8ATarget sheet by sa6662B

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Smithdon High School
8A Word sheets
8Aa – On a diet

  Word                 Pronunciation       Meaning
  constipation         con-stip-ay-shun    When the intestines get blocked up.
  diet                                     The food that you eat.
  fibre                feye-ber            Substance found in food which cannot be used by
                                           the body. It helps to keep our intestines clean.
  nutrition            new-trish-un        Information label found on a food packet to tell you
  information                              what is in the food.
  nutrients            new-tree-ents       Substances needed in the diet to provide raw
                                           materials.
  raw materials                            Substances used to make other substances out of.
  solvent                                  A liquid that can dissolve other substances.
  starch                                   Type of insoluble carbohydrate found in plants.
  water                                    A compound made of hydrogen and oxygen which
                                           the body uses as a solvent.

8Ab – Keeping it balanced/Different diets

  Word                 Pronunciation       Meaning
  balanced diet                            Eating a wide variety of foods to give us all the
                                           things that we need.
  carbohydrate         car-bO-high-drate   Substance found in food that is used for energy.
  chemical energy                          Energy stored in chemicals like food.
  fat                                      Substance found in food that is stored to be used for
                                           energy in the future. It also helps to keep heat in our
                                           bodies.
  heart disease                            Disease caused by narrowing of the arteries carrying
                                           the blood to the muscles of the heart, so the heart
                                           muscles do not receive enough oxygen.
  kilojoule (kJ)       kill-O-jool         Unit of energy used on food packets. There are 1000
                                           J in 1 kJ.
  mineral                                  Properly called a ‘mineral salt’ and found in food.
                                           Needed in small quantities for health (e.g. calcium).
  protein                                  Substance found in food that is used for growth and
                                           repair.
  starch                                   Type of insoluble carbohydrate found in plants.
  sugar                                    Type of soluble carbohydrate. Glucose is an example
                                           of a sugar.
  vitamin                                  Substance found in food that is needed in small
                                           quantities for health (e.g. vitamin C).
8Ac – You’ve got guts

Smithdon High School                                                                                 2
  Word                 Pronunciation     Meaning
  absorbed                               When soluble substances go through the wall of the
                                         small intestine into the blood.
  anus                                   The opening at the end of the gut.
  appendix                               Small tube branching off the large intestine. It has no
                                         function in humans.
  contract                               Something gets smaller.
  digestion            dye-jes-jun       Process that breaks food into soluble substances in
                                         our bodies.
  digestive juices                       A liquid containing enzymes that break down food.
  digestive system                       A group of organs that carry out digestion.
  egestion             ee-jes-jun        When faeces are pushed out of the anus.
  enzyme                                 A chemical that can break up large molecules.
  Word                 Pronunciation     Meaning
  faeces               fee-sees          Waste food material produced by the intestines.
  feeding                                Putting food into your mouth. Also called ingestion.
  fibre                feye-ber          Substance found in food which cannot be used by
                                         the body. It helps to keep our intestines clean.
  gullet                                 Tube that goes from the mouth to the stomach.
                                         Sometimes called the ‘food pipe’ but properly called
                                         the oesophagus.
  gut                                    All the organs of the digestive system apart from the
                                         mouth.
  ingestion            in-jes-jun        Putting food into your mouth.
  insoluble                              Something that does not dissolve is said to be
                                         insoluble.
  large intestine                        Organ that takes water out of waste food.
  molar                                  Grinding tooth at the back of the mouth.
  rectum                                 Organ that stores faeces before they are egested.
  saliva               sall-eye-va       A digestive juice. It contains an enzyme that breaks
                                         down starch into sugar.
  salivary gland       sall-eye-vor-ee   Found in the mouth. It makes saliva.
  small intestine                        Organ where most digestion happens. The soluble
                                         substances produced by digestion are absorbed into
                                         the body here. It is about 6.5 m long in adults.
  stomach              stum-uck          Organ containing strong acid which mixes food up
                                         and digests proteins.




Smithdon High School                                                                               3
8Ad – Break down

  Word                 Pronunciation      Meaning
  absorbed                                When soluble substances go through the wall of the
                                          small intestine into the blood.
  amylase              am-e-laze          An enzyme found in saliva that breaks starch down
                                          into sugar.
  digestive juice                         A liquid containing enzymes that break down food.


