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					                  Understanding by Design Unit Lesson Plan
                                   Oil Spill Pollution
                                    Table of Contents



Introduction                                                    1

Rationale                                                       2

UbD Template                                                   3-6

Lesson Plans
   1) Introduction to Oil Spills                              7-12
        Assessment
        Science

   2) Animals and Oil Spills                                 13-22
       Science
       Technology

   3) Propaganda on Oil Spills                               23-27
       Assessment
       Language Arts

   4) Oil Spill Clean Up                                     28-31
       Assessment
       Science
                                                             32-38
   5) Communities
       Social Studies

   6) Local Economic Impact                                  39-43
       Social Studies

   7) Global Economic Impact                                 44-48
       Language Arts

   8) Activists
                                                             49-54


Children’s Literature Selections                               55
Annotated Bibliography                                       56-57
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   Understanding by
  Design Thematic Unit
          Plan


         Connecting topic:
            Oil Spills
            Created in consortium by:
                 Tara Buchanan
                    Kia Her
                 Stacey Russell
                   Jason Leist




2|Page
                                            Introduction

        In response to University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point coursework assignments, this
Understanding by Design (UbD) unit lesson plan was created in consortium by Kia Her, Jason
Leist, Tara Buchanan, and Stacey Russell. UbD is an educational planning strategy created by
nationally recognized educators, Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, which places emphasis on
backwards design by focusing on desired outcomes to create a framework of curriculum units,
lessons, and assessments.

        This unit plan follows the UbD framework and incorporates differentiated teaching
strategies which address the three basic learning styles: audio, visual, and kinesthetic; and the six
facets of learning: explanation, interpretation, application, perspective, empathy, and self-
knowledge. Content emphasis is placed within social studies and science curriculums, while
reading and language arts concepts are addressed as integrated components within the unit plan.
Lesson plan headers are included to direct the reader’s attention to which subject content is being
addressed and how it should be evaluated based on course requirements.

       The assumption has been made that the students have already completed an UbD unit on
environmental education, which included instruction on creating a Public Service Announcement
(PSA).



                                             Rationale:

        Welcome to our Fourth Grade UbD unit plan which teaches students critical thinking
strategies, empathy, scientific inquiry, reading, and writing skills using the impact of oil spills as
our connecting topic of interest. Through the topic of oil pollution, we will teach content in
science and social studies by integrating reading and language arts standards.



         Oil spills occur in varying degrees daily; however with the recent tragedy in the Gulf of
Mexico, students may have questions surrounding the BP oil spill pollution and its effects on the
environment, local communities, and economy. By bringing to light the many effects of oil
spills, students will understand and comprehend the impact society and civilization has upon the
world when using natural resources such as oil. Students will learn to identify ways in which
they can advocate for important environmental issues.




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The enduring understandings we want students to gain through this unit are:

•      that people can negatively impact the environment and communities through pollution;
•      that preventing oil spills can save money and the environment;
•      that oil spills are an unintended consequence of using oil as an energy source.


        Included within this plan are: the unit planning template which identifies the framework
for the overall unit, eight complete lesson plans, recommended relevant children’s literature
which can be used as extension or enhancement activities, and an annotated bibliography of
resources.




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              Understanding by Design Unit Plan Template
Topic: Oil Spills             Subject Areas included: Social Studies, Science, Language
                              Arts, and Reading
Grade: 5th Grade              Designer(s): Jason Leist, Kia Her, Tara Buchanan, Stacey
                              Russell


                                Stage 1 – Desired Results


STANDARDS (Wisconsin Model Academic Standards / District benchmarks)
Science
C.4.2 Use the science content being learned to ask questions, plan investigations, make
observations, make predictions, and offer explanations
E.4.7 Using the science themes, describe resources used in the home, community, and
nation as a whole

Environment Education
A.4.4 Communicate their understanding to others in simple terms

Social Studies
E.8.4 Describe and explain the means by which individuals, groups, and institutions may
contribute to social continuity and change within a community
E.8.14 Describe cooperation and interdependence among individuals, groups, and
nations, such as helping others in times of crisis
C.8.7 Locate, organize, and use relevant information to understand an issue of public
concern, take a position, and advocate the position in a debate

Information and Technology
C.4.4 Demonstrate self-motivation and increasing responsibility for their learning




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Enduring Understandings:

Students will understand that…

   Students will understand that people can negatively impact the environment and
    communities through pollution.
   Students will understand that preventing oil spills can save money and the environment.
   Students will understand that oil spills are an unintended consequence of using oil as an
    energy source.

Essential Questions:

             How do oil spills affect marine life and communities?
             What processes and methods can be employed for cleanup and prevention?
             Why is oil used as a natural resource?
             How is oil used as a natural resource?


Knowledge:

Students will be able to/can…

         Describe how oil spills affect marine life and communities
         Explain how industries and economies are impacted by oil disasters
         Apply the scientific method to identify processes and methods for pollution clean-up.
         Use specific writing formats to discuss why and how oil is used as a natural resource.

Skills:

Students will be able to/can…

         Empathize with communities affected by oil spill pollution.
         Identify methods for cleanup and prevention
         Advocate for using alternative resources


Dispositions (Value/Appreciate):

Students will…

         value how consequences of human impact on the environment can have a ripple effect
          amongst local and global communities.
         empathize with how communities and groups are affected by oil spills.
         understand the value of education and the importance for advocating public awareness.




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                                Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence



Core Performance Task: The core performance task for this unit combines other assessment
pieces and activities from within the lesson plans to create a synthesized project. Students will
use the information learned, gathered, and created to make a public service announcement
(PSA) regarding the issues surrounding the use of oil. These PSAs will be displayed
throughout the school.

(GRASPS)

Goal: The goal of this task is for students to create a PSA to raise public awareness regarding
the issues surrounding the use of oil.

Role: The student will create the PSA as if they were a scientist and/or activist with the intent
to educate the public about the consequences of using oil.

Audience: The audience for the PSA is the general public, paying particular attention to
people living in coastal regions.

Situation: The student will identify and create an effective way to increase awareness
regarding the issue they feel most strongly about.

Purpose/Product: Create a public service announcement (PSA) in any format to raise
awareness surrounding the issues of using oil. These may be formatted as video, internet sites,
or publications.

Standards: Each PSA should:

      clearly advocate for/against an issue surrounding oil use.
      clearly identify potential impact on environment, community, and economy.
      use propaganda/persuasive writing formats


Relationship to Enduring Understandings: This performance task provides students with a
way to apply the information learned during lessons and use pieces of their work to
demonstrate their understanding of how using oil as an energy resource can impact the
environment, communities, and economies both at a local and global level.




