Biodiversity in Minnesota by i301aw

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									Biodiversity in Minnesota
     By: Walker Pearson
       Elk (Cervus canadensis)
   Description: Elk are the second largest
    members of the deer family behind
    moose. They will stand up to 5 feet at the
    shoulder. Elk have short tails, only about
    3 to 8 inches. Their backs are brownish to
    tan above, somewhat reddish during the
    summer, and their underside is darker.
    Males especially appear to have thick
    necks with a dark brown mane on their
    throat region.
   Reproduction: Usually involve 1 or
    more attempts in mating. The
    offspring weigh 30-35 pounds. They
    are old enough to join a heard after
    two weeks of being born.
   Food: Their diets vary depending on
    the season. Tree bark in the winter,
    forbs and tree sprouts during the
    summer.
   Predators: Wolves, Coyote and
    Cougar, and Brown and Black Bears.
   Habitat: Elk live in a variety of
    habitats, from rainforests to alpine
    meadows and dry desert valleys to
    hardwood forests.
   Population: Today, about one
    million elk live in the western United
    States, Wisconsin, Michigan,
    Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Arkansas,
    Kentucky, Tennessee and North
    Carolina, and from Ontario west in
    Canada
   Diseases: Chronic wasting disease.
   Fun Facts: 1.Male antlers that shed
    each year. 2. They are one of the
    largest species of deer in the
    world.3. They are one of the largest
    land mammals in north america.
   Hunted: Season starts 09/15/12-
    12/9/12.
    Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
   Description: Long reddish-yellow to
    grayish-green legs. Feathers are generally
    blackish and dark brown overall. Males
    have gobblers.
   Reproduction: Male turkeys will get
    females attention. Less than half of all
    nesting attempts are successful. Peak
    hatching period is from about May 20 to
    June 10. If the first nest is destroyed,
    some hens make another one in a
    different location.
   Food: Wild turkeys are omnivores,
    foraging on the ground or climbing
    shrubs and small trees to feed.
   Predators: Some predators that raid
    turkey nests include Raccoons, Red
    Foxes, Striped Skunks, crows,
    snakes, Virginia Opossums,
    chipmunks, and squirrels. Young
    turkeys have many predators as
    well. Raccoons, foxes, snakes, owls,
    hawks, and other large birds will kill
    them.
   Habitat: They live in tall grassy areas with a lot
    of trees.
   Population: Minnesota's wild turkey population
    is more than 30,000.
   Diseases: Avian Pox.
   Fun Facts: 1.There are approximately 5,500
    feathers on an adult wild turkey.2. The average
    lifespan of a wild turkey is 3-5 years, and the
    oldest known wild turkey lived to be at least 13.
    3.
    A wild turkey’s gobble can be heard up to one
    mile away.

   Hunted: Turkey season is Saturday, Sept. 29, to
    Sunday, Oct. 28.
    Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta)
   Description: Painted turtles are
    brightly marked. They have a
    smooth shell and about 90 to 250
    mm long head.
   Reproduction: Mating begins after
    hibernation and before feeding
    begins when the water temperatures
    are still low.
   Food: Fish, carrion, insects, leaves,
    algae and macrolage.
   Predators: Raccoons, northern river
    otters, American minks, and red fox.
   Habitat: Regions are temperate and
    freshwater. Aquatic biomes are
    lakes, ponds, rivers and streams.
    Wetlands are marsh and swamp.
   Population: Painted turtle prefer
    living in freshwater that is quiet,
    shallow, and has thick layer of mud.
   Diseases: They can carry human
    diseases.
   Fun Facts: The painted turtle is the
    most
   Hunted: Painted turtles do not have
    a season just to hunt them. But
    humans will catch them as a pet or
    even to eat.
    Black Bull Head (Ameiurus melas)

