P.O. Box 5675, Berkeley, CA 94705 USA
Connie de la Vega, firstname.lastname@example.org and Jeeni Phillips, email@example.com
Financing for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women:
Preventing and Combating Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation
Commission on the Status of Women
Jeeni R. Phillips, Edith Coliver Intern
Representing Human Rights Advocates through
University of San Francisco School of Law’s
Frank C. Newman International Human Rights Law Clinic
Professor Connie de la Vega
The focus of the 52nd Commission on the Status of Women will focus on “Financing for
Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women.”1 This paper will examine the causes and
effects of trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation and make recommendations based on a
initial ‘top-down’ approach that utilizes financing of government programs, education, training,
and financing for women’s organizations, which will result in a reduction of trafficked victims in
the sex-trade. The top-down approach should have as a goal, the implementation of programs at
the local level, by those who are most familiar with the needs of individual communities.2
Twenty-first-century slavery still exists all over the world. In particular, trafficking for
sexual exploitation is considered the largest distinct subcategory of transnational modern-day
slavery. An estimated annual $28 billion dollar industry, trafficking for sexual exploitation
involves the illicit transport or trade of people and is a gross violation of human rights.3 The
difference between the trafficking of persons and the smuggling of migrants is that traffickers
intend to exploit those in their charge.4
Although it is difficult to know the exact number of persons being trafficked due to a lack of
reporting and the operation of trafficking in a secretive shadow world, the International Labor
Organization’s (ILO) report, A Global Alliance Against Forced Labor, estimates that a minimum
Priority Theme of the 52nd Commission on the Status of Women, available at http://www.un.org/womenwatch/
I am thankful to Professor Connie de la Vega, Erika Dahlstrom, Jennifer Krencicki-Barcelos, and all the members
of the University of San Francisco Frank C. Newman International Human Rights Clinic, for their support and
assistance in preparing this report.
International Labor Office (ILO) (Geneva), Report of the Director General: A Global Alliance Against Forced
Labour: Global Report Under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at
Work, 55, International Labour Conference, 93rd Sess. Report I(B) (2005). Executive Summary p. 4. [hereinafter ILO
Global Report] available online at http://www.ilo.org/ public/english/region/asro/manila/mtgevents/flglobal.htm
Europe Law Enforcement Group Programme Against Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT),
Combating the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes: Questions and Answers, (2006), p. 6. [hereinafter
ECPAT: Questions and Answers]
of 2.4 million people are victims of forced labor as a result of human trafficking worldwide.5
Furthermore, an estimated 75 percent of all victims of human trafficking are trafficked for
commercial sexual exploitation.6 When it comes to forced labor as a result of trafficking,
women and girls account for almost all forced commercial sexual exploitation.7 In addition, to
outline some current anti-trafficking programs, this paper will focus specifically on trafficking of
women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation in relation to the mechanisms of
financing for gender equality and the empowerment of women.
II. International Legal Standards:
The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons
(hereafter Trafficking Protocol), introduced into international law the concept of trafficking in
persons, broken down broadly into labor exploitation and sexual exploitation.8 The Trafficking
Protocol currently has 117 signatories and 116 state parties.9 Article 3, subparagraph (a), of the
Protocol defines the crime of “trafficking in persons” as follows:
(a) Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring
or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of
abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or
of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having
control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a
minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or
the removal of organs;
(c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose
ILO Global Report, supra note 3, at 2.
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Fact Sheet. Washington, DC. March 18, 2005, available at
ILO Global Report, supra note 3, at 2. The report states that women and girl children make up 98% of those
trafficked for sexual exploitation.
United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
Children, Supplementing the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, opened for signature Nov.
15, 2000 (entered into force Dec. 25, 2003) [hereinafter Trafficking Protocol].
The Trafficking Protocol was adopted by resolution A/RES/55/25. Status available at the United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/countrylist-traffickingprotocol.html.
of exploitations shall be considered “trafficking in persons”, even if this does not involve
any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article.
(d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age. 10
The Trafficking Protocol does not define exploitation, but it includes a non-exhaustive list of
forms of exploitation.11 Sexual exploitation is not defined in the Trafficking Protocol or any
other international legal document. For the purpose of this paper, the subcategory, “trafficking
for sexual exploitation” is specifically the movement of women and children, within national or
across international borders, for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Commercial
sexual exploitation includes pornography, prostitution, and sex acts induced by force, fraud, or
coercion and is characterized by the exploitation of persons in exchange for goods or money.