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Other Assessment Evidence: Students will…

      role play ways communities may be affected by oil use through student created scripts.
      invent a device which will capitalize upon oil spills.
      create their own oil spill in the lab.
      discover an organization that involves itself in oil spills.
      identify the economic impact of oil use, both locally and globally.
      simulate how different businesses/industries are affected by oil use.
                                  Stage 3 – Learning Activities



Learning Activities/Lesson Plans:

Lesson/Activity 1: Students will learn about the different uses of oil and how oil reacts with
water. This lesson is the beginning of understanding what oil spills are and gives students the
opportunity to experience how water and oil behave when mixed together. This is a key piece
of knowledge students will need as they complete their core performance task.

Lesson/Activity 2: Students will understand how oil affects animals with fur and feathers.
They will also learn different cleanup methods applied to assist animals in need when an oil
spill occurs. This lesson builds on the learning from lesson 1 and adds an element of
environmental consequence. This is key for students to understand as they look for emotional
pleas to incorporate into their core performance task.

Lesson/Activity 3: Students will learn how to advocate for environmental awareness. They
will do this by creating either an editorial for print in a local newspaper or an ad to be placed
on a grocery bag at a local store. This lesson directly impacts the core performance task as it
gives students the opportunity to look at different types of advocacy and practice with
persuasive writing.

Lesson/Activity 4: Students will create their own oil spill in a lab exercise and discover the
evidence of damage to the environment. They will also learn about cleanup methods
commonly used, such as skimming, controlled burning, and dispersants. This lesson plan
connects again with the consequences of using oil as a natural resource by showing the
difficulty of clean-up. It is important for students to understand the severity of the
consequence to effectively make their persuasive argument in their core performance task.

Lesson/Activity 5: The effects of oil spills to communities will be discovered through role
playing community groups. The class will be broken up into small groups and assigned a role
they must play. They will use evidence of videos and statements taken from communities that
were affected by oil spills. This lesson plan focuses on the impact oil spills have on people,
businesses, and trade. These are important ideas to effectively create their core performance
task.


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Lesson/Activity 6: Students will research and discover how oil pollution impacts local
economies. Using a variety of resources including the internet, students will simulate how a
local business dependent on coastal resources is affected by an oil disaster. Students will
identify connections between industries/economic impact and relationships between supply and
demand economics. Students will use this information to see the impact of an oil spill from a
coastal resident’s point of view. The information generated through this activity will help
students to identify their target audience when creating their performance task.



Lesson/Activity 7: Students will discover the reach of global economies by researching the
origins of a personal product. Included in student research will be raw material acquisition,
refinement, production/manufacturing, sales and distribution. This lesson takes what students
learn about supply and demand on a local scale and apply it to a global market. Students will
use this information to explore the interconnectedness of local and global economies. When
creating their core performance task, students will be expected to identify their audience and
they can use information generated in this activity.

Lesson/Activity 8: Students will be broken up into groups of four or five and be asked to write
a three to five minute script for a PSA. Each PSA must include an updated status of the BP oil
spill cleanup effort and how progress is being made. Students will also include information on
how oil spills directly affect birds and other wildlife such as fish and plants. Students will
eventually upload their video creations onto Youtube.com (with privacy settings) and upload
their links onto the classroom wiki. This lesson is directly related to our core performance task
by asking students to create a summary description of their core performance task.




9|Page
                                    Introduction to Oil Spills

Wisconsin Model Academic Standards:

Science

C.4.2 Use the science content being learned to ask questions, plan investigations, make
observations, make predictions, and offer explanations

E.4.7 Using the science themes, describe resources used in the home, community, and nation as a
whole

Environmental Education

A.4.4 Communicate their understanding to others in simple terms

Language Arts

B.4.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes.

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

    •   identify different reasons why we choose to exploit oil as one of our natural resources.
    •   name different items that they use every day that were made from oil.
    •   understand that even though we live in Wisconsin, oil spills affect everybody in different
        ways.
    •   examine how oil and water react with one another and identify the problems created for
        all of us when oil spills do happen in the ocean.

Materials Required:

    •   Aluminum trays
    •   Water
    •   Vegetable Oil
    •   Cocoa Powder
    •   Plastic forks/spoons
    •   Dish soap
    •   Science Journals

Procedure:

Students will identify potential uses of natural oil and learn about the recent BP oil spill.
Students will create their own oil spills using corn oil and water and observe how the two react.



Opening: (10-15 minutes)
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    1) Bring up an image of an oil rig in the middle of the ocean for students to look at on the
       board.
    2) Pre-assessment: Ask students the following questions:
           a. Can anyone tell me what this image is? Why is it in the middle of the ocean?
           b. Why do we need oil?
           c. What do you or your parents/guardian use every day that requires oil? (Car is
               most likely answer)
    3) Explain to the students that they will draw on previous experiences with PSA’s and create
       their own on oil spills at the end of the unit.
    4) Show students rubric for PSA
    5) Show previous classroom examples of PSA’s

    Learning Activity: (20-25 minutes)

    1) Students will be shown pictures of things that require oil on the board. These images will
       include car tires, nail polish, umbrellas, bowls, motorcycle helmets, roller blades, plastic
       water bottles, etc.
    2) Discussion questions:
           a. Did you know that all of these were made from oil?
           b. What do you use every day that requires oil?
    3) Hand out worksheet with today’s science experiment and directions on it to students.
       Ask students to work in small groups to do today’s experiment. Using the modified Lab
       Activity Management Procedure (LAMP), students will be assigned specific roles based
       on their needs.
    4) Have students hypothesize about what they think will happen when the oil is added to the
       water. They will write their predictions in their science journals. After their entries, we
       will conduct the experiment.
    5) Science Lab
           a. Already set aside should be an aluminum tray filled with water. Students will be
               given a small cup of oil. Whisk in cocoa powder with the plastic ware in the
               vegetable oil to create an “oil spill” look.
           b. Slowly pour the concoction into the tray of water into just one corner. Have
               students observe what happens to the oil and the water.
           c. Write down their observations in their journals. Are their predictions right? Ask
               for feedback and comments.
           d. Reflecting back on previous lesson, students should understand that water
               molecules are polar and oil molecules are non-polar, which means that these two
               will not mix.
           e. Students should also be able to recall that oil is less dense than water, which
               means that oil will sit on top of the water. In addition, students should understand
               that oil is more opaque than water, which means light will not be able to get
               through the oil.

