California State University, Fresno by i301aw

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									   GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FOR
     LABORATORY REPORTS AND
        TECHNICAL WRITING

         ADAPTED FOR ECE 1

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO


  LYLES COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


  DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND
      COMPUTER ENGINEERING


   2320 E. SAN RAMON AVE. M/S EE94
            FRESNO, CA 93740


              2012-2013



                                     1
                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                                          Page

Title Page    …………………………………………………………………........                                   1

Table of Contents    ………………………………………………………………                                     2

1. Guidelines for Writing Laboratory Reports     ……………………………....                  4

2. Writing Methodology for Technical Reports       ………………………………                   4
   2.1 The Substance of Technical Reports ………………………………………                         4
   2.2 Attributes and Qualities of Good Reports    ………………………………                   5
   2.3 Report Integration     ………………………………………………………                               6
      2.3.1 Graphics ………………………………………………………………                                     6
      2.3.2 Substantive headings     ………………………………………………                           6
      2.3.3 White space and numbering figures, tables, equations, and sections    6
      2.3.4 Explaining mathematics in English      ………………………………                   7
      2.3.5 References        ………………………………………………………                               7
      2.3.6 Using appendices and attachments       ………………………………                   7

3. Laboratory Report Formatting      ……………………………………………....                         7
   3.1 Title Page     ………………………………………………………………                                     8
   3.2 Table of Contents      ………………………………………………………                                8
   3.3 Paper Size, Margins, Page Orientation, and Font Size ………………                 8
   3.4 Section, Subsection, and Sub-Subsection Headings ………………………                  9
   3.5 Characters, Symbols, and Paragraphs ………………………………………                         9
   3.6 Figures and Figure Captions ………………………………………………                              9
   3.7 Tables and Table Headings ………………………………………………                               10
   3.8 Formulas and Equations        ………………………………………………                           11
   3.9 References (If Necessary)     ………………………………………………                           12
   3.10 Appendices (If Necessary) ………………………………………………                              12

4. Laboratory Report Structure      ………………………………………………                            12
   4.1 Title Page      ………………………………………………………………                                   13
   4.2 Table of Contents     ………………………………………………………                                13
   4.3 Statement of Objectives      ………………………………………………                            13
   4.4 Theoretical Background (If Necessary) ………………………………                         13
   4.5 Experimental Procedure       ………………………………………………                            13
      4.5.1 List of Equipment       ………………………………………………                            14
      4.5.2 Laboratory Procedure    ………………………………………………                            14
   4.6 Analysis        ………………………………………………………………                                   14
      4.6.1 Experimental Results    ………………………………………………                            14
      4.6.2 Data Analysis    ………………………………………………………                                15
   4.7 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………                                       15
   4.8 References (If Necessary)    ………………………………………………                            15

                                                                                        2
Section                                                Page

  4.9 Appendices (If Necessary)   ………………………………………………    15

  5. References     ………………………………………………………………            15

  Appendix A        ………………………………………………………………            16
  Appendix B        ………………………………………………………………            17
  Appendix C        ………………………………………………………………            18




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                        California State University, Fresno
                           Lyles College of Engineering
                 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


                1. GUIDELINES FOR WRITING LABORATORY REPORTS

Writing lab reports is an important activity that forms one part of your educational experience
and technical skill development. It prepares you for developing effective documents during your
program of study at California State University, Fresno as well as the practice of your
engineering profession after graduation. Concise English and correct grammar combined with a
good style of writing polish your technical work and make it better understood and appreciated
by others. Without effective presentation, many good technical ideas go unnoticed. Written and
oral communications are therefore an integral part of the duties practicing engineers are expected
to not only perform, but perform well. Industry demands that engineering graduates be able to
express their ideas with clarity and prepare well written reports that demonstrate professionalism.
The ECE faculty is interested in helping you become successful in presenting your work through
well written lab reports.

This document outlines general and specific guidelines for documenting your lab work, and is
drawn from standards within the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) [1], as
well other professional sources [2]. The evaluation rubric in Appendix C provides you a general
idea of how reports may be assessed by the instructor of the lab.