The Trafficking Protocol obligates states to take measures to alleviate the factors that make
women and children specifically vulnerable to trafficking, discourage the demand for women
and children in trafficking, recognize and consider the special needs of girl children who become
victims of trafficking, and to consider “child- and gender-sensitive issues” in the training of
officials to prevent trafficking.12 This Protocol has led to steps both at the state level and at the
international level aimed at preventing and combating trafficking and has subsequently
reinforced a gender perspective in the fight to end trafficking in persons.13
For example, at the 61st session of the General Assembly, the principals and obligations of
the Trafficking Protocol were reaffirmed in a resolution entitled, Improving the Coordination of
Efforts Against Trafficking in Persons.14 The resolution called for additional focus on the
development and coordination of inter-agency and inter-government cooperation in preventing,
Trafficking Protocol, supra note 8, at Art. 3(a),(c),(d).
Id. The Protocol mentions exploitation, but does not define the term.
Id., at Art. 6 para 4; Art. 9 para 4 and 5; and Art. 10 para 2.
See section of paper titled “Current Anti-Trafficking Programs.” Also see the Global Initiative to Fight
Trafficking (UN.GIFT) available at http://www.ungift.org/.
G.A. Res, 61/98, U.N. Doc. A/c.3/61/L.7/Rev.1 (Oct. 19, 2006)
prosecuting and protecting victims of trafficking. Additionally, the Monterrey Consensus,
adopted at the International Conference on Financing for Development in March 2002,
highlighted the importance of a holistic approach to financing for development, including
gender-sensitive development, and encouraged the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into
development policies at all levels and in all sectors.15 The Paris Declaration on Aid
Effectiveness (2005) went a step further and acknowledged that the harmonization efforts are
also needed on crosscutting issues, such as gender equality and other thematic issues, including
those financed by dedicated funds.16 Trafficking is one such thematic issue.17
The Council of Europe has implemented the Convention on Action Against Trafficking in
Human Beings.18 As of January 2008, thirteen member states have taken steps towards
ratification on the Convention, which entered into force on February 1, 2008.19 Goals of the
Convention include: combating all forms of trafficking, whether national or transnational, and
whether or not related to organized crime; to extend protection to all victims, men, women and
children; to apply the protection of the Convention to all forms of exploitation (sexual, forced
labor or services, etc.); and where the age of a victim is uncertain and there are reasons to believe
that the victim is a child, it is presumed that the victim is a child.20
At the 10th Summit of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), held in
November 2004, the Heads of state of ASEAN signed a Declaration to combat trafficking in
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), Report of the International Conference on
Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, (March 18-22, 2002) (A/CONF.198/11, chapter 1, resolution 1,
annex). [hereinafter Monterrey Consensus].
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: Ownership, Harmonization, Alignment, Results and Mutual
Accountability, High Level Forum, Paris, February 28 – March 2, 2005, para. 42.
See UN.GIFT, the Global Initiative to Fight Trafficking, available at http://www.ungift.org/.
Please see the Counsel of Europe website, available at http://www.coe.int/Trafficking/.
ECPAT: Questions and Answers, supra, at note 4, p. 11.
persons in the ASEAN region.21 The Declaration reiterates ASEAN States’ determination to
protect and assist trafficked women through, inter alia, collecting and publishing data on the
development of national efforts to combat trafficking and establishing national focal points on
trafficking. The States declared, to the extent permitted by their respective domestic laws and
policies, to undertake concerted efforts to effectively address trafficking in persons, particularly
women and children through the following measures: establishment of a regional focal network
to prevent and combat trafficking in persons; adoption of measures to protect official travel
documents and identity papers from fraud; sharing of information; strengthening border controls
and monitoring mechanisms; the enactment of necessary legislation; the intensification of
cooperation among law enforcement authorities; and treating victims of trafficking humanely
and ensuring essential assistance and prompt reparation.22
In 2001, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) developed a
regional Plan of action against trafficking in human beings.23 The Plan outlines the most urgent
actions against trafficking in persons to be taken by ECOWAS member States, with a focus on
criminal justice responses.
UN.GIFT, the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, was launched
in March 2007 by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) with a grant made
on behalf of the United Arab Emirates.24 It is managed in cooperation with the ILO; the
International Organization for Migration (IOM); the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF);
the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR); and the Organization for
The Declaration is available at http://www.aseansec.org/16793.htm.