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           f. Explain to students that this will create dead zones, where plant and animal life is
               not possible without light.
           g. Next, have one student blow lightly on the oil and watch it travel across the water.
           h. Explain how quickly oil travels in real situations and how important it is to try to
               contain it.
           i. Instruct students to finish writing in their journals any last observations.
           j. Lastly, go around and give each group one drop of dish soap in their trays. Have
               students observe how the soap reacts with the oil and water concoction.
           k. Explain to students that soon they will be learning more about different methods
               employed to aid in the process of cleaning up oil spills in the ocean.
           l. Instruct students to finish writing in their journals any last observations.
           m. Begin clean-up of area. Students should wash their aluminum trays out with more
               dish soap and dry them before returning to their seats.
    6) Show students video clip of BP oil spill:
       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6v08sa8qmXE
    7) Then ask the students the following questions:
           a. Given what you just learned about the BP oil spill, what might happen to people
               and animals that live along the coastline of the Great Lakes if there was oil
               drilling?
           b. Did you know that some people want to drill for oil and natural gas in the Great
               Lakes?

Closing: (5-10 minutes)

    1) In their science journals, the students will answer the following questions along with any
       thoughts and feelings.
           a. What happened when the oil came into contact with the water?
           b. What is the scientific reasoning behind why oil and water do not mix?
           c. Even though we live in Wisconsin there is still a great need for oil and products
               made from oil. Are we affected by the recent oil spill? How?
           d. What might you do to help educate and inform others about oil spills?
           e. What do you think is the most important thing we learned about today?

Student Assessment:

Students will write in their science journals their response to one of the questions that were
discussed in class and elaborate on it. Their journals will be collected and assessed for
understanding. Comments will be made to provide student with feedback that will be complied
based on student understanding to address future understanding and comprehension. If needed,
the lesson can be revisited and referenced for a deeper understanding.

Differentiation:



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For students who finish early, they will post on the classroom wiki connections that they have
made about oil spills and real life issues. LAMP will be used to put students in a role that is best
suited for their needs.



                                   Project Roles Self Checklist

Material Manager: You are responsible for gathering the materials at the beginning of the
lesson and putting the materials away. You can assign members of your group to help you clean
up your station at the end of the lab. You are the only one who can get equipment, supplies, and
other materials.
        Did I gather the correct materials?
        Is the work station cleaned up at the end of the lab?
        Are all of the materials accounted for? Are any missing?


Leader/Editor: You are in charge of organizing the final product of the project, be it a paper, a
presentation, etc. If the group needs to ask the teacher any questions about the lab you are the
only one who can ask questions. Make sure that you are prepared by reading over the procedure
for the lab before class. You will be answering any questions your group may have.
        Did my group finish the lab?
        Did I answer my group’s questions?
        Was I prepared before the lab started?


Spokesperson: You are in charge of making sure that your group is staying on task and asking
questions. You will be responsible for representing your group during large group discussions.
Make sure that you are paying attention during lab.
        Did my group stay on task during the lab?
        Did you guide your group’s thinking by encouraging your group to ask questions?
       Were you prepared to discuss the answers to the questions your group gave during large
group discussion?


Recorder: You are in charge of writing down any ideas, comments, or questions your group
may have during lab. You will write down the answers to questions that you will answer at the
end of the lab. Make sure that you are recording everything that your group discusses.
        Did I write down thoughts, ideas, and comments that my group had in my journal?

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        Did you record the answers to your group’s discussion at the end of the lab?
        Did you record at least one idea from each group member?

Sources:

"50 Things Made from Oil." The Geography Site. The Geography Site, 09-18-2006. Web. 22
Jun 2011. <http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/citizenship/oil_products.html>.




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                                      PSA Worksheet




Over the course of the next two weeks we, as a class, will learn about oil spills. Oil spills not
only affect marine life, but also affect the lives of the communities surrounding this type of
disaster. During this time, you will be collecting information about oil spills and their effects.
You and your classmates will be split into six groups of 3-4 individuals. Each group will use the
information in class to create a Public Service Announcement (PSA) about oil spills. You can
use one of the following formats for a PSA: commercial, poster, or billboard. Any other ideas
must be approved by the teacher. Each class period, you will be given time to work with your
group. As you work on your PSA, follow the checklist to be sure that you are not missing
anything required. At the end of the unit, we will vote on one or two PSA’s to be published and
distributed at the school and throughout the community.



                                             PSA Checklist

    o   PSA summary. (This will be your quick 1-2 minute description from which the class will
        vote.)
    o   Creativity
    o   Title/Slogan
    o   Ways to help the community
    o   Resources sited
    o   Contact information *Note, create a false set of contact information
    o   Issue at hand
    o   Call to action
    o   Four reasons why someone should care




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                                                         Name:____________________________

                                                                           Date:_______________



                                           Plan of Action

Directions:

Working independently, you will create a plan of action for the scenario that was given. Take
into consideration the video that you saw, the small group activity, and the large group
discussion that was in class. Using the organizer below, generate ideas.

Be sure to include in your plan:

       Details on how you are being directly affected by the oil spill.
       The resources you have available and the costs required.
       What resources you need in order to support yourself.
       How you will execute your plan of action.




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                                    PSA Rubric
                   4 Exemplary      3 Accomplished          2 Beginning           1 Basic
     Content         Content is        Content is         PSA is correct,         PSA is
                 originally given       correctly        though content is      inaccurate.
                 and is correctly      addressed.          not accurately
                     addressed.                                 given.
 Collaboration     Peers worked       Peers usually         Peers worked       Peers did not
  with Peers     equally together    worked equally         together, but     work well with
                 with support of        together.          sometimes did       one another.
                    one another.                           not work well.
    Required     All information    All but one of the      Missing two      Missing four or
  information      given: Title,      information is         parts or the       more of the
                  summary, help        given: Title,           required           required
                        for the      summary, help          information:       information:
                    community,             for the        Title, summary,    Title, summary,
                      resources,       community,            help for the       help for the
                        contact          resources,          community,        community,
                    information,           contact            resources,         resources,
                     issue, four       information,             contact            contact
                 reasons to care,       issue, four         information,       information,
                     and call for    reasons to care,         issue, four       issue, four
                        action.         and call for      reasons to care,   reasons to care,
                                           action.           and call for       and call for
                                                                action.            action.
    Ingenuity       The PSA is        The PSA has         The PSA gives         The PSA is
                   creative and      some creativity          the cause.           lacking
                 compelling with    and commitment                               creativity.
                  how it presents      towards the
                 the information.         issue.
Audience Focus     The content         The content         The content        The content has
                  gains attention   peaks interested       gains some        no interest for the
                 and connects to      and possible          sympathy             audience.
                 the audience by    ways to commit.        towards the
                     creating                                 issue.
                   commitment
                   towards the
                       issue.
      Total


Comments:




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                                   Propaganda on Oil Spills

Wisconsin Model Academic Standards

Language Arts

B.8.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes.

C.8.1 Orally communicate information, opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences for
a variety of purposes.

Science

E.8.1 Using the science themes, explain and predict changes in major features of land, water, and
atmospheric systems

C.4.2. Use the science content being learned to ask questions, plan investigations, make
observations, make predications, and offer explanations.

