Native Americans by 5UWtA6VF

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									Broken Promises and a Trail of Tears
    Native Americans Posed Problems
         for Western Settlement
   Racism
       Viewed as backward savages/inferior in
        intelligence, technology, culture, morality
       Different=Inferior…skin color, language, religion
        and way of life
   Ethnocentrism-Disrespect of Native Culture
       Private ownership unknown to Natives, opens the
        door to exploitation
       View of Indians as savages used as excuse to
        justify broken treaties, cheating, and slaughter
      What was U.S. Policy towards
          Native Americans?
   Initially friendly and cooperative and
    respectful…Lewis and Clark, etc.
   Treaties promised independence, fair prices for
    some land, protection of sacred hunting
    grounds, cultural preservation, later relocation
    to lands that would be theirs “As long as grass
    grows and water runs”….
   Treaties were violated, ignored, led to forced
    migration and ultimately slaughter for many
     Jackson and Indian Removal
   Simple plan: relocate natives across West side of
    Mississippi River to “Indian Territory” in barren
    Oklahoma
   Indian Removal Act of 1830, forced migration of
    over 70,000…in chains, little food, thin blankets in
    Winter.
   Over a third died from cold, starvation disease and
    exhaustion…known as Trail of Tears
   “A happy and certain consumation of a wise, humane,
    and undeviating policy”-US pres. Martin Van Buren
      Natives did NOT go quietly
   Cherokees sued the U.S. government in
    Supreme Court for national independence and
    freedom from individual state laws. They won
    their case in Cherokee Nation V. Georgia.
   Jackson refused to enforce the decision saying
    of the Chief Justice, “John Marshall has made
    his decision…Now let him enforce it.”
          More Acts of Resistance
   Failing to gain civil rights via court, numerous
    attempts were made to militarily protect sacred
    lands
       Tecumseh travelled from Canada to Alabama
        attempting to organize a military alliance of all
        tribes…rubbed out at battle of Tippecanoe
       Black Hawk defeated in Black Hawk War
       Other tribes attempted to form military coalitions
        but were unsuccessful
What Advantages did Whites have?
   Weaponry
   Agricultural output/food
   Manufactured goods-used to trade for land
   Alcohol, used as weapon against Indians
   Immunity to European diseases
   Political organization…Whites organized
    under governments and militias while Indians
    were not organized
          Modern Indian Issues
   Poor Health-malnutrition, infant mortality, 50-
    year life expectancy
   Poor education, high illiteracy
   Poverty
   Alcoholism
   Still battling racism
   Lack of Social Services
   No official apologies for past treatment

								
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