020 ppp model en by AAjwoYgM


									“Facilitating Private Sector Investments in the
          ECOWAS E-School Initiative”

  A New E-school Private Public Partnership

                 (PPP) Model
  Reference nº: 10 ACP RPR 15- WP1.10.1-2020

                 08 May, 2012

      “Facilitating Private Sector Investments in the

                    ECOWAS E-School Initiative”


                            Mrs Vivian Attah
                            Mr Geoffrey Gelly
                            Mr Saliou Ndiaye

                                 Presented by

                         A project funded by the

ACP Business Climate Facility (BizClim), a programme of the ACP Group of States and
the European Commission financed under the European Development Fund (10 TH EDF)


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................ 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ 5

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................. 6

I.    BACKGROUND TOWARDS THE NEW PPP MODEL ...................................... 7
      1.    Introduction - The NEPAD E-Schools ............................................... 8

II.   THE NEW E-SCHOOL PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ............................ 10
      1.    Objectives of the PPP model ........................................................      10
      2.    Critical Elements for the new PPP Model ........................................          11
      3.    Sustainability and institutional arrangements ................................            12
      4.    Sustainability and Infrastructure ..................................................      15
      5.    Sustainability and Human Resource ..............................................          17
      6.    Finance and Funding - Viable Financial Model ................................             18
      7.    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).....................................................        18
      8.    Universal Service Fund ...............................................................    18
      9.    Universal Service Obligations and Providers...................................            18

III. ROLE OF CONTENT IN E-SCHOOL INITIATIVE ....................................... 18

IV.   PPP MODELS IN EDUCATION .............................................................. 20

V.    THE NEW PPP OPTIONS ..................................................................... 23
      1.    E-School PPP Model- Option 1 ......................................................       25
      2.    E-School PPP Model- Option 2 ......................................................       27
      3.    E-School PPP Model Option -3 ......................................................       28
      4.    Other financial models ................................................................   29

VI.   RISKS AND ASSUMPTIONS OF THE NEW PPP MODEL ............................. 30

VII. RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 31

VIII. CONCLUSION ................................................................................... 33


X.    REFERENCES .................................................................................... 36


ACP        The Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific States
AfDB       African Development Bank
AfD        Agence française de Développement
AMSME      Africa Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
APRM       African Peer Review Mechanism
ATI-ACA    African Trade Insurance Agency
BIO        Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries
BOAD       Banque ouest-africaine de développement
Cotonou    Cotonou Partnership Agreement
COL        Commonwealth of Learning
CCB        Continental Coordinating Body
CBO        Community Business Organisations
CSO        Civil Society Organisations
CLPs       Country Liaison Persons
EBRD       European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC         European Commission
ECOWAS     Economic Community of West African States
EIB        European Investment Bank
EIF        European Investment Fund
EU         European Union
FEWACCI    Federation of West Africa Chambers of Commerce and Ind
IF         ACP Investment Facility
IFC        International Finance Corporation
ISPAD      Information Society Partnership for Africa's Development
ICT        Information and Communication Technologies
MDAs       Millennium Development Agencies
MDGs       Millennium Development Goals
MIF        Multilateral Investment Fund
MOU        Memorandum of Understanding
MSME       Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
NEPAD      New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development
NGOs       Non-Governmental Organisations
NIA        National Implementing Agency
NIP        EU National Indicative Programme
OECD       Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECS       Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
PPP        Public-Private Partnerships
PROPARCO   Promotion et participation pour la coopération économique
SME        Small and Medium Enterprise
TESSA      Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
USAID      United States Agency for International Development
WAEC       West African Examination Council
WASSCE     West African Senior School Certificate Examination

I will first and foremost like to thank the Federal Association of West Africa
Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FEWACCI) and the ACP Business Climate
Facility. I also extend thanks to the consulting group Sogerom and the Project
Management Unit for its role in getting the study and its related activities to
come on as scheduled.
Furthermore, the study team expresses its profound appreciation to all school
heads, ICT coordinators and other officials in both Ghana and Nigeria who
responded to the questionnaires that were administered- Mrs. Benedicta Afesi of
OLA Senior High Secondary School and Mr. M.K. Osei-Nyansah of Mawuli Senior
High School (both of the Volta Region of Ghana), Mrs. Louisa C. Aggrey of
Archbishop Porter Girls Senior High School (Western Region of Ghana), Ms
Patricia Sampson of the Ministry of Communication (Ghana) and Chief Director,
Mr. Ofosu Adarkwah, for the advice, guidance and reviews. Will also like to thank
Mr. Lassine Sidibé, Chief of Coordination, Planning and Statistics in the Ministry
of Education, Mali who provided his useful insights into ICTs and Education. We
will also like to extend many thanks to the numerous individuals who contributed
to this study as interviewees, respondents and experts: Ms Emma Claus and
Messi Massimiliano of the EU Delegation (Accra), Mr. Michelle Makaroff and Mr.
Thierno Diop of Schuman Associates, Brussels, Belgium; Mr. Walter Deffor of
Deffor Ventures GmbH (Content Developers), Germany and Ghana.

Executive Summary
„Facilitating Private Sector Investment in NEPAD E-Schools in the ECOWAS
Region” is a project spearheaded by the Federation of West African Chamber of
Commerce (FEWACCI), with the support of BizClim that intends to create awareness
of private sector investment opportunities in 21st Century education delivery in
the ECOWAS region. It aims notably to develop a Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
model for rolling out e-schools in the region, thus creating unprecedented
business opportunities and contributing to achieving the “education for all”

The project draws on the NEPAD E-School Initiative, which was launched in 2003
with the aim of utilizing ICT in education, and recent technological advances that
make it possible to envisage e-schools even in rural areas. . The Initiative aims
to impart ICT skills to young Africans in primary and secondary schools, equip all
African primary and secondary schools with software and applications, local
content and ICT apparatuses and to connect them to the internet. The initial
Demonstration project was donor-driven through Donor grant-funding.

Case studies of Cape Verde, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Ghana and Nigeria of the
Demo projects brought to the fore certain constraints and challenges that faced
the E-School Initiative. These are: High Cost of Technology, Limited Access to
the Internet, local content development and limited Access to Electrical Power,
etc. In addition, almost all ICT-in-education projects in Africa have had
challenges providing local content for their targets..

Following the difficulties from the Demo Project, a Study was commissioned by
the ACPBusiness Climate to explore the potentials of PPP opportunities for a new
E-School Model. The New PPP (Public-Private Partnerships) Model aims to solicit
the private sector to be the driving force for the new for E-schools initiative. It
will solicit the participation of financial institutions as well as local content
developers in Partnership with schools to drive the initiative. Local content
developers who have worked and are working to bring relevant content to
teachers, students, school management and staff based on approved curriculum
for schools within the ECOWAS region shall be the key driver of the E-school.

The outcome of the study was deliberated upon at a two-day Workshop in Accra
from the 26th-27th of March, 2012 leading to the development of a New PPP
Model which can be adapted to the peculiar characteristics and environments in
different countries within the sub-region.

