you may be aware of appropriate controls that
reduce the risks of their use. Growers may have existing obligations under product stewardship or
good agricultural practice schemes. Less toxic alternatives may have been identified which the sector
is planning to adopt. If so please answer the following questions.

      8. Please suggest control measures to reduce the risks of using organophosphates and
         carbamates. Provide us with specific details which will enable us to evaluate the
         impact of your proposals. For example include details of reduced exposure that
         would be achieved by lowering application rates to a specified amount, reducing
         applications to an identified number, or using recapture technology. Explain what mix
         of management techniques and/or alternative substances you would prefer to use.
         Make sure that you explain which substances the controls would apply to, and if they
         are stand-alone measures or implemented as a suite of controls.
      Substance    Proposed risk management option                       How this would reduce risks

      9. What would the difference in cost be to achieve the same level of control if you were to use
         alternative management techniques and/or replacement substances instead of
         organophosphates and carbamates?

      10. What is the relative effectiveness of these alternative methods of pest control, and how would
         their use affect yield and value?

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                                                                          APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

      11. Would the impact on yield and value of using this alternative strategy be short term or long
         term, and would the effects increase or decrease over time?

We welcome all feedback.

Please respond by 31 July 2012 either:
 Through your industry body, or
 Directly to the EPA by emailing reassessments@epa.govt.nz or
 faxing to OP Reassessment 04 914 0433

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                                                                        APP201045 Olive Sector Assessment

    Fresh Facts, 2007, 2008, 2009,2010. Plant and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd.
    Olives New Zealand website. www.olivesnz.org.nz
    Lang, S. and Porter, R. 2011. Olives New Zealand Best Practice Manual. Section H – Biota (Pests
and Disease) BMP ONZ. Olives New Zealand.
    MAF BNZ 2011. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand Standard 155.02.06 Importation of Nursery Stock.

       May 2012

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