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

       increase their ability to influence others.
       present their ideas and opinions in a clear and simple way.
       share their knowledge of how humans can impact the environment.

Materials:

       Children’s Book: Oliver and the Oil Spill by: Anna Chandrasekhar.
       Paper shopping bags
       Markers (permanent)
       Scrap paper
       Computer
       Books
       Articles
Procedure:

Opening: (15 minutes)

    1) The teacher and students will read the children’s book: Oliver and the Oil Spill by: Anna
       Chandrasekhar. This book provides an overview of oil spills, their causes, and how you
       can help prevent oil spills. This book will help students realize that as a citizen you
       should take action to help prevent oil spills.
    2) The teacher will ask the students the following questions:

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               a. How can you help prevent oil spills?
               b. In what ways can we inform people about oil spills?

Learning Activity: (Two days, fifty minutes each)

    1. Students will work in pairs to complete a propaganda piece regarding oil spills. They will
       be given two options to choose from:
       a. Create advertisements on grocery bags advocating for the protection of habitats from
           human caused disasters, such as oil spills. These grocery bags will be delivered to the
           local grocery store, where they will be used for customers.
       b. Write an editorial for a local newspaper encouraging people to write congress
           supporting legislation which will protect the oceans against oil spills, and/or hold
           those that cause devastation responsible.

Day 1: (50 minutes)

    1.   Teacher will introduce advertising to students by showing commercials.
    2.   Have a discussion about commercials and ask the students about familiar commercials.
    3.   Show the students a variety of commercials.
    4.   Discuss the purpose of commercials. Ask students questions:
             a. What is the speaker’s purpose?
             b. Is there evidence of bias?
             c. Does the speaker use deceptive language?
    5.   Explain deceptive language.
             a. Present the terms persuasion and propaganda to the students.
             b. Introduce propaganda devices and view the commercials again to look for
                  examples of each device.
    6.   Each student will down on a piece of paper which propaganda piece they would like to
         work on.
    7.   The teacher will assign groups of two based upon similar interests to work on creating a
         rough draft of their advertisement on a grocery bag, or writing an editorial.
    8.   Check each student’s progress. Make sure that their propaganda pieces are appropriate to
         be displayed in grocery store/newspaper.
    9.   Encourage students to assign each other some research or roles to work on before class
         tomorrow. Examples: Finding pictures, researching some more, finishing up their rough
         drafts if not completed already.

Day 2: (50 minutes)

    1. Inform the students they will be given the whole class period to work on their projects.
    2. Have students hang up their propaganda pieces on the wall.
    3. The students will walk to each poster, while the presenters are giving a brief 2-3 minute
       presentation describing their project.


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Closing:

Each student will give one positive and one question about the propaganda pieces. Also, they
will work on their self-assessment.

Assessment:
Students will be assessed upon how well they work together in their groups and whether or not
they completed their projects. During the rough draft stage, each propaganda piece will be
looked over and given formative feedback to guide the students. Based on skills being identified
for improvement, future lessons may be modified or added to supplement learning as needed.
Differentiation:
Students will be able to add their editorials to the wiki page with encouragement for feedback
from peers. Students needing more challenge can connect the elements of propaganda with
examples of current advertisement. Students needing assistance with the writing process can
utilize the writing resource center.




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                          Shopping Bag Assessment Rubric

               Student Assessment                            Teacher Assessment

Points         Action                               Points   Action

    /10        Slogan depicts an issue relating        /10   Slogan depicts an issue relating
               to oil spills.                                to oil spills.

    /10        Slogan demonstrates a                   /10   Slogan demonstrates a
               philanthropic act taking place.               philanthropic act taking place.

    /10        Picture and slogan is colored           /10   Picture and slogan is colored
               neatly.                                       neatly.

    /10        Slogan printed neatly                   /10   Slogan printed neatly
               with all words spelled                        with all words spelled
               correctly.                                    correctly.

    /40        Total Points                            /40   Total Points




                              Editorial Assessment Rubric

               Student Assessment                            Teacher Assessment

Points         Action                               Points   Action

    /10        Title depicts an issue relating to      /10   Title depicts an issue relating to
               oil spills.                                   oil spills.

    /10        Call to action is persuasive.           /10   Call to action is persuasive.

    /10        Arguments are well developed.           /10   Arguments are well developed.

    /10        Correct grammar and spelling.           /10   Correct grammar and spelling.

    /40        Total Points                            /40   Total Points




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                                         Oil Spill Cleanup



Wisconsin Model Academic Standards:

Science

C.4.2 Use the science content being learned to ask questions, plan investigations, make
observations, make predictions, and offer explanations

E.4.7 Using the science themes, describe resources used in the home, community, and nation as a
whole

Environmental Education

A.4.4 Communicate their understanding to others in simple terms

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

       identify methods that are commonly used to clean up oil spills in the ocean.

Materials Required:

       Aluminum trays
       Water
       Vegetable Oil
       Cocoa Powder
       Plastic forks/spoons
       Science Journals
       Dish soap
       Rocks
       Paper towels
       String/yarn
       Quiz


Procedure:

Opening: (10 minutes)

    1) Students will set up their trays with water just as in previous sessions.
    2) Students will be assigned roles using the LAMP.




22 | P a g e
Learning Activity: (30 minutes)

    3) Students will take their three rocks and place them in the water randomly.
    4) Add the oil mixture in the corner of the tray.
    5) Have students hypothesize about what will happen to the rocks when the oil reaches them
        in their science journals.
    6) Have one student blow gently on the oil mixture until it coats the entire surface of the
        tray. Make observations and write down findings in journal.
    7) Take out the rocks and place them onto paper towels. Have students try washing off oil
        with just warm water in the sink at the back of the room. Observe what happens.
    8) Then try washing off oil with soap. Dry off rocks and leave next to sink when done.
    9) Next, have students take the string and create a U shape using both hands. Try skimming
        the oil off of the water with string. Wipe off excess oil from the string onto paper towel.
    10) Repeat this until students have clearer water than what they started off with.
    11) Explain to students how this method is called skimming. First, booms are placed in the
        water which doesn’t allow the oil to travel anywhere (this is why students created a U
        shape with their string). The oil is then skimmed off of the water using machines. Oil
        that is collected this way can be recycled on land.
    12) Add more oil to the tray. Ask students to blow the oil across so that it covers entire
        surface again.
    13) Go around and give students a couple of drops of dish soap. Have students examine what
        happens when the soap touches the oil and water mixture.
    14) Explain that soap is a dispersant. It breaks up the oil, which is then diluted by the water.
        The oil can then eventually be broken down even farther by bacteria. Explain though,
        that dispersants are also toxins. Using these can also be detrimental to wildlife.
    15) Explain that oil-eating bacteria and microbes can also assist in cleanup process. Oil
        eating bacteria coverts all of the oil that they eat into energy so that they can live out their
        life cycles. This is a natural process. This is what would happen if we did not do
        anything to clean up the oil- eventually nature would take its course.
    16) Have students clean up areas and wash out trays with soap. Leave them to dry by the
        sink.
    17) After students return to seats, show them video clips of other methods used to clean oil
        spills.
             a. Controlled burning: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-jXSw_2Z5I
             b. Bacteria/Microbes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM5bQscTjgs
             c. Skimming: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VROcckcUDa0



Closing: (10 minutes)




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Students will work in their assigned PSA groups, and post on the classroom wiki what they have
created so far. For homework, students are required to look at other postings and give feedback,
and they are to study for the quiz on today’s lab activity.