Twenty-one recommendations were made in relation to lessons from the NEPAD
e-Schools Demo project which can be applied to the new PPP initiative. These
include the development of ICT human resource capacity in schools, financing of
ICT equipments, Policy and Regulatory Reforms in the ICT sector, research and
development and increased government subsidies for ICT in schools amongst

This study is part of organized activities leading to the development of a new
Private sector driven Model for the implementation of the NEPAD E-Schools in the
ECOWAS Region and across Africa”. This study is to provide better knowledge of
NEPAD E-Schools investment opportunities within the ECOWAS Region and
identify options and actions for enhancing government policies and private sector
investments in the e-school initiative.

This study is in two parts. The first consists of a desk research on the
background and situation of the NEPAD E-Schools looking at issues that made
the project a successful one as against those challenges which led to a number of
failures to inform the previous donor driven initiative.

The second part deals with field work and interviews with some heads and
students of secondary schools in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal on
issues relating to sustainability, funding of ICT projects, procurement of ICT
infrastructure – both hardware and software and support services.

It will also look at what will motivate information and telecommunication
companies, content developers, financial institutions and other stakeholders to
invest their resources in the e-Schools Initiative. This study also recognizes that
the future and sustainability of the NEPAD E-School Initiative which is envisaged
to come to a close in 2015 will be heavily influenced by the type of commitment
and agreements arrived at between public and private partnership. There is also
the need for the private sector to see the NEPAD e-School initiative as a business
opportunity for investments where they can invest for profits whilst at the same
time contributing to the achievement of social objectives in the education sector.
Private sector involvement and investment in the NEPAD E-Schools will not only
expand opportunities for the private sector alone but support governments in the
region to achieve their social objectives, facilitate the development and
competitiveness of the regional ICT sector and to open up the educational sector
to private investors to supplement government’s resources in the sector.

1.   Introduction - The NEPAD E-Schools

African governments have made strides in integrating information and
communication technologies into teaching and learning, having realized the
contribution made by ICT in the development of their economies. The New
Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has since 2001 initiated a number
of interventions aimed at accelerating Africa’s economic growth and
development. Among these are programmes aimed at bridging the gap between
African countries and that of the developed world by empowering African women,
increasing food supplies through reformed agricultural strategies, bridging the
infrastructure gaps, improving access to local medicine, connecting the entire
continent through broadband connectivity, providing quality education and
equipping the youth and teachers of Africa with the needed skills and knowledge
to make them participate fully in the global economy through its E-School

The NEPAD E-School Initiative

The NEPAD E-School Initiative was conceived in 2003 and rolled out in 2005. It
was seen as a very complex undertaking given the range of stakeholders and its
international context. It was implemented in six schools in 16 countries that
were selected to participate.

Project Implementation

The NEPAD E-Schools Initiative was considered as an ambitious continental
initiative intended to teach ICT skills to young Africans in primary and secondary
schools and improve the provision of education in schools through ICT
applications and the use of the Internet. The first phase of the Initiative was a
Demonstration (Demo) project implemented by NEPAD through the e-Africa
Commission (eAC) in partnership with a number of private sector organizations
and Development Partners.

Impact on Schools

The impact of the Demo was very positive. It made students increase their
competencies in using e-mail, word processing, spreadsheets and Web browsing.
The model deployed at each school was to have included a “Health Point” where
students and the community could access health-related information. This
requirement was provided by the consortia.

Teachers improved their ability to use basic computer programs and reported
integrating ICTs into their teaching but needed more training in preparation for
digital content. Teachers and school heads were generally very pleased with the
technologies provided, even though some encountered some problems with
technical support.

All the participating countries had both an ICT in education policy and a
development plan either in place or under development.

Unanticipated Outcomes

  •   Kenya although not one of the targeted countries initiated the PPP model.
  •   Local partners contributed to the ease and efficacy in providing support to
  •   Local communities benefited from the learning resources during non-
         school hours.
  •   The Demo appears to have triggered a process of “reconceptualization” of
         the NEPAD E-Schools Initiative, not in terms of the end results that the
         Heads of Governments have articulated for the programme, but of the
         means through which to achieve them.

  The evaluators of the Demo project stressed its uniqueness as being without
  precedent in terms of its international scope, socio-economic diversity and the
  comprehensiveness of the partnerships and its vision and objectives of the
  initiative continue to be of critical importance. They have also drawn a list of
  key lessons (See box below).

                               Lessons Learned

  •   Implementation and support was more effective                   when local
         companies/organizations were involved.
  •   Leadership for projects has significant resource requirements, which, if not
         provided, can seriously compromise the project.
  •   Communication between stakeholders is critical to success.
  •   Commitment of senior leadership to the project is a major determinant of
  •   The e-school model has to be flexible as one-size-fits-all does not work.
  •   Civil society organizations with experience in introducing ICTs in schools
         should have been welcomed into the partnership at the beginning of
         the Demo.
  •   There should have been more exploration of other ICT-in-schools
         initiatives going on in Africa.

Below are some issues that impacted the project:

  •   Better understanding of current related projects in the target countries,
         would have been useful.
  •   eAC was constrained by the lack of both human and fiscal resources and
         this translated into the lack of effective communication among the
  •   Implementation period of one year took longer than expected due to
         variances among and within participating countries in achieving the

               objectives of the project.     Secondly, countries were not equally
               prepared for the implementation.
        •   The omission of civil society organizations with experience in introducing
               ICT in schools.

     African schools have enjoyed some form of partnerships since the colonial days
     where local authorities and communities worked together by contributing
     resources towards the construction of schools and other amenities within
     localities. The partnerships have evolved over time and can be seen as the
     concerted effort in harnessing the expertise and strengths of both public and
     private sectors for the provision of infrastructure and delivery of quality public
     services to a community, country or region with the transfer of resources,
     rewards and risks among the partners.
     Public-Private Partnerships span a spectrum of models that progressively engage
     the expertise or capital of the private sector. At one end, there is straight
     contracting out as an alternative to traditionally delivered public services. At the
     other end, there are arrangements that are publicly administered but within a
     framework that allows for private finance, design, building, operation and
     possibly temporary ownership of an asset.

     The rationale for this new phase of the NEPAD E-Schools is to capitalize on the
     good points of the Demo project while being guarded by the challenges that were
     encountered during the implementation to find a model within which schools in
     the ECOWAS regions can operate in order to build sustainability into the project.
     It is hoped that by doing this, NEPAD’s goal of developing Information and
     Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure, which is considered essential to
     the achievement of long-term, sustainable socio-economic development of the
     African continent will be fully realized.

     The new PPP model will draw on key lessons from the NEPAD E-School Demo
     project and from best practices from countries such as Cape-Verde and Tunisia.

1.     Objectives of the PPP model
     The new PPP model aims to improve the delivery of education and the promotion
     of ICT’s in the educational sector. It will offer long-term solutions to the
     sustainability of the E-School Initiative, taking some of the challenges and
     constraints experienced in the NEPAD demonstration project by finding the most
     feasible cost model by which schools can be financed by Banks and other Leasing
     companies for the purchase of ICT equipments, applications and maintenance
     and the involvement of private telecom companies in providing schools access to
     connectivity at a minimum cost either as part of a policy of Corporate Social
     Responsibility or based on a business opportunity initiative.