Group reports should be prepared by the whole group with one group member (on a rotating
basis) assuming the responsibility of integrating the material provided by individuals.
Contribution of each member of the group needs to be identifiable. Although one person will be
in charge of integrating the whole report, all members of the group are responsible for the final
report – each group member needs to review the integrated report and make suggestions to the
lead technical writer, as necessary.


               2. WRITING METHODOLOGY FOR TECHNICAL REPORTS

2.1 The Substance of Technical Reports

Technical reports should have the following characteristics:

       1.   The writing is an objective (opposed to subjective) approach to the subject.
       2.   The purpose of the report is spelled out in the first few paragraphs.
       3.   The vocabulary is specialized to your engineering discipline.
       4.   Sentences are highly specific and factual.
       5.   Numbers and dimensions/units are frequent.
       6.   Signs, symbols, and formulas are often used to explain mathematical concepts.
       7.   Figures and tables are used extensively to supplement the narrative.


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Accurate audience analysis is critical: you must know your audience and your objectives. You
may need to adapt your writing style and material to both.

2.2 Attributes and Qualities of Good Reports

To write clear and effective reports, you should build upon the natural talents you have in
communicating ideas to others. Qualities of good reports vary, depending on the audience and
objective, but all clear and effective technical reports:

       1.    Make a good impression.
       2.    Can be read selectively.
       3.    Read coherently from beginning to end.
       4.    Anticipate the reader’s questions.
       5.    Convey an overall impression of authority, thoroughness, and honesty.
       6.    Are accurate: free from typographical/spelling errors and grammatical problems.
       7.    Have a table of contents and substantive headings.
       8.    Have the necessary introduction and summary to characterize its purpose and scope.
       9.    Have a body that provides essential information logically, with defined terms.
       10.   Present results in a clear and concise manner; use figures, tables, and graphs.
       11.   Explain criteria used to evaluate evidence and draw conclusions from data.
       12.   Present conclusions and recommendations logically.

Arguments made in your reports must be made in a persuasive way. Inductive reasoning moves
from a particular set of facts to a more general set of generalizations. When writing technical
reports, you usually begin the inductive process by examining a set of facts, making a guess
(hypothesis) to explain the facts, and investigate to determine of the hypothesis fits the facts.

Alternatively, deductive reasoning moves from the general to the particular. After presenting a
general principle, it is compared to several facts, and conclusions are drawn from the
comparison.

Science and engineering experiments are usually conducted inductively: from particular to
general. However, science writing is deductive: from general to particular. Authors must state
the overview of their system first, illustrate how the system works, provide any experimental
data obtained and analyze the results, and describe conclusions about the analysis and what
criteria were used to evaluate the evidence presented.

Deductive writing is often difficult – even for experienced engineers and scientists – because
they want to present their material in the order they discovered it (inductively), and save “all the
good stuff” until the end. Unfortunately, this is the wrong way to write a technical report.

Most readers have neither the time nor the patience to wade through an entire report. Objectives
and conclusions therefore must be stated clearly and succinctly. Sometimes the best way to
achieve this is to write an objective statement of the report after the report is finished.




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2.3 Report Integration

Integration in this context refers to pulling together all of the elements of a report to present a
coherent document to the reader. The principal elements of the report are text, graphics,
equations, and formulas.

Scientific reports often require that authors include graphical and tabular information, as well as
text. The following sub-subsections provide hints regarding the most effective way to integrate
these elements into a report.

Remember that good editing is a pre-requisite to good writing – do not discount the importance
of editing your technical reports!

2.3.1 Graphics
Graphics include figures, tables, pictures, sketches, formulas, and equations. If the purpose of a
report is to inform the reader and make it easy for him or her to understand, then graphics must
supplement the text in context: words and graphics work together to provide greater clarity.

Graphics should appear in the report either surrounded by supporting text, or in close proximity
to relevant narrative. Authors must not merely bundle all of their graphics together and tell
readers to go find them – they should be tightly integrated into the text of the document.

Graphics should also serve as stand alone elements – if a graphic is lifted out of a report, it
should be understood without the benefit of any additional text. For graphics to be self-
contained, they must carry clear captions, labels for axes, and legends to explain every line or bar
on the graphic.

