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Metabolic Diversity by 2xuH469

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									Metabolic Diversity
Habitat Variety-
  extremophiles- microbes that live in extreme conditions
  of temperature, acidity, alkalinity, or salinity
-most extremophiles are members of the Archaea
-Microbes must use every advantage they have to survive
      -They may metabolize common nutrients move rapidly
      -Use nutrients other microorganisms can’t metabolize
Symbiosis
Symbiosis- the interaction between coexisting organisms or
  population
-Rumen is an important organ that is present in animals who
  eat cellulose-rich plants.
       -the rumen ferments the cellulose into compounds,
  which can then be used by the animal for energy.
Mycorrhizae- a fungus growing in symbiosis with plant roots.
       -mycorrhizae is a hair on plants that extend the
  surface area of the plant to help absorb nutrients.
Mycorrhizae
-mycorrhizae form large spores in the soil.
- The hypae from the spores form two types of
  structures- Vesicles, and arbuscules
       Vesicles- smooth oval bodies that probably function as storage
 structures
       Arbuscules- tiny bushlike structures, are formed inside plant
 cells
-Many plants are depenent on these fungi for proper
  growth.
Plant Fungus
-Ectomycorrhizae infect mainly trees. They form a
  mycelial mantle over the smaller roots of the tree.
-Truffles are also ectomycorrhizae.
-In nature, reproduction of fungus is dependent on
  ingestion of animals, because the fungus is then
  distributed through the animals feces.
Soil Microbiology and
     Biochemical cycles
 Biogeochemical cycles- the recycling of chemical elements
  by microorganisms for use by other organisms
 Important antibiotics , such as streptomycin and
  tetracycline were discovered by microbiologist that
  investigated actinomycetes in some soil.
 Single nutrient medium or growth condition can meet all
  the nutrients and other requirements of soil.
 Elements are oxidized and reduced by the microorganisms
  during these cycles.
The carbon cycle
 Carbon cycle- the series of processes that converts CO2 in
  nature
 All organisms including plants, microbes, and animals
  containing a large amount of carbon in the forms of
  organic compounds such as cellulose, starches, fats, and
  proteins. The first step of the carbon cycle in which
  photoautotrophs such as cyanobacteria, green plants,
  algae, and green and purple sulfur bacteria fix, into organic
  matter using energy form the sun
The Sulfur Cycle
 The various oxidation and reduction stages of sulfur in the
    environment, mostly due to the action of microorganisms.
   The most reduced form of sulfur are sulfides
   H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) represents a source of energy for
    autotrophic bacteria.
   Plants and other microorganisms can reduce SO42- (fully
    Oxidized Sulfates) to make amino acids, they are in turn
    used by animals
   H2S is released by decay or dissimilation of the amino acids
The Phosphorus Cycle
 The various solubility stages of phosphorus in the
  environment
 Phosphorus (PO43- )is found in rocks and bird guano
 When solubilized by microbial acids, the PO43- is available
  for plants and microorganisms
 Endolithic bacteria live in solid rocks; these autotrophic
  bacteria use hydrogen as an energy source.
The Degradation of Synthetic
 Chemicals in Soil and Water
Sewage (wastewater) Treatment
Primary Sewage Treatment
• in this process, large floating materials in incoming
  wastewater are screened out.
• the solids are collected at the bottom are called sludge.
• Only 40% to 60% of the suspended solids are removed in
  this process.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
• is a measure of the biodegradable organic matter in water.
• this is dertermined by the amount of oxygen required by
  bacteria to metabolize organic matter.
Sewage (wastewater) Treatment
Secondary Sewage Treatment
 This treatment is designed to remove most of this organic
  matter and reduce the BOD
 In this process, sewage goes through strong aeration to
  encourage the growth of microorganisms that will break
  down the sewage.
 An activated sludge system is when air or pure oxygen is
  passed through the effluent from primary treatment.
 Bulking is when the sludge will occasionally float instead of
  settling at the bottom. This is caused by the growth of
  filamentous bacteria.
Sewage (wastewater) Treatment
Secondary Sewage Treatment (cont)
 Trickling filters, are another method of secondary
  treatment. In this treatment, the sewage is sprayed
  over a bed of rocks, and then air is circulated
  throughout this rock bed. Aerobic microorganisms in
  this slime layer oxidize much of the organic matter
  trickling over the surfaces into carbon dioxide and
  water.
Sewage (wastewater) Treatment
Disinfection and Release
 Sewage is usually disinfected by chlorination before
  being discharged from a wastewater treatment.