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2.       Critical Elements for the new PPP Model
These are based on the evaluation of the NEPAD Demo project and the study by
Iluyemi and Briggs (2008) in analyzing two initiatives and also from best practice
in Cape-Verde, Senegal and Tunisia- the NEPAD E-School and Nigeria E-
Government projects. Their findings were summarized under three factors,
namely     Institutional/organizational  framework,     human     resources   and
infrastructure. For the purpose of this study, the elements will be considered as:
Institutional and Organizational Framework, Human Resources and Infrastructure
and Financing/Funding.

Institutional and organizational factors

These are issues that underpin policy and are of local, national and regional
concerns in relation to the NEPAD E-School. The Demo project had established
the strategy and guiding principles for the project by putting in place regional,
national and local structures for implementation of the project. The eAfrica
Commission was the regional coordinating unit, with the respective national
coordinating units within the Ministry of Education and a local coordinating team
at the school level.
The effectiveness of these coordinating units and the success of the project
hinges on the following factors:
         Efficient project management infrastructure including project leadership
          for implementation
         Established roles and responsibilities of stakeholders
         Committed continental and national leadership and coordination for project
         Effective communication between stakeholders
         Need to learn from extant and similar initiatives before implementation
         National readiness for project implementation
         Success expectation moderation and management
         Need to carry out prior needs assessment within the service system
         Contextualization of central implementation model to local realities due to
          wide socio-economic and cultural diversity of Africa
Apart from the above, a study of 53 African countries showed that national ICT
policies and plans act as catalyst for ICT policy development in education and 48
countries have developed or are in the process of developing one.
National ICT Policies and regulatory frameworks are critical for the successful
role out of a PPP initiative. They can help establish firm rules and regulations for
enhancing the competitiveness and development of the ICT sector. This could be
underpinned by a Universal Access Policy which ensures that even the farthest
rural community have access to reasonably priced ICT services for schools to

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     subscribe to. Effective Policy as in the case of Senegal can help determine price
     of telecom services for institutions in the health and education sectors.
     Furthermore the importance of national security and the development of effective
     legislation to deal with issues of personal privacy, data protection and countering
     cybercrime are coming out as a critical requirement in policy frameworks.
     Effective Policies can also determine the type of ICT equipments governments
     would allow to be imported into a country. This in turn is likely to determine
     government policies in the areas of tariff and other interventions in support of
     the ICT Industry as a whole.
     The adoption of e-strategies and e-applications is also of strategic importance to
     the member states and there are strategies that need to be implemented
     urgently to ensure accelerated social development especially in areas such as e-
     Policy Harmonization within the ECOWAS Region can also facilitate the
     competitiveness of the ICT sector and its contribution to the education sector.

     Human Resource Factors

     Relevant skilled workforce is also required for the effective roll-out of a PPP
     driven e-school in West Africa.
     It is also expected that the cooperation of end-users such as teachers and
     students is critical for the success of a PPP driven model.

     Infrastructure Factors

     Adequate equipment and resources for effective project implementation is
     needed, furthermore the
     Availability of needed technical and support services is paramount
     Availability and development of contextually relevant contents
     Local partnerships with extant organized civil societies, community based
     organizations and businesses


     Adequate financial     resources    for   effective   project   management       and

3.     Sustainability and institutional arrangements

     The above elements of the NEPAD Demo project provides the platform on which
     to build the new PPP e-school initiative. The evaluation report on the Demo
     project identified long-term sustainability as a major challenge of the NEPAD E-
     Schools Initiative. It is therefore anticipated that establishing an appropriate PPP
     model which harnesses private sector resource, in collaboration with government

                                                                              12 | P a g e
support, will go a long way to ensure long-term sustainability of the new PPP roll-

Sustainability cannot be discussed without touching on what investment went
into the NEPAD E-Schools Demo project. Listed below is the checklist for the
initial investments that went into the NEPAD e-School Project.

   Table 1: NEPAD e-school checklist

   1. A computer laboratory consisting of at least 20 PCs; networked to a
      common server.
   2. One or more computers in the teachers’ lounge area plus one in the
      administrative area.
   3. At least one printer/copier connected to the network.
   4. Internet access (VSAT terminal, wireless connectivity or dial-up or other
      form of wired connection.)
   5. Direct satellite TV (DSTV) reception with a year’s subscription to at least
      six educational TV providers such as the History Channel, Mindset, BBC,
      Disney Channel; plus a TV monitor and record/playback device.
   6. Digital educational learning materials approved by the Ministry of
      Education (Some of these were proprietary materials that consortium
      members allowed the schools to use over the Demo period, while others
      were open source materials that were provided directly or could be
      downloaded from various Web sites.).
   7. At least one week of training for a small cadre of teachers from each
      school who were then expected to train their school colleagues (Some
      consortia provided follow-up training at a later date and some Ministries of
      Education provided supplementary training. Technical maintenance
      training was also provided by the consortium, although this was variable.).
   8. Technical support (This was typically provided in a three-tiered fashion
      with the first level being a support person at the school who had received
      some basic training, the second through arrangements with local private
      companies, and the third via e-mail or telephone interactions with an
      expert in Johannesburg.).
   9. An electrical source (e.g., a diesel generator) if the school was not
      connected to the national grid
   10.A health point in the form of a computer-based kiosk which provided
      health information.

The above checklist has cost implications for the participating countries and the
schools. At the end of the Demo project in 2008, many of the PCs, printers,
copiers and other equipments were no longer functioning due to lack of technical
skills required for maintaining the equipment or the financial means for paying
for services rendered.

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The process of countries becoming participants in the NEPAD E-School project
was clearly spelt out, including that of stakeholders and the roles they played.
Evoh (2007) and the evaluators of the Demo identified that NGOs and Civil
Society Organizations were absent and proposed their inclusion in a new
initiative as they can also make investments in various forms to support the ICT

In addressing the sustainability and the huge deficit in getting computers to all
the schools, there is the need for the project to include private sector players
such as banks, microfinance institutions, content developers, ICT Intermediaries,
and governments.

Diagram 1. Proposed Stakeholders Model for the New NEPAD PPP

                                                                      14 | P a g e
4.     Sustainability and Infrastructure

     African countries have made huge investment into ICT infrastructure over the

      “… Although the financial predictions and current performance indicators are all
     positive, there are still challenges for the continent in the ICT sector. A number
     of African countries have made progress on access to ICT services, but the
     continent largely lags behind the rest of the world in terms of ICT readiness. The
     ITU Development Index, which provides a measure of a country’s ICT readiness,
     indicates that the African region has made slower progress when compared to
     other regions in the past 2 years, with roughly half the improvement on an
     aggregate basis. According to the ITU, most of the limited gains have taken
     place in the access category.

     … services in many African countries have become competitive and in-line with
     the rest of the world, and broadband costs continue to be a mixed bag for

     Furthermore, when differences in GDP are taken into account as compared to
     global benchmarks, Africans will still pay more on a GDP basis due to the lower
     GDP base.”