2.3.2 Substantive headings
Headings are considered cues for the reader. Properly written, substantive headings tell a story:
a reader should be able to scan the headings and understand in brief what the report is about.

All headings must be substantive. That is, instead of merely stating “Resonance” in a heading,
the author would write “Resonance Due to Circuit Capacitors and Inductors”; instead of
“EMF’s”, “EMF’s as a Source of Cancer” is more descriptive.

2.3.3 White space and numbering figures, tables, equations, and sections
Authors in the engineering profession are required to learn and practice standard conventions of
numbering figures, tables, and equations tables in reports based on the standards of Section 3.
Figures, tables, and equations must each be numbered consecutively within Sections. For
example, Figure 1.1 (the first figure in Section 1); Table 2.3 (the third table in Section 2); etc.

Additional cues may be provided by standardizing white space (both vertical and horizontal)
between sections and paragraphs of text, and by numbering sections, subsections, and sub-
subsections appropriately.




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2.3.4 Explaining mathematics in English
Although it is not always standard practice, some authors find that their audiences greatly benefit
from a narrative explanation of the function of a particular equation. It is a common fault of
authors to write down many equations and not provide any explanation of its relevance.
Equations and mathematical terms should therefore be described in English to provide insight
and understanding of the material.

2.3.5 References
A reference section of a report should contain a list of the material to which you have referred.
References should be professional, and peer-reviewed. Unpublished work or reports of limited
circulation should not be referenced, unless absolutely necessary. It may be necessary to append
copies of articles that are not readily available in one or more appendices. Remember that
references are important to the reader. Therefore, each citation must be complete and correct.

2.3.6 Using appendices and attachments
Appendices (formal reports) and attachments (informal reports) are necessary documents placed
at the back of a document to support the conclusions reached in the narrative. In most cases
these supplementary documents are too detailed to be included in the regular narrative.

Select appendix information that is relevant, and has been referred to in the text of the report.
Typically, the following information is included in the appendices:

       1.   Extended analyses.
       2.   Case histories and variations
       3.   Intermediate mathematical steps
       4.   Printouts of computer code, or code execution.
       5.   Technical specification sheets.

The rule of thumb is that all collateral material found in an Appendix must be referred to in the
text of the report, and it must be relevant to the narrative.


                        3. LABORATORY REPORT FORMATTING

Section 3 describes the standards pertaining to the format of laboratory reports. The appropriate
standards are discussed in the following subsections:

      3.1   Title Page
      3.2   Table of Contents (Not necessary for ECE1 Laboratory)
      3.3   Paper Size, Margins, Page Orientation, and Font Size
      3.4   Section, Subsection, and Sub-Subsection Headings
      3.5   Characters, Symbols, and Paragraphs
      3.6   Figures and Figure Captions
      3.7   Tables and Table Headings
      3.8   Formulas and Equations
      3.9   References (Not necessary for ECE1 Laboratory)

                                                                                                    7
     3.10 Appendices (Containing Program Source Codes)

3.1 Title Page

The “TITLE PAGE” should contain the following items in the same order as they are listed.
You should center each item on a single line.

       1.   Name of the Institution
       2.   Name of the Department
       3.   Experiment or Report Title
       4.   Course Section Number
       5.   Reporting Team Members’ Names (Lead Person First)
       6.   Submission Date
       7.   Comments Section
       8.   Final Grade Indicator for Each Team Member

You may use the sample page in Appendix A as the basis for your title pages.

3.2 Table of Contents (Not necessary for ECE1 Laboratory)

The Table of Contents should start immediately following the Title Page, before the body of the
report. The heading for this page should be “TABLE OF CONTENTS”, and should be
centered, bold, and capitalized. The actual table of contents consists of two columns. The first
(left) column heading should be “Section”, while the second (right) column heading should be
“Page”.

The “Section” column will contain a list of the major sections and subsections of the report. The
“Page” column indicates the page number associated with the relevant sections, subsections, and
sub-subsections. The “Table of Contents” of this document can be used as an example.

3.3 Paper Size, Margins, Page Orientation, and Font Size

The standard paper size for all laboratory reports and is 8.5” x 11”.

You should have 1” top, bottom, left, and right margins. With the exception of the “Title Page”
and the “Table of Contents”, each page should have a page number centered at the. Use left
justification for all written reports.