8Ae – In the blood

  Word                 Pronunciation      Meaning
  absorbed                                When soluble substances go through the wall of the
                                          small intestine into the blood.
  artery                                  Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
  blood                                   Liquid that flows around the body carrying various
                                          substances which are either made by the body or
                                          needed by the body.
  blood vessel                            Tubes in which blood flows. There are capillaries,
                                          veins and arteries.
  capillaries          cap-pill-arr-ees   Tiny tubes that carry blood.
  circulatory system                      System containing the heart and blood vessels.
  heart                                   Organ that pumps blood around the body.
  respiration          ress-per-ay-shun   Process that uses up oxygen to release energy from
                                          food. Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste gas.
  tissue                                  A group of cells of the same type all doing the same
                                          job.
  tissue fluid                            A liquid that leaks out of capillaries carrying
                                          dissolved food and oxygen to cells.
  vein                 vane               Blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart.
  villi                vill-ee            Small finger-like parts of the small intestine. They
                                          increase the surface area so that digested food is
                                          absorbed more quickly. Singular = villus.




Smithdon High School                                                                             4
QUESTION 1

The card shows the amounts of fat and fibre in some types of food and drink

from a café.




                                        Chez Jean Café


                                      fat    fibre
                                      in g   in g


               type of burger
               single burger          17      0.8
               double burger          38      1.2
               cheeseburger           21      1.0


               type of drink
               strawberry milkshake    8       0
               medium cola             0       0
               medium orange juice     0       0



               type of potato
               regular fries          15       3
               baked potato            0       9




Smithdon High School                                                          5
      (a)    From the card, choose a meal consisting of a burger, a drink and some
             potato, to give:

             (i)       the least fat;
                                                                                                          1 mark



             (ii)      the most fibre.
                                                                                                          1 mark

             Write your answers in the table below.

                   Food and drink           meal with the least fat    meal with the most fibre

                    type of burger

                     type of drink                                           the drinks do not
                                                                               contain fibre
                    type of potato

      (b)    Draw a line from each nutrient to the main reason why it is needed.
             Draw only four lines.


                    nutrient                              main reason why the nutrient is needed

                                                      •     to keep the intestine working properly


                    calcium             •             •     for healthy teeth and bones


                    fibre               •             •     for insulation


                    protein             •             •     to provide energy


                    sugar               •             •     for growth and repair
                                                                                                         4 marks
                                                                                                 Maximum 6 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                           6
QUESTION 2

The diagram shows some of the organs of the human body.


                                                                                                 brain


                        oesophagus
                        (gullet)


                                                                                                 lung

                                                                                                 heart
                                 bones
                                 (ribs)
                                                                                                 stomach




                                    liver                                                        intestine




      (a)    Give the names of two labelled parts where food is digested.

             .................................................... and ...............................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (b)    Why do we need to chew our food and mix it with saliva?

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            2 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                                              7
      (c)    (i)       Draw one line from each bad habit to the organ it harms.

                         bad habit                                          organ


                                                                             liver


              drinking too much alcohol


                                                                             lung


               not eating enough fibre


                                                                             ribs


                    smoking cigarettes


                                                                           intestine

                                                                                                3 marks

             (ii)      Which organ in the list below can be harmed if we eat too much fat?
                       Tick the correct box.


                                brain                     heart


                                lung                      ribs

                                                                                                 1 mark
                                                                                        Maximum 7 marks
QUESTION 3

The drawing shows part of an organ system.




Smithdon High School                                                                                  8
      (a)    Which organ system is it part of?

             Tick the correct box.

             circulatory system                      reproductive system


             digestive system                        respiratory system
                                                                                                                              1 mark

      (b)    Where is this part of the organ system found in the body?

             Tick one box.




                                                                                                                              1 mark
                                                                                                                     Maximum 2 marks

QUESTION 4

Carbohydrate, fat and protein are three types of nutrient.

      (a)    Give the names of two other types of nutrient needed for a balanced diet.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                             2 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                                               9
A balanced diet contains a variety of foods. Some food groups are shown in the table. They

are labelled A to D.

                                                                         percentage of each
                                                                      substance in the dry mass

                    food group                  example            carbohydrate                fat       protein
                                                                        %                      %           %
                    meat                      liver                          5                 23            72
                  A and fish                  beef                           2                 45            53
                                              cod                           21                 26            53
                                              milk                          42                 33            25
                       dairy
                  B                           ice-cream                     55                 34            11
                       products               yoghurt                       68                 11            21
                                              peanuts                        9                 58            33
                  C nuts                      almonds                        5                 68            27
                                              coconut                        8                 83             9
                                              wheat                         84                  2            14
                  D cereals and               corn                          86                  3            11
                    vegetables                potatoes                      90                  1             9

      (b)    Which food group contains the highest percentage of the nutrient used by the
             body for growth and repair?