     Source: ICT Competitiveness in Africa (2011)

     One major challenge facing Africa in the areas of ICTs is the exorbitant cost of
     ICT equipment and services. NEPAD’s ambitious aim of having 600,000 E-
     Schools by 2015 will need to be underpinned by an adequate infrastructure at
     hand. However, this remains one of the major obstacles for many African
     countries south of the Sahara considering the competing ends for their limited
     financial resources. A number of reasons are attributed to the high cost of ICT
     equipments in the region. Amongst these include the excessive tariff costs on
     imported equipments, exorbitant licensing costs for software, the absence of
     manufacturing capacity within the region and retailing of ICT equipments through
     small retail outlets without the benefit of economies of scale. Governments would
     have to lower or remove tariffs on imported equipments and create an enabling
     environment through the introduction of regulatory reforms for the
     manufacturing and sale of ICT equipments. Government Ministries may also have
     to negotiate discounted licensing rates for schools and other educational

     Another challenge a deployment of e-school PPP model is likely to face is the fact
     that telecom infrastructure in most African countries are mainly concentrated

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within urban areas. Telecom companies due to their marketing strategies are
making the necessary efforts to extend their networks into rural communities but
the rate of penetration continues to be at a much slower pace. This is as a result
of the reluctance of telecom companies to develop infrastructure in rural
communities which does not have the financial resources to enable the
companies recoupment investments.

In some countries like Ghana the solution to these far-flung communities is to
provide access through a Universal Access Fund1 where institutions within these
communities can be supported through the fund to acquire ICT equipments. --
However the telecom companies are not yet participants in the existing Universal
Fund arrangements since it only caters for the purchase of ICT equipments for
schools, rural libraries etc. Should the Fund be extended to telecom companies
this is likely to impact on the overall penetration rates into the rural areas and
the deployment and long-term sustainability of the e-school roll-out in rural

Table 2 shows computer penetration in some selected African schools as
identified in a survey of ICT in Africa.

Table 2. Computer Penetration Ratios at Schools in Selected African
Countries, 2006

Country            No. of                  Schools       with Percentage
                                           computers          schools         with

Egypt              26,000                  26,000              100%*

Ghana              32,000                  800                 2.5%

Mozambique         7,000                   80                  1.1%

Namibia            1,519                   350                 22.1%

South Africa       25,582                  6,651               22.6%

    Ghana Investment Funding for Electronic Commerce – (GIFEC)

                                                                       16 | P a g e
     Source: Survey of ICT and Education in Africa

     Apart from pricing of services, one main component of e-schools is the levels of
     computer penetration in schools in Africa. The figures for the countries, with the
     exception of Egypt, imply that South Africa will just make it by year 2012 in
     terms of computer penetration for all schools. The remaining countries need to
     increase the current numbers by over 20% per year to be able to equip the
     schools by 2015

     Some interventions proposed to advance the ICT Sector in Africa to facilitate the
     roll-out of a new PPP model includes:

           Reducing the cost of access for mobile and broadband by improving the
            regulatory and competitive environment for operators with better
            conditions to develop infrastructure and a better penetration rate for
            computers and other ICT equipments.
           Introducing Policy and legislation which would facilitate Universal Access of
            ICTs to far-flung rural communities and poor communities within urban
           Resolving constraints to free up access for additional players in the
            marketplace by encouraging nimble billing approaches to lower end-user
            costs and drive up usage.
           Facilitating reasonably priced licensing arrangements with software

5.     Sustainability and Human Resource

     The availability of infrastructure alone cannot bring about the desired objectives
     of the e-school. Teaching, administrative and support staff are needed as well as
     the technical experts to ensure that teaching and services are delivered

     Accounts from works by (Evoh, 2007 and Ewing et al. 2011) confirmed the need
     for building capacity of all important players, including government officials,
     schools principals, administrators, teachers, and learners. They proposed
     professional development and training programmes for quality training, apart
     from the in-service and one-off training such personnel usually receive.

     Another intervention on the personnel front is the need for support for ICT
     entrepreneurs.   Reference is made to Kenya, Morocco and Nigeria having
     established themselves in the ICT marketplace, by “removing roadblock and
     creating pathways’ for ICT entrepreneurs to be successful.

     Technical assistance in the area of training is one way by which donor agencies
     can provide indirect support to the PPP initiative. Teacher training costs are
     usually absorbed by governments. In this case ICT training for teachers can also
     be included as costs to be absorbed by government or through donor support. By
     so doing the overall costs of the initiative to schools and students would be

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6.     Finance and Funding - Viable Financial Model

     There are a number of financial models that can serve as bases for the New PPP
     Model; among them are Total Cost of Ownership (TCO); the Universal Service
     Fund (USF); the Universal Service Obligation and Providers.

7.     Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

     TCO is where the operator wholly invests in the infrastructure and collects user
     fees for the total recovery of costs. This model may only be feasible for the
     minority of well endowed-schools in then urban areas serving the well-to-do. This
     option may not guarantee the levels of access expected and may not be feasible
     for the majority of schools targeted, especially those in poor rural areas

8.     Universal Service Fund

     Many countries have established a Universal Service Fund (USF), to which
     telecommunications operators contribute. The USF is used for general objectives
     such as installing telecommunications networks in rural areas. The drawback of
     this service to an e-school is that it may be not be conducive to such an initiative
     as in most cases the fund is targeted to provide for the building of telecoms
     infrastructure and not necessarily for providing network access to institutions,
     schools or hospitals.

9.     Universal Service Obligations and Providers

     An alternative to creating a fund for expanding telecommunication access in
     underserved areas is to impose Universal Service Obligations directly on
     operators. The advantage of this approach is that it avoids the delay and
     overhead costs associated with administering a Universal Service Fund. It also
     makes sense when there is only one operator with an exclusive right to serve a
     given area.

     The lack of relevant content and its development were few of the weaknesses
     that impinged upon the Demo project. A considerable number of schools within
     the ECOWAS region now have computers in schools but what value addition can
     teachers, students and management derive from these computers without the
     appropriate content?

     Local content to be considered for NEPAD E-Schools should meet all of the
     following basic criteria:

                                                                              18 | P a g e
It should address local needs of students in the ECOWAS Region. This mandates
---that the developers should be African in order to get the nuances such as
concept examples, names used in those examples, accent etc. sorted out. In
keeping with the theme of individual differences, and not one size fits all,
approved local content can be adapted to meet the requirements of each country
in the ECOWAS region.
In the initial stages of e-school, content should be geared towards subjects that
students find very difficult to grasp such as in mathematics or the sciences.
When this is achieved, arrangements can be made to include other subjects. The
idea of e-school is to integrate ICT and education. This aim can be realised if
content is compelling and engaging. Finally, the local content produced should be
relevant. The respective educational curricula or syllabi should be the guiding
force of any local content produced.
In view of the above, teaching and learning management platforms must be
tailored to the tenets of the Education Services and Examination boards such as
the West African Examination Council. Local content should be organised along
the lines of interactive tuition, exercises, quizzes, past questions & answers,
mock exams, virtual labs, interactive whiteboard sharing, etc. There is need to
apply modern methods of teaching combined with local concepts of teaching that
work in each country in the ECOWAS region.
In the production of local content, the following box lists items that should be
considered as well:

Important items for local content/
An ICT online platform to give students access to country-specific (e.g.
WAEC/WASSCE-based) interactive teaching and learning materials (i.e. local
content) 24/7, interactive screen sharing, remote online teaching and learning
Modern teaching techniques, in other words, practice- oriented approach that
makes learning easier and more exciting for students
Animations, exercises and extensive online help
Instructional designs to help students learn effectively on their own, choose their
own pace, personalise their learning (This can address to some extent the
problem of lack of experienced teachers in certain schools).
Provision of offline version of the content
Complete online solution: building of interactive platform, content innovation and
production, hosting (data centres) system administration, operation, training,
support and maintenance

The study conducted by the project team reveals a number of local organizations
that are working at resolving the challenges of the absence of local content
developers. Among them is a Ghanaian company that creates local content.