The standard page orientation is portrait (vertical page layout). However, if a page is used
completely for a figure, than you may use a landscape (horizontal) page orientation (for that page
only). In this case, the right margin will become the bottom margin, and would carry the caption
for the figure.

Use a standard 12 point font for each section, subsection, and sub-subsection, and a standard 10-
12 point font for the narrative.



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3.4 Section, Subsection, and Sub-Subsection Headings

Headings are used to display your report’s arrangement to the readers, allowing them to read the
report selectively. The heading itself is a phrase that describes what is discussed in the
paragraphs that follow. Therefore, each section of your report should have a section number and
a substantive heading. You may divide each section into as many subsections, or sub-
subsections as appropriate. Each sub-subsection should be directly related to its parent
subsection, and each subsection should be directly related to its parent section.

The section number and heading should be typed entirely in bold capital letters. A new section
heading should be separated from an old section or subsection using triple spacing. The
narrative should be separated from the section heading using double spacing.

The subsection should be numbered with the section and subsection number, and the first
character of each word should be capitalized. The subsection headings should also be typed in
bold. A new subsection heading should be separated from an old subsection or sub-subsection
using double spacing. The narrative should be separated from the subsection heading using
double spacing.

The sub-subsection should be numbered with the section, subsection, and sub-subsection
number, and the first character of the first word should be capitalized. The sub-subsection
headings should also be typed in bold. A new sub-subsection heading should be separated from
an old subsection or sub-subsection using double spacing. The narrative should be separated
from the sub-subsection heading using single spacing.

Sub-sub-subsections are not used in technical documents. Use this document as a guideline.

3.5 Characters, Symbols, and Paragraphs

Characters are the letters, punctuation marks, numbers, and symbols that you type in the text.
Character formatting determines how characters appear on a page. You may use bold, italic, or
underlined words to highlight key words in your text.

Standard engineering symbols must be used (opposed to writing the name of the symbol)
whenever appropriate – for example, use R = 3 Ω, not R = 3 Ohms. Units should always be
separated by a space from the quantity it is describing. Use standard engineering prefixes to the
nearest power of 103 whenever appropriate (V = 3.2 kV, t = 1.2 ns, etc.)

Do not indent the first line of a paragraph – use a blank line between paragraphs. Paragraphs
should typically be 3-5 sentences in length, and contain a single thought, or idea. Use a line
spacing of 1.0 to 1.25.

3.6 Figures and Figure Captions

Figures in your reports include schematic diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. When
constructing a figure, you should consider the following:

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                   Figure 3.1: A basic inverting operational amplifier circuit.


       1.   Keep figures simple and clear.
       2.   Label and provide dimensions for all axes.
       3.   Center the figure, figure number, and caption.
       4.   If possible, reference figures in the text before they appear.
       5.   Figures should generally be placed at the top of a page.
       6.   Number figures consecutively within the section of a report (for example, the second
            figure in Section 3 would be labeled “Figure 3.2”.)

The figure number and caption should be placed below the figure, which is opposite compared to
a table number and title. The figure number should contain the word “Figure” followed by a
number and a colon – all in bold. You should then include the figure caption describing the
figure on the same line. The figure, figure number, and caption should be centered on the page.

An example of an appropriate figure is illustrated in Figure 3.1.

3.7 Tables and Table Headings

A table is any arrangement of data setup in vertical columns and horizontal rows. Consider the
following when you decide to include a table in your report:

       1. Tables should be simple, clear, and logical.
       2. If possible, tables should be referenced in text before they appear.
       3. Tables should be numbered consecutively within a section of the report. (The second
          table in Section 3 would be labeled “Table 3.2”.)
       4. Graphs should be used in place of tables if more meaningful information can be
          conveyed by the graph.

The first line of a table is the table number, which contains the word “Table” followed by a
number and a colon – all in bold. You should then include the table title on the same line. The
table, table number, and title should be centered on the page.



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After the table number and table title, proceed with the rows and columns, which need to have a
heading to clearly identify the data. If the heading has a dimension or unit, specify it inside
parentheses.

An example of an appropriate table is illustrated in Table 3.1.