Student Assessment:

Students will be assessed by a ten point quiz the following day. The quiz will be composed of
true and false, multiple choice, and short answer. The quiz will be used to see if the students
understand the cleanup process. If needed, the lessons can be altered to expose more of the
cleanup process to the students with more detail.

Differentiation:

Students will be able to put their findings and ideas based on cleaning of oil on the classroom
wiki. LAMP process will be used again to assign roles. Students who need the quiz read out
loud or extra time may do so with the teacher aide.

Sources:

Oil Spills. 3.2. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1996. Print




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                                           Cleanup Quiz


        Fill in the blank. (1 point for each blank)
        Word List: Booms, toxins, bacteria, dispersants, dilute, skimming.

        1)     ____________ are used to contain oil in oil spills.
        2)     ____________ consumes the oil for energy.
        3)     Soaps and detergents are examples of ___________.
        4)     Dispersants are _________, which can be used to ___________ the oil in water

        5) T/F (1 point): Bacteria are naturally occurring organisms that clean up oil over a
           period of time.

        6) Short Answer (3 points): How would one use skimming and booms together to clean
           up oil spills?




        7) T/F (1 point): Burning oil is a deliberate cleanup method.




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                                            Communities

Social Studies Standards:

E.8.4 Describe and explain the means by which individuals, groups, and institutions may
contribute to social continuity and change within a community.

E.8.14 Describe cooperation and interdependence among individuals, groups, and nations, such
as helping others in times of crisis.

C.8.7 Locate, organize, and use relevant information to understand an issue of public concern,
take a position, and advocate the position in a debate.

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

       To demonstrate the understanding how communities are affected by oil spills.
       To propose ways to help communities who have been affected by oil spills.

Materials:

                  Assigned roles to each table.
                  Worksheet and rubric.
                  Collection of newspaper articles.
                  Video of community and the effects of oil spills.
                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyNx6ycAf0U

Procedure:

        Opening: (10 minutes)

        1) Good afternoon! Today we are going to take another look at the BP oil spill and
           explore what impact it had on the local communities. Yesterday in science, we
           created our own oil spill and discovered ways to clean it up. This showed us how oil
           pollution can impact the environment.
        2) Now I want you to imagine you live or work on the coast. Predict the groups
           impacted by oil spills in your journals.
        3) As you watch this video, put yourself in the shoes of those you see. Ask yourself,
           how will this impact you? In your notebook, write down responses and/or questions
           about what you see.
        4) Watch video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyNx6ycAf0U
        5) Compare your predictions to what you just learned from the video.
        6) Have a large group discussion.
               a. Discuss video and what students did to empathize with the people
                   interviewed. Probing questions: How would you feel if you were part of this
                   community? What parts of the community did we see? What industries/job

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                   types does this coastal area have? Brainstorm the different roles within the
                   community.

        Learning Activity: (25 minutes)

        1) Explain to the class that they will take on the roles within a coastal community. They
           will be given a short summary of who they are and what is happening because of the
           oil spill. Using newspaper articles as a reference, they will discuss the impacts to the
           community they live in because of an oil spill off of the coast.
        2) Have the students split into six groups with 3-4 individuals in each group.
        3) Six groups are: Fishermen/women, Tourists, City Board, Students,
           Environmentalists, Local Businesses, and Community members.
        4) Each group will take their role and discuss what would happen to them and their
           community because of the oil spill. They will be given a series of questions which
           will help guide them in gathering key information.
        5) A handout will be given to the students to work on. They are to create a plan of
           action that they can execute for the role that they were given in class.
        6) Roles:
               a. Fishermen/women
                        i. You are local Fishermen/women who cannot go fishing because of the
                           oil spill. This is your only means of generating revenue. What will
                           happen to you and your family because you cannot fish? Should you
                           be compensated by the government, those that caused the oil spill, or
                           your own community? What will you do for money? How will this
                           affect your future as a fisherman/woman?
               b. Tourists
                        i. Your family is at your yearly vacationing spot on the coast when an oil
                           spill accident occurs. Your vacation plans were to visit a few more
                           towns and cities off the coast using a boat that you rented for the week.
                           What will happen to you and your family because of this? How and
                           why should you be compensated? What will you do for the rest of
                           your vacation? How will this affect your decision to return in the
                           future?
               c. City Board
                        i. Your city relies on fishing and tourism during this time of the year for
                           revenue. An oil spill causes the fishermen to not be able to fish and
                           for tourism to become next to nothing. Businesses are closing and
                           families who have been around for years are packing and leaving for
                           good. What do you think will happen to your community? What
                           should be done to help your community? What should the government
                           do to help you with this situation? How will this affect future
                           generations of the community?
               d. Students
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                     i. This is the time of year when you get a job to help with your family or
                         just to get some money to spend during the school year. An oil spill
                         causes the business that you work at to let you go. To top it off, you
                         cannot even spend your time out on the boat or on the coast because of
                         the oil spill. What will you do for fun? How will this affect your
                         family? How will your finances change?
               e. Environmentalists
                     i. You are called into a coastal town because of an oil spill accident.
                         Your group is charged with assessing the extent of the damage done
                         and the potential future damage. What will you find that is being
                         damaged on the coast? What five plant and/or marine life species are
                         being affected by the oil spill? Where can you find resources in the
                         community and outside the community such as volunteers, machinery,
                         materials, and etc.?
               f. Local Business Owner
                     i. The company you own is being affected by the oil spill. You are not
                         making any profits, had to let go several employees, and it looks like
                         the business is about to go under. How can you help your business
                         stay afloat? What other costs can you cut to help your business? What
                         type of marketing strategies can you employ?