                                                                        19 | P a g e
They had researched the curriculum of West African secondary schools, the
performance rates of students and the subject areas in which students’ failure
rates are high. Based on the findings, Deffor Ventures Ghana Limited (DVGL)
has piloted digital content in core mathematics using local and familiar items to
explain the concepts in very easy to understand language.
These contents include teachers resources, quizzes and many more features that
make teaching and learning more interactive and fun. This is done in a bid to -
assist teachers in enhancing their teaching and to support students who
ordinarily will be left behind their colleagues.
Parents are also given the opportunity to contribute towards their children’s
learning through windows that are provided on the portal.
The lessons prepared by DVGL are well-planned, interactive and contain
animations that explain the concepts easily. They have outlined a content
roadmap regarding several subjects. They include:
Integrated Science, ICT, Social Studies, Elective Maths, Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Agriculture, Virtual Labs shall be added to the content catalogue in
In addition to the WAEC WASSCE subjects listed above, evaluation is on-going to
provide the following cross-cutting educational content online including:
   Environnent & Climate Change courses

DVGL aims to work with the Ministry of Education, Education Services and other
Partners, etc. to review and update curriculum and content to reflect ongoing
changes. Another company, MS Daara from Senegal has also developed
applications for educational purposes. Their application is widely used by private
schools to track student attendance, student performance, schedules, class size
and other data related to students' needs. This application also provides national
statistics on the whole education system.

Despite the numerous ICT-in-education projects on the continent, studies by
(Evoh, 2007; World Bank, 2011) have shown that ICT penetrations and
utilization in schools is very low. To be able to increase the penetration and
utilization of ICT in the region, it is necessary to intensify investments in ICT in
education and with government being financially handicapped; this can only be
realized through private investments via the PPP model. PPPs have been utilized
in Africa to mainly design, construct and provide infrastructure and services in
infrastructure development and less used in the education or other social sectors.

                                                                         20 | P a g e
PPP would provide the opportunity for the private sector including financial
institutions to play a role in the development of both content and ICT
infrastructure in schools across the region.

List of partners for the new PPP Model

The following have been identified as potential stakeholders of the new PPP
model due to the expected value of their association with the e-school project.

   1. Government and MDAs, and local government authorities within the
      ECOWAS region
   2. Business Entity and its Management Board
   3. International Institutions and Development Partners (loans and grants)
   4. Bank, Financial Institutions, Leasing and Venture companies, and Micro
      credit finance.
   5. ICT infrastructure (hardware, software), Connectivity companies and
      Services companies
   6. NGOs, CSOs, CBOs, FBO
   7. Public and Private Schools Parent Associations
   8. School Management
   9. Teachers and Students

Government: Governments through the Ministries of Education within the
ECOWAS region and their subsidiaries (MDAs) to the community level all have a
role to play by providing some level of investment in the e-school model. This
can be done through the provision of structures for computer laboratories,
support for in-country structures necessary for planning and implementation of
the new initiative, supporting the training of teaching staff and country level
coordination and planning. Policies can be developed to facilitate entry of
equipment required for e-schools through the exemption of taxes and tariffs,
guarantee a favourable ICT regulatory environment, ensure availability of
teachers and support staff for the deployment of the initiative.

Apart from the above, Government may have to act as the guarantor of any
loans that will be sourced for the project.

The Private Sector: Private sector players are numerous and the consortia
arrangement can still hold with some moderations since there are now local
players with capacity in the areas of ICT infrastructure (both hard and software),
Internet service provision, maintenance services and content development, civil
engineering and power infrastructure (extension of the power grid, solar energy
or generator provision). This will give more room to external players to deliver
what will bring in more value addition to the project.

Other players are the banks and financial institutions for the support they
can render to schools in short, medium, long term loans, venture capital, etc. to
propel the deployment of e-schools in both urban and rural areas. The role of the

                                                                       21 | P a g e
banks and financial institutions will be very critical towards the success of the
new PPP since Governments within the ECOWAS Region lack the financial
capacity2 needed to fully transform all secondary schools across the sub-region
into e-schools without the inputs of the private sector.

In addition Telecom companies are also expected to play a major role in the new
PPP initiative. It is expected that local telecom companies would buy into the new
initiative with a number of objectives in mind. These include (i) extending their
reach to new markets especially in the rural areas to tap into yet untapped but
prospective markets.(ii) building a relationship with future customers who may
now be in school, (iii) as part of their corporate social responsibilities to develop
relationships with communities and (iv) in support of government’s Universal
Access policy commitments.

Apart from the above mentioned groups, there is also the need to expand the
partnership with the inclusion of the NGOs, CSOs, CBOs for their considerable
amount of experience and knowledge of local communities and advocacy
activities which can help communities to support the initiative.

In addition Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) and Board of Governors
who are at the forefront of school-governance can also champion the uptake of
ICTs in schools and encourage Headteachers to sign up to the initiative. More so
in countries like Ghana since the PTAs are the main financial controllers of ICT
funds, they have the leverage to determine the commitment of school funds to
major ICT projects.

The Board of Directors and School Management Teams are very important
Partners in so far as they are responsible for approving strategies and major
procurement needs of schools.

Last but not the least, Teachers and students who are the main users and
beneficiaries of the new PPP model would have to be consulted, sensitised and
give the initiative. One of the failures from the Demo project is the absence of
ownership by the end-users such as teachers and students. In most cases the
user teachers were not sensitised to the importance of the e-school initiative and
felt school Heads were imposing extra work on them to teach when they were
not trained for Its. They were not sensitised to the fact that ICT is an enabler to
their own teaching subjects. Due to lack of consultation and ownership of the
project they were not encouraged to take care of the equipments which soon fell
into disuse for lack of supervision. For the new e-school to be successful it is
important that teachers and students are sensitised on the e-school project and
given ownership for its implementation.

 According to a study by the World Bank in 2009, Sub Saharan African countries
spend on the average 18.2% of their budgets on education.

                                                                          22 | P a g e
The Team came out with three options for the establishment of the new PPP
model, identified potential players and the various roles and responsibilities of
key stakeholders required for the successful deployment of a PPP e-school

It includes option 1 where a “Business entity” or Company established by
Guarantee for this particular purpose procures loans and grants on behalf of the
Ministry of Education from banks and international organizations. The funding is
disbursed by the Ministry of Finance for the payment of ICT products and
services provided by the Private Sector and industry to the Business Entity.