                   Table 3.1: Summary of Resistance and Current Values
         Voltage (mV)               Resistance (Ω)                 Current (mA)
             100.0                       10.0                          10.0
             100.0                       20.0                           5.0
             100.0                       40.0                           2.5
             100.0                       50.0                           2.0

Tables may be placed wherever appropriate within a document, or at the top of a page.

3.8 Formulas and Equations

Standard symbols should be used for presentation of any formulas and equations. As mentioned
previously, a spelled word is not a satisfactory replacement for a symbol. All formulas and
equations should be centered. Equations should be numbered consecutively within each section,
independent of other graphics – for example, the second Figure in Section 3 would be labeled
(3.2).

Formulas and equations should be explained in English, and all factors (variables or symbols)
must be defined. For example,

                                            V=I•R                                               3.1

Where V represents the voltage (V), I represents the current (A), and R represents the resistance
(Ω).

Alternatively, you may define your variables in a list:

                                            V=I•R                                               3.2

where,

   V: Voltage (V)
   I: Current (A)
   R: Resistance (Ω).

Variables in an equation, or when referenced within the narrative, are typically italicized,
whereas functions (sin, cos, etc.) are not – for example, sin(x).

To create appropriate equation numbers in word, use a 3x1 table with the borders removed,
spanning 100% of the page. Allow the first and third cells to span roughly 10-15% of the length

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of the table, and the center cell to be 70-80%. Place the equation in the center cell, and the
equation number in the cell on the right.

3.9 References

References within the narrative are referred to by a number inside of brackets. The numbers
should be arranged in a sequential manner throughout the report. (For example: “Voltage is
related to current via Ohm’s Law [1]. Power represents energy dissipated or generated by a
device per unit time [2-4].”)

For every reference number provided in the narrative, list the appropriate citation in the
“References” section. Do not include references as footnotes in a technical document. The
heading for the “References” section is “REFERENCES”, and should be centered, bold, and
capitalized.

A reference list should contain the following information – in the same order they are presented
in the narrative:

       1.   Authors’ names (first initial of first name and full last name), separated by commas.
       2.   Report or article title in quotations; book titles in italics.
       3.   Publication’s name and volume number, or the book publisher.
       4.   Date of publication.
       5.   Chapter, section, and page numbers, as appropriate.

Information within a citation should be separated by commas, with a period at the end.

In general, citations in your “References” section should follow the “IEEE Citation Reference”
format, which is available at:

                        http://www.ieee.org/documents/ieeecitationref.pdf

3.10 Appendices (Will Contain your Program Source Code)

If you incorporate Appendices, list them the order they are referenced in the narrative. Use
alphabetic numbering – for instance, the heading for the first appendix is “APPENDIX A”. The
heading should be centered, bold, and capitalized.

Each Appendix should start on a separate page, including “Appendix A”.

The Appendices of this document can be used as an example.


                         4. LABORATORY REPORT STRUCTURE

During your study within the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at California
State University Fresno, you will be taking several laboratory courses and will be required to

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prepare laboratory reports for the experiments conducted. Therefore, you should be fully aware
of the general structure of laboratory reports. The sections required to complete your lab reports
should be written in their following order:

4.1 Title Page

The “Title Page” should include the title of the experiment, course number, name of author(s),
and date the experiment was performed, etc. Allow space for the instructor to write general
comments and assign a grade to each team member. See format specifications outlined in Section
3.1. You may use the sample Title Page in Appendix A.

Please note that the Title Page is not assigned a section number.

4.2 Table of Contents (Not necessary for ECE1 Laboratory)

A “Table of Contents” is necessary for each report you write. Follow the format guidelines
presented in Section 3.2.

Please note that the Table of Contents is not assigned a section number.

4.3 Statement of Objectives

The “Statement of Objectives” section should be written in a concise manner (3-5 sentences),
using bullet or paragraph form. The laboratory manual or instruction sheet will help here. The
fact that experiments in laboratory courses are being used to educate students should not be used
as an objective in the report (in other words, do not use a statement such as “to familiarize
students with the use of equipment”). Rather, objectives should state the problem that your
procedure (and experimental data) attempts to answer, or the theoretical principle that the
recorded data is attempting to validate. Some key verbs that you will use in the objective
statement may include “to investigate,” “to plot,” “to measure,” or “to compare,” etc. The
statements should inform the reader precisely why the experiment was undertaken.

