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Metabolic Diversity Habitat Variety- extremophiles- microbes that live in extreme conditions of temperature, acidity, alkalinity, or salinity -most extremophiles are members of the Archaea -Microbes must use every advantage they have to survive -They may metabolize common nutrients move rapidly -Use nutrients other microorganisms can’t metabolize Symbiosis Symbiosis- the interaction between coexisting organisms or population -Rumen is an important organ that is present in animals who eat cellulose-rich plants. -the rumen ferments the cellulose into compounds, which can then be used by the animal for energy. Mycorrhizae- a fungus growing in symbiosis with plant roots. -mycorrhizae is a hair on plants that extend the surface area of the plant to help absorb nutrients. Mycorrhizae -mycorrhizae form large spores in the soil. - The hypae from the spores form two types of structures- Vesicles, and arbuscules Vesicles- smooth oval bodies that probably function as storage structures Arbuscules- tiny bushlike structures, are formed inside plant cells -Many plants are depenent on these fungi for proper growth. Plant Fungus -Ectomycorrhizae infect mainly trees. They form a mycelial mantle over the smaller roots of the tree. -Truffles are also ectomycorrhizae. -In nature, reproduction of fungus is dependent on ingestion of animals, because the fungus is then distributed through the animals feces. Soil Microbiology and Biochemical cycles Biogeochemical cycles- the recycling of chemical elements by microorganisms for use by other organisms Important antibiotics , such as streptomycin and tetracycline were discovered by microbiologist that investigated actinomycetes in some soil. Single nutrient medium or growth condition can meet all the nutrients and other requirements of soil. Elements are oxidized and reduced by the microorganisms during these cycles. The carbon cycle Carbon cycle- the series of processes that converts CO2 in nature All organisms including plants, microbes, and animals containing a large amount of carbon in the forms of organic compounds such as cellulose, starches, fats, and proteins. The first step of the carbon cycle in which photoautotrophs such as cyanobacteria, green plants, algae, and green and purple sulfur bacteria fix, into organic matter using energy form the sun The Sulfur Cycle The various oxidation and reduction stages of sulfur in the environment, mostly due to the action of microorganisms. The most reduced form of sulfur are sulfides H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) represents a source of energy for autotrophic bacteria. Plants and other microorganisms can reduce SO42- (fully Oxidized Sulfates) to make amino acids, they are in turn used by animals H2S is released by decay or dissimilation of the amino acids The Phosphorus Cycle The various solubility stages of phosphorus in the environment Phosphorus (PO43- )is found in rocks and bird guano When solubilized by microbial acids, the PO43- is available for plants and microorganisms Endolithic bacteria live in solid rocks; these autotrophic bacteria use hydrogen as an energy source. The Degradation of Synthetic Chemicals in Soil and Water Sewage (wastewater) Treatment Primary Sewage Treatment • in this process, large floating materials in incoming wastewater are screened out. • the solids are collected at the bottom are called sludge. • Only 40% to 60% of the suspended solids are removed in this process. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) • is a measure of the biodegradable organic matter in water. • this is dertermined by the amount of oxygen required by bacteria to metabolize organic matter. Sewage (wastewater) Treatment Secondary Sewage Treatment This treatment is designed to remove most of this organic matter and reduce the BOD In this process, sewage goes through strong aeration to encourage the growth of microorganisms that will break down the sewage. An activated sludge system is when air or pure oxygen is passed through the effluent from primary treatment. Bulking is when the sludge will occasionally float instead of settling at the bottom. This is caused by the growth of filamentous bacteria. Sewage (wastewater) Treatment Secondary Sewage Treatment (cont) Trickling filters, are another method of secondary treatment. In this treatment, the sewage is sprayed over a bed of rocks, and then air is circulated throughout this rock bed. Aerobic microorganisms in this slime layer oxidize much of the organic matter trickling over the surfaces into carbon dioxide and water. Sewage (wastewater) Treatment Disinfection and Release Sewage is usually disinfected by chlorination before being discharged from a wastewater treatment. Remaining microorganisms are killed by exposure to ultraviolet light or other kinds of disinfectants. Sewage (wastewater) Treatment Sludge Digestion For further treatments, sludge are often pumped to anaerobic sludge digesters which carry out a process in which takes place in large tanks where oxygen is almost totally scarce. Septic Tanks Septic Tank- a device whose operation is similar in principle to primary treatment. -the sewage enters a holding tank, and then suspended solids settle out. -What is left over flows through piping out into a leaching field. The field contains microorganism who decompose the material. -This system works well when not overloaded, and properly sized to the load and soil type. -Heavy clay soil require extensive drainage systems because the soil has poor permeability. Oxidation Ponds Oxidation Ponds- A method of secondary sewage treatment by microbial activity in a shallow standing pond of water. -Most incorporate two stages - In the first stage, sludge settles out. The pond is so deep that the bottom of it is almost completely anaerobic. -In the second stage, effluent is pumped into an adjoining pond or system of ponds. -The growth of algae is encouraged to produce oxygen. -Some highway rest stops use an oxidation ditch for sewage treatment. Tertiary Sewage Treatment -Some communities developed tertiary sewage treatment plants to avoid effluent discharged into lakes and ponds. - Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)- a measure of the biologically degradable organic matter in water. - Tertiary treatment is designed to remove all the BOD, nitrogen, and phosphorus. -Filters of fine sand and activated charcoal remove small particulate matter and dissolved chemicals. -Tertiary treatments provide water that is suitable for drinking, but the process is very expensive. -A secondary treatment is less expensive, but the water still contains many water pollutants. Aquatic microbiology and Sewage Treatment: Biofilms •Biofilms are slime communities of microorganisms. •Usually attached to a surface, but sometimes free floating. •Enable microorganisms to share nutrients. •Enable microorganisms to be somewhat sheltered from harmful factors in the environment. •Give the advantage of facilitating the transfer of genetic information. •Form pillar-like structures w/ channels between them through which water can carry incoming nutrients and outgoing wastes. Aquatic microbiology and Sewage Treatment: Biofilms Cont. Microorganisms in biofilms use… Quorum Sensing: Cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate their activity and group together into communities that provide benefits. (or biofilms) Biofilms are important and helpful in some cases, but hard to get rid of in others. Aquatic Microorganisms: Freshwater Microbiota • Littoral Zone- Has considerable rooted vegetation and light penetrates throughout it. (around the shore) • Limnetic zone-Consists of the surface of the open water area away from the shore. (where algae grows, high in oxygen) • Profundal Zone- The deeper water under Limnetic zone. (fish) • Bethnic Zone- Contains sediment at the bottom. (low oxygen, less light) Aquatic Microorganisms: Seawater Microbiota • The support of oceanic life is largely dependent upon photosynthetic microscopic life, the marine phytoplankton (wandering plants) , which are the