The ICT products and services are channelled to the schools through the
“Business Entity” or Guarantee Company established for this purpose. The PTA
and Management of the schools benefiting from this service make repayment to
the Banks.

In this scenario, the beneficiary school is able to also source more funding from
local banks and financial institutions and can also contract with the Private sector
and Industry for ICT products and services. These are paid for from the ICT user
fees collected by the students. The roles and responsibilities of the various
stakeholders in this model are as follows:

Ministry of Education and Finance

In addition to their traditional roles and responsibilities, the Ministries of
Education, Finance others such as Trade and Industry sets the enabling
environment that will entice the banks, financial institutions, the private sector
and industry to participate in this partnership arrangement by providing policy
guidelines, guaranteeing loans and funding from the International Development
Partners and financial institutions.

Ministry of Finance in collaboration with Ministry of Education and the “Business
Entity” ensures that timely payments are made to all who provided services.

The Business Entity or Company Established by Guarantee

This entity becomes the focal point for all involved in the partnerships and the
beneficiaries. It works with the Ministries in ensuring exemptions of or lower
taxation rates for ICT products and services. It will also liaise with regulatory
bodies such as the National Communication Authority (NCA) and the Public
Utilities and Regulatory Council (PURC) for the review of telecom or enhanced
discounts for services and products provided to schools. The example from
Senegal proves that negotiations can take place with telecom companies to
provide enhanced discount packages for institutes and organisations in the
educational and health sectors.

                                                                         23 | P a g e
Private Sector and Industry

They work with the “Business Entity” or Company Established for the provision of
ICT infrastructure, products and services to schools. Furthermore, they provide
training for personnel on the various products and services, and act as
Support/Help Centres within the country whilst assisting schools with upgrades.


They contribute their support in terms of inputs into policy guidelines and
regulatory frameworks that will impact the sustainability and operations of the
school whilst working with the various stakeholders in building various capacities.

PTAs or Board of Proprietors of Private Schools

Act as champions for the e-school and oversees responsibilities for the project.
They ensure that a feasible fee is charged to students and these are lodged
separately for payment to Service providers and the financial institutions for ICT
products and services provided.

School Management

School Management works closely with the PTAs to make the initiative a
sustainable one by ensuring that facilities are maintained in good working
conditions and fees collected are channelled to the purpose for which they were
set up.

Management should avail it selves, teachers and support staff for training when


Teachers utilize the ICT infrastructure and resources in their teaching and
encourage students to use them as well.

In addition, they take advantage of all industry training and online resources to
enhance their own abilities and aim at building their capacities in content
development. They also help supervise and provide technical maintenance to the


Students are to display a greater sense of responsibility towards the usage of the
ICT infrastructure and services and learn from their teachers and online to equip
themselves for competition on the local, regional and global market places.

                                                                        24 | P a g e
     The Management of Stakeholders

     There is the need for the establishment of a Management Board to oversee and
     provide strategic direction for the “Business entity”. It will assist with setting its
     vision, mission, objectives and strategies with which to achieve the goals of the
     initiative. Its members will be drawn from all stakeholders and beneficiaries.
     The Board will have regular meetings and take actions that will result in value
     addition to all involved in the partnership.

     Diagram 2: Management of Stakeholders

                    Development Partners,
                    Private Businesses              Ministries of Education ,Communication
                    & ICT Products and              & Finance; PTAs, School& Students
                    Service Providers,
                    NGOs, CSOs, CBOs & FBOs
                                              Business Entity

                                        Management Board of
                                          Business Entity

1.     E-School PPP Model- Option 1

     In this Model, the “Business entity” through the Ministries of Education and
     Communication source loans from international and local banks and these are
     administered by the Ministry of Finance [through the Business
     entity/Company established by Guarantee]. The Ministries again source
     for funding and grants from International organizations e.g. the World Bank.
     These are also administered through the Ministry of Finance [through the
     Business entity/Company established by Guarantee] for payment of
     ICT infrastructure and services. The “Business entity” then transfers these to
     the PTA as loans and grants for the payment of specific ICT products and
     services provided by the Private businesses for supplies and services.

     A partial fee paying and grant-subsidized model is recommended. This financial
     model is based on the assumption that provision of ICT in schools cannot be
     undertaken by government alone. It also ensures that underserved communities

                                                                                             25 | P a g e
are not excluded from ICT and services provided for the e-schools. For example,
students in Ghana pay between 3 Ghana Cedis and 30 Ghana Cedis as computer
fee per term. This amount will definitely leave a deficit that can be covered by
the grants. It is also assumed that grants will be used to pay for deprived
students or schools. The advantage of this model is that a good match of fee
paying and grant subsidy in the proportion of 60/40 between the private sector
and the public sector will lead to total cost recovery for the private sector and
will be patronized more than the direct fee and grant-subsidized models.

Apart from the funding sourced by the “Business entity”, the Private businesses
also source for financing from local and international banks which is used in
augmenting what comes through the “Business entity”. The loop is completed
when students make payments to the school through their ICT levy fees. The
school then repays loans contracted through the Ministries to the Banks and
Financial institutions. The private Businesses also repay their loans to the Banks
and Financial institutions.

In this model, [The “Business entity” is the intermediary between all
stakeholders, with payment of loans done by the “Business entity”
and the Private Businesses. It also offers surety for the banks with
the Ministries of Education, Communication and Finance involved.]

Its shortcoming may be that of extra cost of running a business entity. However,
this may not be an issue as the value addition from operating the business entity
will be more than what it costs to run it.

                                                                       26 | P a g e
Diagram 3: New PPP Model Option 1


                                                             e.g. World
                                                           Bank, USAID,
                                                                                   Business Entity or
                                     Grants                                        e.g. CENDLOS ?
                                     to promote
                                     ICT & Education                           Min of Education,
                                                                               Min of Communication

                           ICT fees paid                                           Ministry of Finance

       School              by students

                                                                                                    Banks make loans
                                           Payment for                                              available to schools
           ICT fees paid                   ICT infrastructure                                       via Min of Finance
           by students                     & services                  Repayment
                                           provided to schools         of Loans

                                                                                   Loan facility for
                                                     Private Businesses:
                                                                                   private sector                   Banks
          Students                                Infrastructure & Service
                                                                                                                   e.g. EIB,
                                                          Providers                                             Private banks

                                                                                    of Loans

2.      E-School PPP Model- Option 2

This option operates along similar lines as the first option. The only difference is
that the PTA acts as an intermediary between the Ministries, schools, banks and
financial institutions, the international organizations, and the private businesses.
It helps to reduce the time needed for each partner to transact business. This
option offers all stakeholders some surety as risks are fairly distributed. In case
of default, the Ministries and the PTA will be liable.

The PTA acts as an intermediary between the Ministries, schools, banks and
financial institutions, the international organizations, and the private businesses.
It helps to reduce the time needed for each partner to transact business. This
option offers all stakeholders some surety as risks are fairly distributed. In case
of default, the Ministries and the PTA will be liable. The drawback is that with the
PTA having no corporate legal status, its very difficult for Banks or other financial
institutions to sign loan agreements with the PTA. Such loans may then have to
be guaranteed by the Ministry of Finance or Education which might require
Regulatory or Policy changes.