Because the “Statement of Objectives” section is the first section assigned a heading number, it
will always be assigned a 1. See Appendix B for an examples.

4.4 Theoretical Background

If necessary, the “Theoretical Background” section should present a concise description of the
relevant theory that is needed to understand other parts of the report, such as the “Experimental
Procedure” or “Data Analysis” sections. Relevant equations should be introduced, and all
technical terms to be used in the report should be defined in a list form. Equations presented in
this section must be numbered and referred to in the narrative of the text. Simulations are
appropriate for this section.

4.5 Experimental Procedure



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The “Experimental Procedure” section includes the list of equipment used, any schematic
diagrams used to perform the experiment, and a description of the laboratory procedure.

NOTE: There are times when it becomes necessary to repeat the “Experimental Procedure” and
“Analysis” sections if multiple experiments are performed within a laboratory experiment. See
Appendix B for examples.

4.5.1 Equipment used
List the main pieces of equipment and components used in the experiment. Include identifying
models, serial numbers, and brands of all equipment. The reader must be able to connect each
item in this section to the items used in the rest of the section and subsections.

4.5.2 Laboratory procedure
Include a neat, technically correct, clear schematic drawing of the laboratory setup for the ECE1
laboratory design problem, showing all interconnections and interrelationships. If necessary, you
should also include a short description that refers to all parts of the schematic drawing and
discusses how they are used. This subsection should have all the information needed for a reader
to duplicate the setup independently.

4.6 Analysis

The “Analysis” section includes any experimental results which were obtained during the
procedure, in addition to all analysis of your data.

For ECE1 Laboratory, the analysis section will contain the program description of the design
problem. This will include a flow chart or pseudo code of your design.

4.6.1 Experimental results (If obtained during the ECE1 laboratory)
All the pertinent raw data obtained during the experiment are presented in this subsection. Raw
data, versus manipulation of the data toward an end result, should be identified clearly as such.
The type of data will vary according to the individual experiment and can include numbers,
sketches, images, photographs, etc. All numerical data should be tabulated carefully. Each table,
figure and graph in the report must have a caption or label and a number that is referenced in the
written text. Variables tabulated or plotted should be clearly identified by a symbol or name.
Units, if any, should always be clearly noted. Data should indicate degree of accuracy with
which measurements were made.

Any formulaic manipulation of the data which is necessary should be clearly described, along
with the procedure used. If more than one equation is used, all equations must carry sequential
identifying numbers that can be referenced elsewhere in the text. The end result of the data
should be information, usually in the form of tables, charts, graphs or other figures that can be
used to discuss the outcome of the experiment.

4.6.2 Data analysis (If required during the ECE1 laboratory)
This subsection describes how the formulaic manipulation of the data was carried out, and
provides the reader with the equations and analysis of the data obtained by the experiment. This

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subsection also describes the accuracy of the data, supported where necessary by an error
analysis, in addition to your interpretation of the outcome of the experiment.

Any relevant information from the data should be described, analyzed, and explained, and should
answer the question, “What does the data mean?”. Describe any logical projections from the
outcome – for example, the need to repeat the experiment, or to measure variables in a unique
way.

Assess the quality and accuracy of your procedure. Compare your results with expected behavior
(if such a comparison is useful or necessary), and explain any unexpected results or observations.

4.7 Conclusions

The “Conclusion” section should base each technical conclusion on actual results. Explain the
meaning of the experiment and the implications of the results. Examine the outcome in light of
the stated objectives. This section should answer the question, “So what?”. Seek to state your
conclusions in a broad context in light of theory versus experimental results.

4.8 References (If Appropriate)

If a “References” section is necessary (especially if a “Theoretical Background” section is used),
apply all necessary reference numbers and citations to the document in the appropriate location.

Reference numbers, and the citations used in the “References” section should be used in
ascending order in order of appearance, and must conform to the “IEEE Citation Reference”
format.

See Section 3.9 regarding the format for References.