             Tick the correct box.


              A                        B                            C                          D

                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (c)    Fibre is not digested but helps the digestion process.
             Which food group contains the most fibre?

             Tick the correct box.


              A                        B                            C                          D

                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (d)    Use the information in the table to suggest why milk is better for babies than ice-
             cream.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                                                            10
      (e)    100 g of dried coconut has more energy stored in it than an equal mass of dried
             potato.

             Give the reason for this.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks



QUESTION 5

The information below was taken from the label of a can of baked beans

in tomato sauce.


                    nutritional information                                          list of ingredients
            100g provides:
              energy                                     406 kJ               haricot beans, tomato purée,
              protein                                    5.4 g                water, sugar, modified starch,
              total carbohydrate                         17.6 g               salt, paprika, onion powder,
              sugar                                      6.0 g                herb extracts, spices
              fat                                        0.4 g
              fibre                                      3.7 g


      (a)    A healthy diet contains a number of groups of substances. The nutritional
             information lists some of these.

             Give one group of substances, needed for a healthy diet, which is missing
             from the nutritional information.

             .................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (b)    (i)       Which food, shown in the list of ingredients, provides the most
                       protein in this can?

                       ........................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark




             (ii)      Give one reason why we need protein in our diet.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (c)    (i)       Name one food, shown in the list of ingredients, which provides fibre.

                       ........................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark



Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     11
             (ii)      Why is fibre needed for a balanced diet?

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks



QUESTION 6

Peter burns a piece of crispbread to find out how much energy is stored in it.

Energy from the burning crispbread raises the temperature of the water in the

test-tube.




      (a)    Describe one way Peter has arranged the apparatus so that he is working safely.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks

      (b)    Peter wants to find out if potato crisps contain as much energy as crispbread. He
             does the experiment again using a piece of potato crisp.

             Suggest two things he must do to make the experiment a fair test.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     12
      The table shows some of the nutritional information from a packet of crispbread and a

      packet of potato crisps.

                                                   energy               protein          carbohydrate                  fat   fibre
                                                    in kJ                 in g               in g                     in g    in g
                      100 g of
                     crisp bread                     1455                 11.6                   58.1                  7.3   14.7
                      100 g of
                    potato crisps                    2072                   5.8                  57.9                 28.7    4.3


      (c)    Peter burns 1.0 g of potato crisp instead of 1.0 g of crispbread in a similar
             experiment. What result will he get when he burns the potato crisp? Tick the
             correct box.



             The change in the temperature of the water will be greater.



             The change in the temperature of the water will be the same.



             The change in the temperature of the water will be smaller.



             There will be no change in the temperature of the water.
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

       (d)   (i)       Fibre contains energy. Explain why this energy can not be used by the
                       human body.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      Use the table in part (b) to give two reasons for choosing crispbread rather
                       than potato crisps as part of a balanced diet.

                       1. .........................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................

                       2. .........................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                      13
      (e)     Crispbread does not contain vitamin C. Which of the foods in the list below is the
              best source of vitamin C?
              Tick the correct box.

              cheese              eggs               fish           oranges



                                                                                                                                      1 mark
                                                                                                                             Maximum 8 marks



QUESTION 7

The information below shows the recommended daily amounts of nutrients and

energy for four different people.

                 person                      protein          calcium               iron                energy
             15–year–old girl                  45 g             800 mg            15 mg                  8 830 kJ
            15–year–old boy                    55 g           1000 mg             11 mg                11 510 kJ
            computer operator                  56 g             700 mg             9 mg                10 700 kJ
                bricklayer                     56 g             700 mg             9 mg                13 000 kJ

      Information taken from Report 41 of the Department of Health - Dietary Reference Values for Food
      Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom 1991.



      (a)     Suggest one reason why the bricklayer needs a higher energy diet than the
              computer operator.

              ............................................................................................................

              ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

      (b)     Explain why the 15-year-olds need more calcium than the adults.

              ............................................................................................................

              ............................................................................................................

              ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks

      (c)     Iron is needed to make red blood cells. Why do 15-year-old girls need more
              iron than 15-year-old boys?

              ............................................................................................................

              ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark


Smithdon High School                                                                                                                      14
      (d)    A balanced diet contains a variety of foods which provide nutrients and energy.

             The drawings show four different foods. Choose from these to answer the
             questions which follow.




