chapter 9 power point by J02opK

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 19

									 Chapter 9: The Progressive Era 1890-
                  1920




Section 1: The Origins of Progressivism
I. The Origins of Progressivism

A. Introduction
         1. Progressivism. What is it?
             •a political movement which sought to improve daily
             life.
             •when? 1890-1920

        2. The Progressive Movement began in
         cities because of industrialization. For example,
                 •urban and rural poverty and blight
                 •child labor
                 •immigration
                 •political corruption
                 •public health
                 •poor working conditions
                 •monopolies
   Social Welfare                       Moral Reform
      Reform                        Goal:
Goal:

                                    Examples:
Examples:




                    Four Goals of
                    Progressivism
                      Summery:




                                    Industrial Reform
                                        (fostering
Economic Reform
            Goal:                      efficiency)
                                                Goal:


                                    Examples:
Examples:
   Social Welfare                                                   Moral Reform
      Reform                                                     Goal: To uplift immigrants and
                                                                 the poor by improving
Goal: To soften some of the
                                                                 personal behavior
harsh conditions of
industrialization
                                                                Examples:
Examples:                                                       Prohibition
YMCA                                                            WCTU/Francis Willard
Settlement Houses                                               Anti-Saloon League
Salvation Army
Florence Kelly
                                     Four Goals of
                                     Progressivism
                                   Summery: Middle Class
                                    Reformers addressed
                                  problems such as, unsafe
                                  working conditions, role of
                                  corporations, and making
                                      government more
                                         democratic.
Economic Reform                                                 Industrial Reform
  Goal: To question the
uneven balance among big                                            (fostering
business, government, and                                          efficiency)
  ordinary people under                                           Goal: To improve society
       capitalism.                                              through science/technology

                                                                Examples:
Examples:
                                                                Brandeis Brief
Socialism
                                                                Frederick Winslow Taylor
Eugene V. Debs
                                                                Scientific Management
Muckrakers
                                                                Henry Ford
Ida M. Tarbell vs. Standard Oil
B. The Four Goals
   1. Social Welfare Reform.
          • Goal: To soften some of the harsh
            conditions of industrialization
          • How
              – Settlement Houses: Homes for the
                homeless/immigrants/poor
              – YMCA: libraries and sports for poor
              – Salvation Army: Soup kitchens




                                                 Henry Street Settlement
 Hull House
            Florence Kelly




                (September 12, 1859 – February 17, 1932)




Fought against sweatshops and for the minimum
wage, eight-hour workdays and children's rights.
  2. Promoting Moral Improvement.
                 •       Goal: To uplift immigrants and the poor by
                         improving personal behavior
                 •       How?
                         – Prohibition: ban alcohol/ Carry Nation
                         – WCTU: went into saloons and made scene
                         – Kindergartens, visiting sick and prisons




(November 25, 1846 - June 9, 1911)
  3. Creating Economic Reform.
                 •       Goal: To question the uneven balance among big
                         business, government, and ordinary people under
                         capitalism.
                 •       How?
                         –     Some people looked for a new economic systems.
                         –     Socialism: Eugene V. Debs
                               » Said business had too much power
                         –     Government can be trusted more than individuals
                         –     Monopolies should be broken apart




(November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926)
                •       Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about
                        corporate abuses
                               »       Ida Tarbell: Wrote The History of the
                                       Standard Oil Company in 1904.
                               »       Helped lead to the break up of Standard
                                       Oil.




(November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944)


                                                                           John D. Rockefeller

                                                                      (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937)
4. Industrial Reform (Foster Efficiency)
       • Goal: To improve society through
           science/technology
       • How?
         – Shortened hours, better conditions
         – Scientific Management
             » Assembly lines
             » Not always better for workers




                 Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin

                    Modern Times (1936)
                   Cleaning Up
                      Local
                   Government



 Reforming Local
                                   Reform Mayors
  Government


Topics:                          Topics:
                                             Cleaning Up
                                                Local
                                             Government
                                               Summery: Cities
                                               were in trouble.
                                             Poverty and political
                                             corruption were very
                                                  common.


 Reforming Local
                                                                                      Reform Mayors
  Government


Topics:                                                              Topics:
•Commission Government (Galveston,                                   •Hazen Pingree (Detroit)
Texas)                                                                    • Fair taxes
•Council-manager Government (Dayton,                                      • Transportation
Ohio)                                                                     • End corruption
      • People elected city council who in                                • Help the unemployed
         turn selected an Individual to
         “manage” the city.                                          •Tom Johnson (Cleveland)
                                                                          • Socialist
                                                                          • Took over utilities
                                                                          • Circus tent meetings
     II. Government Reform
        A. City Government
           1. Too much corruption
           2. Reform Mayor
                 a. Hazen Pingree: Detroit
                                    » Targeted corrupt utility companies, railroads
                                      and construction.
                                    » Built schools and parks


                                    He gained national recognition
                                    through his "potato patch
                                    plan," a systematic use of
                                    vacant city land for gardens
                                    which would produce food for
     Hazen Stuart Pingree           the city's poor.                 Statue of Pingree in Grand Circus
(August 30, 1840 – June 18, 1901)
                                                                               Park, Detroit.
II. Government Reform (cont.)
   A. City Government (cont.)
      1. Tom Johnson (Cleveland)
       –   Socialist
       –   Fired corrupt officials
       –   Took over utility companies
       –   Circus tent meetings
                                         Efforts to Limit
    Reform
   Governors                             Working Hours




                   Reform at the
                    State Level
                   Summery: Reform
                   railroads, industry
                    and other large
                       businesses




  Protecting                              Reforming
                      Direct              Elections
Working Children
                    Election of
                    Senators
                                                         Efforts to Limit
     Reform
    Governors                                            Working Hours

                                                       Topics:
Topics:                                                •Muller v. Oregon, 1908
•Robert M. La Follette (Wisconsin)                     •Bunting v. Oregon,
      •   Railroad                                     1917
                                                       •Injury/death Benefits


                                     Reform at the
                                      State Level
                                        Summery:




  Protecting                                               Reforming
Working Children                                           Elections

                                        Direct
Topics:
                                      Election of      Topics:
                                                       •Secret Ballot
•National Child Labor Committee       Senators         •Initiative
•Keating-Owen Act, 1916                                •Referendum
      •   Supreme Court ruled        Topics:           •Recall
          unconstitutional           •17th Amendment
B. State Government
    1. Governor Robert Lafollette (Wisconsin)
•   Targeted the RR. Why?
•   To protect children
             –   Too many children working
             –   Earning less pay
             –   Not going to school
                                                      (June 14, 1855– June 18, 1925)
             –   Victims of accidents
•   What would that mean for future?
•   Used photography to show horrors
•   Led to the Keatings-Owen Act (1916): stopped transportation of
    goods produced by children across state lines.
C. Election Reforms
  – Promote Democracy and Citizen Action
  – Examples
    •   Initiative
    •   Secrete ballot
    •   Recall
    •   Referendum
    •   17th Amendment: Direct election of
        Senators
Child Labor Today

								
To top