        Closure: (15 minutes)

        After the students are done with the small group discussions, each group will present to
        the class their scenario and the roles. They will each present the key issues affecting their
        assigned roles and the impact of the oil spill. Students should take notes while other
        groups are presenting. (5-8 minutes allowed for each group or 1 or 2 groups volunteer to
        share)

Assessment/Evaluation:

Students will use the information gathered to identify key issues affecting their assigned roles.
Choosing appropriate number of key points for the role, students will present why the issue is
important. Students will be informally assessed in class on cooperative group work,
participation, and depth of thinking based on presented information.

Students will be formatively assessed with a rough draft of a three paragraph paper based on plan
of action that they will be working on. Feedback will be given in class by teacher and peers that
will be used to construct a final paper.

Differentiation:

The groups can designate someone as group speaker if there is someone who has a hard time in
front of large group presentations. With students needing more challenge, they can be assigned

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specific individual roles that pertain to their group, i.e. mayor, police, firefighter, emergency
responders, etc.



Sources:

Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyNx6ycAf0U

Newspaper Articles:

Gutman, M. (2010, July 02). Bp oil spill: tourism industry suffering on july 4th weekend.
       ABCNEWS. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-oil-spill-tourism-industry-
       suffering-july-weekend/story?id=11077632
Robertson, C. (2011, July 15). No vacancies, but some reservations. The New York Times.
       Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/16/us/16gulf.html?scp=4&sq=oil spills
       affect coastal communities&st=cse
Goldenberg, S. (2010, September 06). Bp spill: white house says oil has gone, but gulf's
       fishermen are not so sure. theguardian. Retrieved from
       http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/06/bp-oil-spill-fishing-fears/print


Books:

Klien, M. K. (1990). Oil spills. Justin Books Ltd.
Nardo, D. (1991). Oil spills. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc.
Pringle, L. (1993). Oil spills: damage, recovery, and prevention. New York: William Morrow
       and Company. Inc.




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                                    Local Economic Impact

Wisconsin Model Academic Standards:

Social Studies - Economics

D.8.2 Identify and explain basic economic concepts: supply, demand, production, exchange, and
consumption; labor, wages, and capital; inflation and deflation; market economy and command
economy; public and private goods and services

D.4.6 Identify the economic roles of various institutions, including households, businesses, and
government

English Language Arts

5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and
differences in the point of view they represent.

E.8.5 Describe and explain the means by which groups and institutions meet the needs of
individuals and societies

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

       to demonstrate how local economies are connected.
       to identify the economic principle of supply and demand and its relationship to cost.

Materials Required:
   Post-it notes
   “Danger” signs
   ‘Class money’ – enough for each student to have $5.00
   Student learning journals


Procedure:

This lesson is connected to the essential understanding that:
        o Students will understand that people can negatively impact the environment and
           communities through pollution.
        o Students will understand that preventing oil spills can save money and the
           environment.

Through this lesson, students will learn how local economies and oil consumption are connected
by reflecting on previous lessons on communities, and extending knowledge to economic
concepts. The activity helps students explore the concept of supply and demand and use graphic
organizers to represent connections.



30 | P a g e
Opening: (5-8 minutes)

    1) Arrange students in a circle with enough room for them to walk on the outside.
    2) Ask students to reflect on what’s been learned to date about how communities are
       connected. (The teacher will use Inspirations software to create a graphic organizer as
       the students shout out ideas.)

        Key points: These ideas will be organized based on their connections within the
        community.

        Probing questions: Remember back to the activity we did in which you explored the
        roles within a coastal community – think about how they were related. How did one
        group influence another?

Activity – Part 1: (15 minutes)

    1) Begin by asking students take two items out of their desk and place them on top.
    2) Students should also take out their learning journal to write in vocabulary and ideas.
       (Items chosen can be anything – books, supplies, clothing; encourage students to
       duplicate or vary their selections so there is a variety of items – some duplicates, some
       unique.)
    3) While students are making their choices, pass out sticky notes which can be attached to
       the item.
    4) Tell students to imagine the classroom is the only store in town and the items they chose
       are the only items for sale.
    5) The students will work as a large group to determine parameters for assigning value; say
       to students: Before we get started, let’s brainstorm some things we need to think about
       when we price our items.
    6) Ask students to get their learning notebooks out to record vocabulary brought up in the
       discussion. (Introduce this vocabulary as students define them in their own words. Key
       points to guide towards: purpose of the item, perceived value, scarcity of item, local
       market. Check to make certain students record terminology in their notebooks.)
    7) As a group, choose a beginning value for the most common item. Depending on item,
       price should begin at a moderate value.
    8) Using this beginning value as a guide, ask students to take a minute or two to assign a
       value to their item; how much do they think they can get for it.
    9) Have students think about the strategies they used when pricing their items – why should
       someone pay $X.xx for their item – write on a piece of paper their reasoning which will
       be used during the discussion – recommend that students use the vocabulary they just
       defined. (NOTE: Make certain there is a variety of price ranges… students will be given
       $5.00 to spend… have at least one item students may want – toy or clothing – that is


31 | P a g e
        $5.00. Also have one major item over $5.00. This may lead students to problem solve
        and think about pooling resources.)



Activity – Part 2: (15 minutes)

    1) Organize the ‘store’ so that the item and price displayed together – there should be
       enough room between items that a group of students can look at it together.
    2) Now that we have our store set up, let’s think about who will be shopping. (NOTE: if
       you have students needing more challenge, set them up as the store proprietor. This
       person becomes responsible for quickly organizing merchandise and money handling. If
       you do not have a student for this role, the teacher can handle money or if you want to
       incorporate mathematics, students can write down the prices paid for each item and add
       them up – whatever is over $5.00 gets removed from their list.)
    3) Compare this step with our writing goals: Just like when writing, we need to think about
       who will be reading our writing – when we set up our store, we need to think about who
       our customers will be. For today, because we are using materials we have available in
       the classroom, our customers will be students and teachers – the general public.
    4) When ready, give each student $5.00 of ‘class money’ and ask them to choose a role or to
       think of their own purpose, and to write it down on a separate paper. (We will refer to
       this during discussion.)
    5) Ask students to “buy” items by writing down the name of item and price. Remind them
       they only have $5.00. Give students 5-8 minutes to walk around the room and select
       items. Watch students for those who have questions.

Discussions: (10 minutes)

    1) When everyone has spent their ‘money’, get into large group circle and discuss the
       activity. Guide students to see the connections between pricing and availability…
    2) Probing questions: Why would someone pay $1.00 for a pencil if there is another for
       $.10? If there was only one of an item, are you more likely to pay more for it? How did
       your role change what you looked for? Discuss any differences.
    3) Tell students that this is a simplified example of supply and demand…
    4) Pretend to get a message from computer, phone, etc. Tell students, “Oh no… News
       Flash… This just in…. There has been a huge storm and our region has sustained major
       damage... This means our resources have been reduced – (place danger sign on
       duplicated items from the store, leaving only those that are higher priced. You can also
       remove items, but leaving them in sight provides a visual representation of a reduction in
       supply.)
    5) Ask students to go back through the store with another $5.00… how does this change
       what they buy?
    6) Discuss the results from the activity. Ask students to share with the group the differences
       between their two lists – what strategies did they use when they chose items to purchase?
32 | P a g e
        What was important to them? What did they think about when making choices? Were
        there any items they wanted to purchase, but couldn’t?