 Remaining microorganisms are killed by exposure to
  ultraviolet light or other kinds of disinfectants.
Sewage (wastewater) Treatment
Sludge Digestion
 For further treatments, sludge are often pumped to
  anaerobic sludge digesters which carry out a process in
  which takes place in large tanks where oxygen is
  almost totally scarce.
Septic Tanks
Septic Tank- a device whose operation is similar in
  principle to primary treatment.
-the sewage enters a holding tank, and then
  suspended solids settle out.
-What is left over flows through piping out into a
  leaching field. The field contains microorganism
  who decompose the material.
-This system works well when not overloaded, and
  properly sized to the load and soil type.
-Heavy clay soil require extensive drainage systems
  because the soil has poor permeability.
Oxidation Ponds
Oxidation Ponds- A method of secondary sewage treatment
  by microbial activity in a shallow standing pond of water.
-Most incorporate two stages
       - In the first stage, sludge settles out. The pond is so
  deep that the bottom of it is almost completely anaerobic.
       -In the second stage, effluent is pumped into an
  adjoining pond or system of ponds.
-The growth of algae is encouraged to produce oxygen.
-Some highway rest stops use an oxidation ditch for sewage
  treatment.
Tertiary Sewage Treatment
-Some communities developed tertiary sewage treatment
  plants to avoid effluent discharged into lakes and ponds.
- Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)- a measure of the
  biologically degradable organic matter in water.
- Tertiary treatment is designed to remove all the BOD,
  nitrogen, and phosphorus.
-Filters of fine sand and activated charcoal remove small
  particulate matter and dissolved chemicals.
-Tertiary treatments provide water that is suitable for
  drinking, but the process is very expensive.
-A secondary treatment is less expensive, but the water still
  contains many water pollutants.
        Aquatic microbiology and
       Sewage Treatment: Biofilms
•Biofilms are slime communities of microorganisms.
•Usually attached to a surface, but sometimes free
floating.
•Enable microorganisms to share nutrients.
•Enable microorganisms to be somewhat sheltered
from harmful factors in the environment.
•Give the advantage of facilitating the transfer of
genetic information.
•Form pillar-like structures w/ channels between them
through which water can carry incoming nutrients and
outgoing wastes.
    Aquatic microbiology and Sewage
       Treatment: Biofilms Cont.
Microorganisms in biofilms use…

Quorum Sensing: Cell-to-cell communication that
allows bacteria to coordinate their activity and
group together into communities that provide
benefits. (or biofilms)

Biofilms are important and helpful in some cases,
but hard to get rid of in others.
 Aquatic Microorganisms: Freshwater
             Microbiota
• Littoral Zone- Has considerable rooted vegetation
  and light penetrates throughout it. (around the
  shore)
• Limnetic zone-Consists of the surface of the open
  water area away from the shore. (where algae
  grows, high in oxygen)
• Profundal Zone- The deeper water under
  Limnetic zone. (fish)
• Bethnic Zone- Contains sediment at the bottom.
  (low oxygen, less light)
  Aquatic Microorganisms: Seawater
             Microbiota
• The support of oceanic life is largely
  dependent upon photosynthetic microscopic
  life, the marine phytoplankton (wandering
  plants) , which are the primary producers of
  the open ocean.
• Some algae and bacteria are bioluminescent.
  They possess the enzyme luciferase, which can
  emit light.
   WATER THAT MOVES BELOW THE GROUNDS SURACE UNDERGOES A FILTERING
    THAT REMOVES MOST MICROORGANISMS.
   MOST DANGEROUS FORM OF WATER POLLUTION IS WHEN FECES ENTER THE
    WATER SUPPLY.
   MANY DISEASES ARE PERPETUATED BY FECAL-ORAL ROUTE OF
    TRANSMISSION.IN THE US 900,000 PEOPLE BECOME ILL EVERY YR FROM
    WATERBORNE INFECTIONS.
   GLOBALLY ITS 2 MILLION DEATHS. MOSTLY AMONG CHILDREN UNDER 5 YRS
    OLD.
   EXAMPLES OF DISEASES- TYPHOID FEVER AND CHOLERA. CUASED BY
    BACTERIA IN HUMAN FECES.
   CHICAGO 1891-159.7/100,000
              1894-31.4/ 100,000
   THIS ADVANCEMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH WAS BEACUASE THEY EXTENDED THE CITY WATER
    SUPPLY INTAKE IN LAKE MICHIGAN TO A DISTANCE OF 4 MILES FROM THE SHORE.
   INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL
    CHEMICALS LEACHED FROM THE
    LAND ENTER WATER IN GREAT
    AMOUNTS AND IN FORMS THAT
    ARE RESISTAN TO BIODEGRATION.
   EXAMPLES: RURAL WATER
    CONTAIN NITRATE FROM THE
    FERTILIZERS. IF INGESTED NITRATE
    COMPETES FOR OXYGEN IN THE
    BLOOD.
    MERCURY IN WASTEWATER FROM
    PAPER MANIFACTURING. METALLIC
    MERCURY WAS ALLOWED TO
    FLOW INTO WATERWAYS AS
    WASTE.
   IMMEDIATELY AFTER WW1, SYNTHETIC
    DETERGENTS WERE DEVELOPED.
   THEY RAPIDLY REPLACED OTHER SOAPS
    USED THEN.
   NOT BIODEGRADABLE AND
    ACCUMULATED IN WATERWAYS
   THESE DETERGENTS WERE REPLACED IN
    1964 BY NEW BIODEGRADABLE
    SYNTHETIC FORMULATIONS.
   HOWEVER BIODEGRADABLE
    DETERGENTS OFTEN CONTAIN
    PHOSPHATES.
   PHOSPHATE CAN PASS THRU SEWAGE
    TREATMENTS AND CAN CAUSE.
    EUTROPHICATION BY AN
    OVERABUNDANCE OF NUTRIENTS IN
    LAKES AND STREAMS.
   ALGEA AND CYANOBACTERIA GET                 WATER PURITY TESTS
    THEIR ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT. THEIR
    CARBON FROM CARBON DIOXIDE              TESTS FOR WATER PURITY ARE AIMED AT
    DISSOLVES IN WATER.                        DETECTING INDICATOR ORGANISMS
   MOST WATERS, ONLY NITROGEN AND           THERE ARE SEVERAL CRITERIA FOR AN
    PHOSPHOROUS SUPPLIES, THEREFORE             INDICATOR ORGANISM. THE MOST
    REMAIN INADEQUATE FOR ALGAE                IMPORTANT IS THAT THE MICROBE BE
    GROWTH.                                     CONSISTENTLY PRESENT IN HUMAN
                                               FECES. IF THERES ENOUGH OF IT THAT
   BOTH CAN ENTER FROM DOMESTIC,
                                             THE TEST DETECTED IT. IT INDICATES THAT
    FARM AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES WHEN
                                                 HUMAN WASTE HAS ENTERED THE
    WASTE TREATMENT ARE ABSENT OR
                                                              WATER.
    INEFFICIENT.
                                              USUAL INDICATOR ORGANISMS ARE
   THESE ADDITIONAL NUTRIENTS CAUSE
                                             COLIFORMS. COLIFORMS ARE DEFINED
    DENSE AQUATIC GROWTH CALLED
                                                AS ANAEROBIC, GRAM NEGATIVE,
    ALGAL BLOOMS.
                                                NON-ENDOSPORE-FORMING, ROD
   RED TIDES OF TOXIN-PRODUCING                 SHAPED BACTERIA THAT FERMENT
    PHYTOPLANKTON ARE PROBABLY                  LACTOSE TO FORM GAS WITHIN 48
    CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE NUTRIENTS FROM       HOURS OF BEING PLACED IN LACTROSE
    OCEANIC UPWELLINGS OR TERRESTRIAL                      BROTH AT 35C
    WASTE.
    Water that is collected from reservoirs                 DISINFECTIONS
     fed by clear mountain streams or             Before entering the municipal
     deep wells, requires minimal                  distribution system, the filtered water is
     treatment to make it safe to drink.           chlorinated. Because organic
     Many cities, however, obtain their            material neutralizes chlorine, plant
     water from badly polluted sources             operators pay constant attention to
     such as rivers that have received             maintaining effective levels of
     municipal and industrial waste                chlorine.
     upstream.                                    Another disinfection for water is
     COAGULATION AND FILTERATION                   Ozone treatment. Ozone is a highly
1.   Very turbid or cloudy water is allowed        reactive form of oxygen that is
     to stand in a reservoir for a time to         formed by electrical spark discharge
     allow the particles suspended in the          and UV light.
     water to settle down.
2.   Followed by Flocculation, the
     removal of colloidal material. Large
     number of viruses and bacteria are
     also removed this way.
3.   Water is then treated by Filtration,
     passing it thru beds of 2-4 ft of fine
     sand or crushed anthracite coal.

								
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