      Which of these foods is the best source of:

             fibre?        ...........................................

             calcium?      ...........................................

             protein?      ...........................................
                                                                                                               3 marks
                                                                                                       Maximum 7 marks
QUESTION 8

A medical researcher used a tube to remove some of the liquid from a person's stomach.
    The researcher put the liquid into a flask which had a piece of boiled beef in it. The
    beef was digested in six hours. The diagrams show the flask at different stages of the
    experiment.

        lump of                     strands                      strands              cloudy
        beef                        of beef                      of beef              liquid
        liquid
        from
        stomach
                   at the start of              after                       after             after
                  the experiment              two hours                  four hours        six hours




Smithdon High School                                                                                                15
      (a)     (i)      What type of substance in the liquid from the stomach caused the beef to
                       be digested in six hours?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

              (ii)     The researcher kept the flask at 37°C. Explain why.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

       (b)    In the human body, the digestion of protein in meat begins in the stomach and is
              completed in the small intestine.

              (i)      What is digested protein used for in the body?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

              (ii)     Describe how the products of digestion get from inside the small intestine
                       to the cells in the rest of the body.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks
                                                                                                                             Maximum 5 marks
QUESTION 9

Sadie and Tom carried out an experiment to investigate the digestion of starch using an
     enzyme called amylase.




             mixture of
             enzyme and starch                                                                               water bath
                                                                                                             at 25°C




      (a)     Why was the mixture of enzyme and starch kept in a water bath?

              ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                      16
      Sadie and Tom placed drops of iodine solution on a white tile. They know that starch
      will turn the iodine solution from brown to dark blue.

      Every 30 seconds they added a drop of the mixture of enzyme and starch to a drop of
      iodine solution on the tile. At first the drops turned blue, but after 240 s they stayed
      brown.

      (b)    Why did the mixture stop turning the drops of iodine solution blue after 240 s?

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

       (c)   They then carried out the experiment with the water bath at 35°C. This time, the
             drops stopped turning blue after 120 s. How does raising the temperature from
             25°C to 35°C affect the digestion of starch?

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (d)    Sadie and Tom want to compare the experiment at 35°C with the results from the
             experiment at 25°C. Describe what they need to do to make this a fair
             comparison.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (e)    A balanced diet includes all of the substances in the following list.

             Starch              fat           fibre             minerals                 protein               vitamins

             (i)       Give the names of the two substances in the list which are absorbed into
                       the blood without being digested.

                       1. ..................................................................……

                       2. ..................................................................……
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      Which substance in the list passes through the body without being
                       digested?

                       ..................................................................…….…
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     17
8A Summary Sheets
Food and digestion
We need to eat a wide variety of foods to provide our bodies with all the substances that are needed.
When we do this, we are said to have a balanced diet.

Substance needed       Examples       Why it’s needed                   Good sources
carbohydrate           starch, sugars for respiration to release        pasta, bread
                                      energy
protein                               for growth and repair             meat, beans
vitamins               vitamin C      for health                        fruits and vegetables –
                                                                        oranges contain a lot vitamin
                                                                        C
minerals               calcium         for health                       fruits, vegetables and dairy
                                                                        products – milk contains a lot
                                                                        of calcium
fibre                                  for health; helps to keep our    wholemeal bread
                                       intestines clean stop them
                                       getting blocked up
                                       (constipation)
water                                  for health; water is important
                                       solvent in the body

We can do tests to find out which substances are in foods. For example, starch makes iodine
solution go a blue–black colour.

Nutrition information labels on foods tell us what the food contains. The labels also tell us how
much chemical energy is stored in the food. The amount of energy is measured in kilojoules (kJ).

Eating too much of some foods can cause problems. Too much fat may cause heart disease.

To make use of the food, our bodies need to break it up into smaller sized molecules. This is called
digestion. Digestion turns large insoluble substances into small soluble ones. The organs of the
digestive system help us digest food. Many of them produce enzymes (chemicals that break up
food).




Smithdon High School                                                                                 18
To help absorb the digested food, the small intestine is covered with villi. These increase the surface
area.




The digested food substances are carried around the body in the blood. The blood travels through
blood vessels. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood towards the heart.
The smallest blood vessels are capillaries. Substances enter and leave the blood through capillaries.
Cells get the substances they need from the blood in capillaries.

Cells need food substances to:

•     release energy
•     make new substances.

Cells use a chemical reaction called respiration to release energy from a sugar called glucose.




Smithdon High School                                                                                 19
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                       not have to answer any questions if you do not want to.




                  Please tick                 Strongly   Agree   Disagree   Strongly
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What do you think we could improve on / or change?




Smithdon High School                                                                   20

								
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