                                                                                                                                27 | P a g e
Diagram 4: E-School PPP Model 2


                                                                                                      e.g. World
                                                                                                    Bank, USAID,

                                                                                  Grants                                     Entity e.g.
                                                                                  to promote                                 CENDLOS ?
                                                                                  ICT & Education
                                                                                                                             Ministry of

                                                                                                                             Ministry of
                           ICT fees paid                            Loans & ICT Grants                                       Finance
                           by students                              to schools
      Schools                                   PTA umbrella

                                     Payment for                               Repayment
           ICT fees paid             ICT infrastructure                        of Loans                      Banks make loans
           by students               & services                                                              available to schools
                                     provided to schools                                                     via Min of Finance & PTAs

                                                   Private Businesses:         Loan facility for
                                                                               private sector              Banks
         Students                               Infrastructure & Service
                                                                                                          e.g. EIB,
                                                        Providers                                      Private banks

                                                                                of Loans

3.     E-School PPP Model Option -3

In this model, the private sector players secure their own funds, provide ICT and
support services directly to the schools and students. Grants can also be
provided for ICT products and services by under privileged students or schools.
Apart from the grants, schools charge ICT fees that are used in loan repayment
to financial institutions.

Actually this model is currently in operation in a number of schools where the ICT
vendor or Service provider, with the backing of a financial institution signs a
supplier’s agreement with either the school or teacher. At the end of the month
the school or teacher makes a monthly repayment to the financial institution
backing the supplier’s agreement. The drawback with this model is that it mainly
benefits procurement of computers or other ICT equipments for teachers in
schools and is not for school users such as students. This might require some
levels of government guarantees and possibly support from International Donors

                                                                                                                        28 | P a g e
to make the cost of equipment and access feasible for large numbers in the
schools. Otherwise with the financial institutions charging market rates for their
services it may tend not to be sustainable in the long-term as schools not well
endowned may not be able to keep up the repayments on the loans.

Diagram 5: E-School PPP Model 3


          organisations       Grants
            e.g. World        to promote
          Bank, USAID,        ICT & Education
                                                                       Min of Education,
                                                                       Min of

                                                                          Ministry of

                                                               Enabling Environment &

      Schools/                                                            Loan facility for
      Students                                Private Businesses:
                                                                          private sector          Banks
                                           Infrastructure & Service
                          ICT fees                                                               e.g. EIB,
                                                   Providers                                  Private banks
                          by students                                      Repayment
                                                                           of Loans

4.        Other financial models

Financial Models for the PPP.

The Team considered three means by which the Private sector can recoup its
investment and the assumptions underlying each of the options. The financial
implications for the new PPP for e-schools are attached in the Excel sheet:

           The direct Fee Paying Model

           Grant –subsidized Model

           Partly Fee Paying and Grant-subsidized Model

                                                                                                              29 | P a g e
Direct Fee Paying Model

The first assumption underpinning this model this is that, the cost of investment
will be passed on to students as consumers of the ICT products and services.
Secondly, the team assumes that all students irrespective of their status will be
able to afford the charges that are transferred to them. The advantage of this is
that, the private sector is assured of getting back its returns and repayment for
and loans can also be discharged fully. However, this model is not feasible
considering the fact that students do come from households with the same socio-
economic standing. Although a very simple arrangement, it will not be attractive
to the private sector as many students will not be able to afford what industry
and other private businesses will be charging for their fees. Therefore, this model
cannot be sustainable.

Grant-Subsidized Model

This model is based on the assumption that grants from government, local
authorities, development partners and NGOs will suffice in paying for ICT
infrastructure and services. This model has the potential to fail as it will be
very difficult for government or the “business entity” to raise enough grants to
cover the charges for all aspects of ICT in education.     In addition, it cannot
solicit the participation of the private sector, development partners and NGOs
and therefore will not be sustainable.

Partial Fee paying and Grant-subsidized Model

This model is based on the assumption that provision of ICT in schools cannot be
undertaken by government alone. It also ensures that underserved communities
are not excluded from ICT and services provided for the e-schools. For example,
students in Ghana pay between 3 Ghana Cedis and 30 Ghana Cedis as computer
fee per term. This amount will definitely leave a deficit that can be covered by
the grants. It is also assumed that grants will be used to pay for deprived
students or schools. The advantage of this model is that a good match of fee
paying and grant subsidy in the proportion of 60/40 or 50/50 between the
private sector and the public sector will lead to total cost recovery for the private
sector and will be patronized more than the direct fee and grant-subsidized

VI.    Risks and assumptions of the new PPP Model
The main risks associated with the Project from the angle of the objective are:

   •   Differences of approach and interest amongst ECOWAS member
           governments in the implementation of the e-school initiative may not
           lend itself to one model. The model to be finalised can however be used
           as a template and adapted to each country’s own peculiarities.

                                                                          30 | P a g e
   •   The likely reluctance of private sector to be involved in a sector thought to
          be the preserve of government.
   •   Unwillingness of governments to remove tariffs on ICT imports.

For the Project to be efficiently implemented, the main assumptions are:

   •   The key stakeholders commit themselves to the implementation of the
           new e-school PPP model and the readiness of donors to support the
           initiative. A number of Donors in the region including USAID are
           currently providing technical assistance in the areas of teacher ICT
           Training. This will help compliment the implementation of the new
   •   It is also assumed that ICT and Telecoms Companies will commit
           themselves to the new PPP model. A number of companies see
           opportunities in promoting their Corporate Social Responsibility
           credentials. Such a private sector initiative with Social impacts is
           expected to be supported by these companies.
   •   It is also assumed that new sources of finance will be identified to support
           such a new and innovative model. The repositioning of the EIB INFAC
           Facility to support projects with a Social and Environmental impact
           could provide an opportunity for EIB Investments in the new E-School

These recommendations are made in relation to lessons from the NEPAD E-
Schools Demo Project, recommendations and suggestions from the Two-Day
Validation Conference and “best practices” from across the world.
The status of e-school will be possible with the following: capacity building, ICT
infrastructure and local content. The first two have been discussed in-depth.
The Team strongly recommends the participation of identified local content
developers in this initiative. Almost all ICT-in-education projects in Africa have
had challenges providing local content for their targets.

Establish a Business Unit or Company Limited by Guarantee resourced by both
the Ministry of Education and the private sector to act as a private/business
entity staffed by people representing both public and private sector interest to
liaise between the Ministry of Education, the private sector players, the
beneficiary schools and their management.
The Ministry of Education should initiate moves at establishing a Bank for
Education in the near future or collaborating with financial institutions to
specifically create a financial facility specifically targeting schools. This bank will

                                                                            31 | P a g e
provide funding for school projects above a certain threshold and have business
units manage the infrastructure for sustainability.

Ensure a business plan is in place for the implementation of this phase of the e-
schools project to provide direction for the business entity and the e-schools.

Expand the PPP to include NGOs, CSOs, CBOs and FBOs in order to take
advantage of their experiences, influence and support in capacity building and

Government should help reduce the cost of connectivity by improving the
regulatory and competitive environment of the present and future operators.