Closing: (5-10 minutes)

    1) Connect with the previous activity and impact of oil pollution by asking students to think
       again about the fishermen/women from our coastal town. Their main issue was that they
       could no longer fish.
          a. How did this affect other businesses?
          b. Restaurants needed to change their menu or change where they got their fish
              from. What could a result be from having to bring fish in from another source?
          c. Would the price of fish dinners increase? Why.

               (Key point to this discussion is to have students make the connection between supply
               and demand. When one industry cannot perform its function, the choices it has are to
               change or discontinue dependent services, or to pass increased fees on to the
               consumer.)

Student Assessment: (5-8 minutes) Using the checklist as a guide, students should write in
their learning journals about the activity.

    1) Ask students to write three key points about what they learned and reflect on the
       economic impact of supply and demand.
    2) Students should make connections between pricing and supply and demand that when
       supply increases, pricing decreases. When supply decreases, price increases.
    3) Businesses are connected and dependent on each other for services and goods.

                            Journal Checklist – Local Economic Impact

     Three key points about the activity.
     Connections of supply and demand.
     Examples of how businesses can be dependent on each other.


Connections to core performance task: This activity and lesson are designed to give students
background knowledge and motivation for the authenticity of the PSA.

Differentiation:

Students who finish early, will post on the classroom wiki connections they made about the
economic and community impact of oil spills.

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For students needing increased challenge: Students needing more challenge can be the store
owner. They become responsible for the merchandise placement and handling the money. This
requires the student to be thoughtful about marketing strategies and how they relate to issues of
supply and demand. In addition, students gain experience working with money and making
change – challenging their math skills.

For students needing reduced challenges: Based on student needs, students needing less
challenge can either verbalize their journal entry, or write their key points in bulleted format. If
appropriate, the teacher can decide to put students into partners or small groups for the activity.



Sources:

Lesson adapted from: W h e r e d o y o u r b e l o n g i n g s c o m e f r o m . ( n . d . ) . R e t r i e v e d
   fromwww.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/11/g35/belongings
   .html




34 | P a g e
                                              Activist

Wisconsin Model Academic Standards:

Social Studies

C.4.3 Explain how families, schools, and other groups develop, enforce, and change rules of
behavior and explain how various behaviors promote or hinder cooperation

C.4.5 Explain how various forms of civic action such as running for political office, voting,
signing an initiative, and speaking at hearings, can contribute to the well-being of the community

C.4.6 Locate, organize, and use relevant information to understand an issue in the classroom or
school, while taking into account the viewpoints and interests of different groups and individuals

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to

       describe several ways that anyone can be involved in community organizations that help
        with the clean-up of oil spills.
       produce ways to be involved within a community during a disaster.

Materials:

Notebook

Worksheet

Procedure:

Day 1

        Opening: 5 minutes

        1) Students will be reminded of what they learned so far with how oil spills affect
           communities and marine life.
        2) They will be introduced to the guest speaker, a volunteer who worked on cleaning oil
           spills, with a reminder to write key information that they might want to use in their
           PSA’s or that might sound interesting in their journals.
        3) The speaker will introduce him/herself.

        Learning Activity: 45 to 60 minutes

        1) The key speaker will talk about oil spills to the students, explaining how it affects the
           environment and communities surrounding it.
        2) The students will ask questions that they created earlier in the week that deals with oil
           spills.
        3) If needed, ask questions that the students might not have thought of to the key speaker
           to generate thinking amongst the students.
35 | P a g e
        Closure: 15 to 30 minutes

        1) Finish up any last minute questions to the speaker.
        2) Have the students thank the speaker.
        3) After the speaker leaves or stays in the back, have the students discuss what they’ve
           just learned in their small groups.
               a. Note: Ask if the guest speaker would like to stay and either help out or watch
                   the class work.
               b. If the guest speaker leaves, ask for any contact information if the students
                   would like to ask any further questions about oil spills or anything else that
                   they can think of.
        4) After small group discussion, give the students a worksheet that deals with what the
           key speaker discussed. This is to be worked on at home.
        5) Allow the students time to work on their PSA’s in class, they should be close to
           finishing. Remind them to think about what they learned in all the lessons about oil
           spills and what they can use. Answer any questions that they might have and remind
           them that the next day they will be presenting their PSA’s.
        6) Remind the students that they should sign the thank you card for the guest speaker.

Day 2

        Opening: 5-10 minutes

        1) Allow the students to finalize any work needed to finish their PSA’s and be able to
           present it to class, only 10 minutes should be allowed in class.
        2) After 10 minutes, explain to the group how the setup is going to happen.
               a. Group one will go first, then group two and so forth until group six.
               b. After each group goes, you as a class can ask several questions. A minimum
                  of two questions, maximum of five from the class.
               c. Any other questions can be written to presenters on the forum page for class.
               d. Remind them to take notes in their journals on each PSA.

        Procedure: 90-100 minutes

        1) The class will present their PSA’s in class, starting with group one and finishing with
           group six.
        2) Each presentation should take only five minutes, indicate to the presenting students
           when they near the five minute time frame.
        3) After each presentation, the class will ask their questions to each group.
        4) Repeat for each group.

        Closure: 10 minutes

        1) Have the students take time to write in their journals about what they learned from the
           unit. They can write about anything they connected with, from the experiments they
36 | P a g e
           did, the guest speaker, to the PSA’s that they had in class. They should include their
           thoughts and feelings about oil being used as a resource when it can cause this type of
           devastation.
        2) A few students should share what they wrote.
        3) Remind the students to post some of what they learned on the classroom wiki, and
           what they might want to investigate on their own.
        4) The class will then have a silent vote, each student will write down their favorite PSA
           to be used in the classroom and community.



Assessment/Evaluation:

Students will be assessed on their understanding of the guest speaker by the worksheet they are
given, as well as the journal entries they create after the guest speakers. This assessment will
allow the teacher to see that the students are listening to the speaker and understand the
connections the students are making in this unit.

The PSA’s will be evaluated by both the teacher and several classmates with feedback given to
each group. This assessment will show how much the students have learned and how they can
be involved citizens.

Differentiation: Have the guest speaker and presentations of PSA recorded for students that
might have difficulties in class. With students needing more challenge, they are able to have a
small group conference with the guest speaker during free time in class if possible or over a web
conference.