4.9 Appendices (Where Source Code Should be Located)

If an “Appendices” section is necessary, be sure to place separate documents, such as
specification sheets, each in a unique Appendix.

See Section 3.10 regarding the format for Appendices.


                                       5. REFERENCES

[1] Dr. Graffox. (2009, September). IEEE Citation Reference. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ieee.org/documents/ieeecitationref.pdf.

[2] W. J. Eccles, “Guidelines and Standards for Writing Assignments,” Rose-Hulman Institute
of Technology Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Standard, 2003.




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                                  APPENDIX A

                       California State University, Fresno
                           Lyles College of Engineering
               Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

                              TECHNICAL REPORT



      Experiment Title:   _________________________________________

      Course Title:       _________________________________________

      Date Submitted:     _________________________________________



              Prepared By:                             Sections Written:


    ________________________ (Lead)          ________________________ (Lead)

    ______________________________           ______________________________

    ______________________________           ______________________________




                              INSTRUCTOR SECTION



Comments:   _______________________________________________________________

            _______________________________________________________________

            _______________________________________________________________

            _______________________________________________________________

Final Grade: Team Member 1:     ____________________

            Team Member 2:      ____________________

            Team Member 3:      ____________________
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                                      APPENDIX B

                    Example Skeleton Formats for Laboratory Reports


Example 1: Standard Laboratory Format

       TITLE PAGE
       TABLE OF CONTENTS
       1. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
       2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND (If Necessary)
       3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
             3.1 Equipment Used
             3.2 Procedure
       4. ANALYSIS
             4.1 Experimental Results
             4.2 Data Analysis
       5. CONCLUSIONS
       6. REFERENCES (If Necessary)
       7. APPENDICES (If Necessary)


Example 2: Repetitive Experimental Procedure and Analysis of Results Sections Necessary

       TITLE PAGE
       TABLE OF CONTENTS
       1. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
       2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND (If Necessary)
       3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR X
              3.1 Equipment Used
              3.2 Procedure
       4. ANALYSIS FOR X
              4.1 Experimental Results
              4.2 Data Analysis
       5. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR Y
              5.1 Equipment Used
              5.2 Procedure
       6. ANALYSIS FOR Y
              6.1 Experimental Results
              6.2 Data Analysis
       7. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR Z
              7.1 Equipment Used
              7.2 Procedure
       8. ANALYSIS FOR Z
              8.1 Experimental Results
              8.2 Data Analysis
       9. CONCLUSIONS
       10. REFERENCES (If Necessary)
       11. APPENDICES (If Necessary)


                                                                                          17
                                          APPENDIX C

                               Lab Report Evaluation Rubric

Course: ECE _______                                               Date: _____________

Evaluate each component using a weighted scale based upon the following criteria:

                                  FORMATTING RUBRIC
                            Poor              Excellent             Weight          Score
 Title Page and     Missing or does not Fully Follows
 Table of           Follow Standards    Guidelines and                  5
 Contents                               Standards
 General Format     Does not Follow     Fully Follows
 of Technical       Guidelines and      Guidelines and                  5
 Paper              Standards           Standards
 Overall            Missing Sections or Appropriate
 Structure of       Information in      Sections; Information          10
 Technical Paper    Incorrect Locations in Correct Location

                                     WRITING RUBRIC
                          Poor                Excellent             Weight          Score
 Spelling and       Many Errors          Minor or No Errors
 Grammar                                                               10

 Sentence           Poor Structure          Well Structured
 Structure and                                                         10
 Transitions
 Focus and          Unorganized and         Well Organized and
 Organization       Lacks Clarity; Poor     Reads Clearly; Good        10
                    Presentation            Presentation

                             TECHNICAL CONTENT RUBRIC
                            Poor               Excellent     Possible               Score
                                                              Points
 Objectives and     Meaningless          Objectives Clearly
 Theoretical        Objectives; Terms    Stated; Theory Well   10
 Background         Unrelated to Content Presented
 Experimental       Experimental         Experimental
 Procedure          Procedure Unclear    Procedure Valid and   20
                    and Incomplete       Complete
 Analysis and       Inconsistent with    Consistent with
 Technical          Observations or      Observations and      20
 Conclusions        Objectives           Objectives

                                                          Overall average score __________

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