   Description: General description: Bullheads
    have barbels, spiny fins, a broad head, and no
    scales. You can distinguish the black bullhead
    from other bullheads because its barbels are
    black and it has a light crescent near its tail fin.
   Size: This is the smallest of Minnesota bullheads.
    It averages 6 to 10 inches long, and seldom
    weighs more than 1 pound. Minnesota's record
    black bullhead, caught in Reno Lake in Pope
    County, weighed 3 pounds, 13 ounces.
   Color: The black bullhead has a black back and is
    white or yellow underneath.
   Reproduction: Bullheads spawn in
    April through June. The female lays
    2,000 to 6,000 eggs in a shallow
    hole she scoops out on the bottom of
    the lake. The male cares for the
    eggs. After the young hatch a week
    or so after the eggs are laid, both
    parents look out for them for a
    couple of weeks.
   Food: Insects, snails, fish, clams,
    crayfish, fish eggs, plants--you name
    it, bullheads will eat it.
   Predators: Walleyes, northern pike
    and other predatory fish eat
    bullheads up to four inches long.
    Some anglers eat large black
    bullheads.
   Habitat: Bullheads prefer shallow
    lakes and slow-moving streams with
    a soft bottom. They are found
    through much of Minnesota
    especially the south and west. They
    can live in warm muddy water that is
    low in oxygen.
   Population: Bullheads are
    abundant and are in no danger of
    overharvest. Many people like to
    catch bullheads because they put up
    a good fight and are good to eat.
   Diseases: Ranaviruses are
    considered a serious threat to lower
    vertebrates, including fish.
   Fun Facts: Bullheads have up to
    100,000 taste buds scattered all over
    their bodies. Many are found on their
    barbels. Scientists believe that this
    well-developed sensory ability helps
    bullheads find food in muddy, dark
    water.
   Hunted: The black bullhead is
    abundant, therefore fishing is open
    all year and the bag limit is 100.
Range of the Black Bullhead
Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
   Description: Bark-Is thick, deeply
    furrowed on surface with irregular
    platelike broken scales often slightly
    tinged with red. Leaves- Simple,
    alternate on stem, length 6" to 12";
    crowded at ends of twigs; has pair of
    deep indentations near base and
    wavy notches on broad middle and
    upper portions; shiny, dark green
    turning yellow or brown in autumn.
   Description cont.: Fruit- Acorn set
    deeply or almost enclosed in a fringed
    cup; diameter may reach 1" or more, it
    varies widely in respect to size and how
    big the nut is enclosed in the mossy
    fringed cup; seed is bitter.
   Seed Disbursement: Bur oak acorns are
    animal dispersed. Animals carry them to
    different locations.
   Diseases: Bur oak blight. A fungus
    caused disease.
   Economic Uses: The wood is of high
    quality, and is almost always
    marketed as "white oak". Bur oaks
    are popular for landscaping designs.
   Fun Fact: The bur oak is among the
    most fire-tolerant tree species.
Range of Bur Oak
    Wood Lily (Lilium philadelphicum)
   Description: Large, bright reddish-
    orange flower at top of 2' stem, numerous
    narrow leaves, the upper leaves arranged
    in whorls.
   When it Flowers: Wood lily blooms in
    July.
   Uses: Many tribes gathered the bulbs of
    wood lily for food and medicine. The bulbs
    are said to have an excellent flavour.
   Fun Fact: Its status is "threatened" in
    Kentucky and Ohio.
   "Wild Turkey Hunting." : Minnesota DNR. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/hunting/turkey/index.html>.
   "Elk Hunting." : Minnesota DNR. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/hunting/elk/index.html>.
   "Fishes of Minnesota: Black Bullhead: Minnesota DNR." Fishes of
    Minnesota: Black Bullhead: Minnesota DNR. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish/blackbullhead.html>.
   "Painted Turtle: Minnesota DNR." Painted Turtle: Minnesota DNR. N.p.,
    n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/turtles/painted.html>.
   "Bur Oak (Quercus Macrocarpa)." Bur Oak: Minnesota DNR. N.p., n.d.
    Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/trees_shrubs/deciduous/buroak.html>.
   "Wood Lily (Lilium Philadelphicum Var. Andinum)." Wood Lily: Minnesota
    DNR. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/wildflowers/woodlily.html>.
   "Painted Turtle." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2012. Web.
    05 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painted_turtle>.
   "Black Bullhead." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 June 2012. Web.
    05 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_bullhead>.
   "Native Plant Database." Lilium Philadelphicum (Wood Lily). N.p., n.d.
    Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
    <http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LIPH>.

								
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