37 | P a g e
                                   Plan of Action Rubric

                  4 Exemplary          3 Accomplished           2 Beginning              1 Basic
   Supporting     Includes four          Includes three         Includes less          Includes no
     Details      examples and          examples with             than two          examples with no
                     detailed          some explanation        examples with           explanation
                   explanations                              little explanation
  Resources        Has detailed           Has some                 Has little            Has no
  explained        information           information             information          information
Support needed     Has detailed           Has some                 Has little            Has no
                   information           information             information          information
   Execution     Has detailed plan      Has a plan for          Has a poorly         Has little to no
                  for execution           execution            designed plan              plan
      Total


Feedback:




                                   Oil Spill Speaker Rubric

                           4                    3                    2                       1
    Key Ideas        Key Ideas are        Key Ideas are        Key Ideas are          Key Ideas are
                   thought out and      stated with some     given with little to     listed with no
                    explained in an        explanation.       no explanation.          explanation.
                   orderly fashion.
  Thoughts and       Thoughts and         Thoughts and         Thoughts and           Thoughts and
    Feelings     feelings are given.   feelings are given.   feelings are given     feelings are given
                   They connect to      They have some        with little or no     with no connection
                  the key ideas and     connection to the    connection to the       to the key ideas.
                   give focus to the        key ideas.           key ideas.
                     issue at hand.
      Total


Feedback:




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                                     Annotated Bibliography

"50 Things Made from Oil." The Geography Site. The Geography Site, 09-18-2006. Web. 22
Jun 2011.
       <http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/citizenship/oil_products.html>.
       This site introduces students to everyday items they use that are made from oil. We
would use this as an introduction to the unit to explain why oil is being exploited as a natural
resource.

Oil Spills. 3.2. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1996. Print

        This is a teacher’s module in which we took a lesson on oil spills and modified it for our
unit. This lesson teaches students about how oil and water interacts with one another and how
to clean oil spills.

Gutman, M. (2010, July 02). Bp oil spill: tourism industry suffering on july 4th weekend.
        ABCNEWS. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-oil-spill-tourism-industry-
        suffering-july-weekend/story?id=11077632
        This is an article about how oil spills are affecting the tourism industry. The students
will be able to see and have an understanding on how not only oil spills affect marine life and
animals, but communities and businesses as well.

Robertson, C. (2011, July 15). No vacancies, but some reservations. The New York Times.
        Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/16/us/16gulf.html?scp=4&sq=oil spills
        affect coastal communities&st=cse
        This article looks more in-depth of how businesses are affected by the recent BP oil spill.
Students will use this article to guide their understanding on how different businesses are
affected in different ways because of the oil spills.

Goldenberg, S. (2010, September 06). Bp spill: white house says oil has gone, but gulf's
        fishermen are not so sure. theguardian. Retrieved from
        http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/06/bp-oil-spill-fishing-fears/print
        This article looks at how the fishing industry is impacted by oil spills. Students will be
able to use this article to identify different ways fishermen are being affected and how they are
coping.

Klien, M. K. (1990). Oil spills. Justin Books Ltd.

       This text contains information on oil spills, including uses, how oil spills occur, and what
methods are employed to cleanup oil spills. Students will be able to use this text as an additional
source when conferring with their group members about their PSAs.

Nardo, D. (1991). Oil spills. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc.




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       This text contains information on oil spills, including uses, how oil spills occur, and what
methods are employed to cleanup oil spills. Students will be able to use this text as an additional
source when conferring with their group members about their PSAs.

Pringle, L. (1993). Oil spills: damage, recovery, and prevention. New York: William Morrow
       and Company. Inc.
       This text contains information on oil spills, including uses, how oil spills occur, and what
methods are employed to cleanup oil spills. Students will be able to use this text as an additional
source when conferring with their group members about their PSAs.

Walls, D. (2010, August 5). Learning to give. Retrieved from
        http://learningtogive.org/lessons/unit377/lesson3.html
        This website has several reliable lesson plans that teachers can incorporate into their
curriculum. This website provides handouts, resources of parents, guardians, and students. We
would encourage students, parents, and guardians to look at this website to help them expand
their knowledge on oil spills.

Chandrasekhar, A. (1991). Oliver and the Oil Spill . (1st ed., p. 29). Land Mark Editions.

       This children’s book is an excellent resource for teachers to use. This is a story about an
otter who tries to save his friends because they are threatened by a huge oil spill. This book
provides excellent illustrations. We would use this book to help students understand that not only
humans but species as well are affected by oil spills.

                              Annotated Children Literature Books

Berger, M. (1994). Oil spill!. (1st ed., p. 32). Collins.

        This is an excellent children’s’ book. This book informs students about the effects that oil
spills on ocean, plants, and wildlife. The book focuses on one the worst oil spills in history and
explains

Chandrasekhar, A. (1991). Oliver and the Oil Spill . (1st ed., p. 29). Land Mark Editions.

       This children’s’ book is an excellent resource for teachers to use. This is a story about an
otter who tries to save his friends because they are threatened by a huge oil spill. This book
provides excellent illustrations. We would use this book to help students understand that not only
humans but species as well are affected by oil spills.

Hoffelt, J. (2004). We share one world. (p. 32). Belleuve, Washington: Illumination Arts.

       This book shows pictures of kids from different counties and how they each have one
moon, air source, wind, etc that they we all share with each other. This book focuses on nature
and the earth. We would use this book in the classroom and the end of the Unit to send home the
message to the students that we only have one world and that we need to advocate and protect it.


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Isaac, A. (1992). Why are some beaches oily? (1st ed., p. 24). Mexico: Gareth Stevens
        Publishing CO.
        This children’s book is about why we use oil, how oil spills occur, and how animals are
affected. We would use this book focusing mostly on images and facts about oil spills.

Lynda, D. (2011). Patti pelican and the gulf oil spill. (1st ed., p. 36). HIS Publishing CO.

       This children’s book will help children understand the importance and value of
preserving and protecting our environment. It is a factual story about the plight or birds who
were oiled, captured, cleaned, and rehabilitated by caring humans during the 2010 Gulf oil spill.

Mc Cage, C. (2007). Feeling the future oil. (p. 138). Farmington Hills, Michigan: Green Haven
        Press.
        This book is about the history of oil use, how oil use harms environment, and ways that
we can use alternative energy sources if we run out of oil. We would only use certain sections of
the book to introduce students to the history and uses of oil spills. The students can refer back to
this book when they are working on their projects.

Taylor, B. (1993). Shoreline. (p. 29). New York, NY: Dorling Kinder Sley, Inc.

        This book focuses on plants and animals that live in shallow waters close to the shore.
We would use this book to introduce students to the variety of species that can be affected by oil
spills. We would focus on the detailed images throughout this book and have students predict
what is going to happen




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