primary producers of the open ocean. • Some algae and bacteria are bioluminescent. They possess the enzyme luciferase, which can emit light. WATER THAT MOVES BELOW THE GROUNDS SURACE UNDERGOES A FILTERING THAT REMOVES MOST MICROORGANISMS. MOST DANGEROUS FORM OF WATER POLLUTION IS WHEN FECES ENTER THE WATER SUPPLY. MANY DISEASES ARE PERPETUATED BY FECAL-ORAL ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION.IN THE US 900,000 PEOPLE BECOME ILL EVERY YR FROM WATERBORNE INFECTIONS. GLOBALLY ITS 2 MILLION DEATHS. MOSTLY AMONG CHILDREN UNDER 5 YRS OLD. EXAMPLES OF DISEASES- TYPHOID FEVER AND CHOLERA. CUASED BY BACTERIA IN HUMAN FECES. CHICAGO 1891-159.7/100,000 1894-31.4/ 100,000 THIS ADVANCEMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH WAS BEACUASE THEY EXTENDED THE CITY WATER SUPPLY INTAKE IN LAKE MICHIGAN TO A DISTANCE OF 4 MILES FROM THE SHORE. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS LEACHED FROM THE LAND ENTER WATER IN GREAT AMOUNTS AND IN FORMS THAT ARE RESISTAN TO BIODEGRATION. EXAMPLES: RURAL WATER CONTAIN NITRATE FROM THE FERTILIZERS. IF INGESTED NITRATE COMPETES FOR OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD. MERCURY IN WASTEWATER FROM PAPER MANIFACTURING. METALLIC MERCURY WAS ALLOWED TO FLOW INTO WATERWAYS AS WASTE. IMMEDIATELY AFTER WW1, SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS WERE DEVELOPED. THEY RAPIDLY REPLACED OTHER SOAPS USED THEN. NOT BIODEGRADABLE AND ACCUMULATED IN WATERWAYS THESE DETERGENTS WERE REPLACED IN 1964 BY NEW BIODEGRADABLE SYNTHETIC FORMULATIONS. HOWEVER BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS OFTEN CONTAIN PHOSPHATES. PHOSPHATE CAN PASS THRU SEWAGE TREATMENTS AND CAN CAUSE. EUTROPHICATION BY AN OVERABUNDANCE OF NUTRIENTS IN LAKES AND STREAMS. ALGEA AND CYANOBACTERIA GET WATER PURITY TESTS THEIR ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT. THEIR CARBON FROM CARBON DIOXIDE TESTS FOR WATER PURITY ARE AIMED AT DISSOLVES IN WATER. DETECTING INDICATOR ORGANISMS MOST WATERS, ONLY NITROGEN AND THERE ARE SEVERAL CRITERIA FOR AN PHOSPHOROUS SUPPLIES, THEREFORE INDICATOR ORGANISM. THE MOST REMAIN INADEQUATE FOR ALGAE IMPORTANT IS THAT THE MICROBE BE GROWTH. CONSISTENTLY PRESENT IN HUMAN FECES. IF THERES ENOUGH OF IT THAT BOTH CAN ENTER FROM DOMESTIC, THE TEST DETECTED IT. IT INDICATES THAT FARM AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES WHEN HUMAN WASTE HAS ENTERED THE WASTE TREATMENT ARE ABSENT OR WATER. INEFFICIENT. USUAL INDICATOR ORGANISMS ARE THESE ADDITIONAL NUTRIENTS CAUSE COLIFORMS. COLIFORMS ARE DEFINED DENSE AQUATIC GROWTH CALLED AS ANAEROBIC, GRAM NEGATIVE, ALGAL BLOOMS. NON-ENDOSPORE-FORMING, ROD RED TIDES OF TOXIN-PRODUCING SHAPED BACTERIA THAT FERMENT PHYTOPLANKTON ARE PROBABLY LACTOSE TO FORM GAS WITHIN 48 CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE NUTRIENTS FROM HOURS OF BEING PLACED IN LACTROSE OCEANIC UPWELLINGS OR TERRESTRIAL BROTH AT 35C WASTE. Water that is collected from reservoirs DISINFECTIONS fed by clear mountain streams or Before entering the municipal deep wells, requires minimal distribution system, the filtered water is treatment to make it safe to drink. chlorinated. Because organic Many cities, however, obtain their material neutralizes chlorine, plant water from badly polluted sources operators pay constant attention to such as rivers that have received maintaining effective levels of municipal and industrial waste chlorine. upstream. Another disinfection for water is COAGULATION AND FILTERATION Ozone treatment. Ozone is a highly 1. Very turbid or cloudy water is allowed reactive form of oxygen that is to stand in a reservoir for a time to formed by electrical spark discharge allow the particles suspended in the and UV light. water to settle down. 2. Followed by Flocculation, the removal of colloidal material. Large number of viruses and bacteria are also removed this way. 3. Water is then treated by Filtration, passing it thru beds of 2-4 ft of fine sand or crushed anthracite coal.
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