Establish regional or district support centre/help desk to provide maintenance
and other support services to the e- schools. These Centres need to be staffed
with personnel who are trained to ensure the functionality of the ICT
infrastructure. A critical mass of such personnel is needed as part of the human
capital to ensure their retention at the Centres.
Students or parents should be made to pay more ICT fees per school term as
what is paid currently cannot sustain the project.
The Government must provide more financial support to sustain the e-schools
project in order to make them viable.

Sustainability, Capacity Building, Human Resource Development and value
addition should be considered as the long term goal.
Where appropriate local entrepreneurship should be encouraged and local
businesses supported. There are now such entities in the area of content
development and institutions providing training to those willing to provide ICT
support services as a career.

The seven principles of ownership, sustainability, inclusiveness, partnerships,
appropriateness, coordination and subsidiary should be adhered to and improved
upon to ensure the success and continuity of the project.

The next phase of the initiative should be piloted in minimum of 50 and a
maximum of 100 schools in Ghana and Senegal.
Create working groups to prepare theme position papers on the various issues
identified which needs to be studied further.

                                                                      32 | P a g e
The PPP Model should be a Model that is well financed with funds from both
private and public sources. The initiative should aim at ensuring that there is
effective cost recovery from the relevant private sector investors with a
progressive withdrawal over a minimum of 5 years.

Governments in the sub-region should establish an ECOWAS e-school regulatory
framework to set the parameters for all players to ensure credibility and integrity
of the project
The use of Education Management Information System (EMIS) in all schools
should be mandatory as it is a critical ingredient for educational planning,
development, accountability and governance.

Governments in the sub-regions should provide special financial instruments for
cross-border financing to make funds available at concessionary interest rate to
investors in education.

Provision must be made for all schools to have alternative power source such as
solar energy as majority of schools rely on the national grid and are without
electricity during power outages.

For sustainability of the project, the government through the Ministry of
Education should empower the Parent Teacher Associations or the Respective
Board of Governors of each school to source funds within an approved limit
based on the student population and capacity to pay, upgrade and maintain the

Government in the sub-region should liberalize or totally remove tariffs and taxes
on ICT resources for the e-school project and other educational programmes
which make use of ICTs. Taxes imposed on ICT equipments have made these
Inclusion of some Private Schools in the pilot and having the Private Proprietors
of Schools as stakeholders.

Governments in Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal have expressed their willingness to
transform schools by integrating ICT into teaching and learning in schools, equip
their human capital with ICT skills and knowledge to make them competitive in
the global economy and facilitate regional integration. However, there are still a
large number of schools in these countries without computers and internet

                                                                        33 | P a g e
access. Local content and skilled teachers to utilize ICT in teaching is another
challenge for e-schools.

Capital investment into the provision of the above is beyond the capabilities of
the governments and therefore the need for government to create an enabling
and very attractive environment for private sector investment into the new PPP.
The Private Sector must also be assured of getting their return on investment.
Apart from the private sector investment, development partners should provide
governments in the sub-region with the needed financing and grants to support
the initiative. The private sector, including parents, have provided services and
other forms of support to secondary schools in Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal and
are willing to do more given the opportunity. They can be made champions in
sourcing for funds for their respective schools and ensuring that their schools
obligations to make prompt pay-back for services are honoured.

It is obvious e-schools are here to stay and the earlier governments encourage
PPPs to be part of that dispensation, the better the attainment of e-schools
status in Africa. The proposed new PPP options will help governments/Ministries
of Education and countries to deliver on their educational goals.

                                                                      34 | P a g e
IX.         Annex: Cost of a proposed E-Classroom in Ghana
NO   PRODUCT                                      SPECIFICATION                                                UNIT COST (US$)   QUANTITY   SUB TOTAL (US$)
 1   ATRUST ZERO CLIENT                           M200/202, 1 VGA, 2 USB, 1 hphone, 1mi c,                           $65            20           $1,300

 2   Wi ndows Mul ti poi nt Server 2011           Wi ndows ® Mul ti Poi nt™ Server 2011 Premi umt                    $200           1             $200
                                                  Supports 20 s ta ti ons
 3   Wi ndows Mul ti poi nt Server CAL            Wi ndows ® Mul ti Poi nt™ Server 2011 Cl i ent                     $35            20            $700
                                                  Acces s Li cens e (CAL)
 4   Ha rdwa re: Server                           Intel 3420, i 3 550, 3.2GHz, 8GB, 500G*SATAII,                    $1,250          1            $1,250
                                                  Nvi di a 8400GForce
 5   Ha rdwa re: Moni tor                         Fl a t Screen, 17"                                                 $145           20           $2,900
 6   Ha rdwa re: Keyboa rd                        USB Keyboa rd                                                      $12            20            $240
 7   Ha rdwa re: Mous e                           USB Mous e                                                         $10            20            $200
 8   Ha rdwa re: UPS                              1 KVA, 230 V                                                       $252           1             $252
 9   Ha rdwa re: Projector                        XGA (1024 x 768), ra ti o 2400:1, 2700 Lumens                      $600           1             $600
10   Intera cti ve whi teboa rd                    Mi mi oTea ch™ i ntera cti ve s ys tem                            $799           1             $799

 1   Softwa re: Appl i ca ti on                   Mi cros oft Offi ce 2010 Student                                   $28            20            $560

                                                  COST PER UNIT (20 WORK STATIONS)                                                               $9,001

                                                  COST PER WORK STATION                                                                           $450

 1   Ha rdwa re: Mi s c networki ng el ements     Mi s c networki ng el ements                                       $200           1             $200
 2   Softwa re: Appl i ca ti on                   School Admi n Sys tem, Aca demi c+Fi na nci a l                   $1,950          1            $1,950
                                                  Record, Pepertua l Li cence
 3   Mi s c Softwa re                             Mi s c Softwa re                                                   $200           1             $200

 1   Tra i ni ng cos t per s chool :              Students Hel pdes k                                                $400           1             $400
     Student Techni ca l Support                  (up to 20 pa rti ci pa nts i n the di s tri ct or regi on:
                                                  5 s chool s i n the di s tri ct or regi on s ha re the
                                                  cos t of tra i ni ng)
 2   Tra i ni ng cos t per s chool :              Tea cher Prof. Devel opment, Integra ti on,                        $400           1             $400
     Pa rtners i n Lea rni ng                     Innova ti on
                                                  (up to 20 pa rti ci pa nts i n the di s tri ct or regi on:
                                                  5 s chool s i n the di s tri ct or regi on s ha re the
                                                  cos t of tra i ni ng)
 3   Tra i ni ng cos t per s chool :              School wri te tra i ni ng                                          $100           1             $100
     School Ma na gement Softwa re                (up to 20 pa rti ci pa nts i n the di s tri ct or regi on:
                                                  5 s chool s i n the di s tri ct or regi on s ha re the
                                                  cos t of tra i ni ng)
 1   Audi t, upgra de, repa i rs , ma i ntena nce Audi t, upgra de, repa i rs , ma i ntena nce,                     $1,000          1            $1,000
                                                  repl a cement i ncl tra vel


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