United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Global
Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings (2006) p. 18.
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Initial Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons
Background of UN.GIFT, see web site, available at
Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).25 UN.GIFT was conceived to join forces and
coordinate the global fight on human trafficking and to provide a framework for, and action by,
all stakeholder—governments, business, academia, civil society and the media—so that they can
support each other, work in partnership, and create effective tools to fight human trafficking.26
III. Who is responsible for trafficking of women and girls?
Understanding who is responsible for the trafficking of women and girls is necessary in order
to effectively fund specific programs targeted at extinguishing the practice. For example,
organized crime is largely responsible for the spread of human trafficking. Sex trafficking is
illegal in nearly every country in the world. However, the ILO estimates that trafficking in
persons is the second or third most profitable illicit trade, behind drug trafficking, and possibly
the illicit arms trade.27 Traffickers themselves might be part of a well-organized criminal
network, or they might be individuals taking part in only one or more of the various stages of the
operation, such as the provision of false documentation, transport, or a ‘safe house’.28
Some sex trafficking is highly visible, such as street prostitution, but many trafficking
victims remain unseen. This is due in part to the operation of exploitation out of unmarked
brothels in unsuspecting, and sometimes suburban, neighborhoods. Sex traffickers also operate
out of a variety of public and private locations such as massage parlors, spas and strip clubs.
Commercial sex specifically places a premium on girl children based on virginity, near-
virginity, and youthfulness. This results in targeting girl children in order to maximize profits
and in the proliferation of sophisticated networks designed to quickly and easily supply victims
undetected by authorities. One overriding factor in the proliferation of trafficking is the
ILO Global Report, supra note 3.
ECPAT: Questions and Answers, supra, at note 4, p. 10.
fundamental belief that the lives of women and girls are expendable.29 In societies where women
and girls are undervalued or not valued at all, women are at a greater risk for being abused,
trafficked and coerced into sexual slavery.30
IV. Enabling factors for trafficking:
In addition to discussing who is responsible for the trafficking of women and girls,
understanding the distinct enabling factors will help in the design and focus of programs targeted
at combating this human rights violation. It is widely believed that vulnerability paves the road
for traffickers. Commonly recognized enablers of trafficking include poverty, hardship, conflict,
crime and social violence, natural disasters, lack of education, and the marginalization and
devaluation of women in society based on gender.31 Consent is often used as a defense to
trafficking as crime. The Trafficking Protocol established, for the purpose of that definition,
consent of the victim is irrelevant where the use of illicit means is established.32 This is
significant because the Trafficking Protocol recognized that a victim’s exercise of free will is
often limited by means of force, deception or the abuse of power.
Women and children are ensnared in sex trafficking in a variety of ways, which vary from
one country to the next. For example, some are lured with offers of legitimate and legal work
such as dancers, waitresses and nannies, while others are promised marriage, education
opportunities, a chance at a improved life, prestige or fame, and some are even tricked into
entering trafficking by friends, boyfriends, neighbors, extended family members and even
Soroptimist International Report: Sex Slavery/Trafficking: Frequently Asked Questions. Available at
For discussion of, and recommendations regarding, the more systemic causes of child sexual abuse, please see the
paper prepared by Erika Dahlstrom for the 51 st session of the Commission on the Status of Women on behalf of
Human Rights Advocates.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Report: Best Practices for Programming to
Prevent Trafficking in Human Beings in Europe and Eurasia, 15, Sept. 2004.
Trafficking Protocol, supra note 8, at Art. 3(c).
In addition, many parts of the world believe there is little to no perceived stigma to
purchasing sexual favors for money and prostitution is viewed as a victimless crime.34 In
Western society in particular, there is a commonly held perception that women choose to enter
into the commercial sex trade. This is often not the case.
Other factors that enable trafficking include porous borders, corrupt government officials,
involvement in international organized criminal groups or networks, limited capacity of or
commitment by immigration and law enforcement officers to control the borders, and a lack of
adequate legislation and political will and commitment to enforce existing legislation or
According to a 2006 UNODC report, Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus,
Moldova and Ukraine are among the countries that are the greatest sources of trafficked
persons.36 Many believe that sex trafficking is something that occurs “somewhere else.”
However, the UNODC cites Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy
and the United States as common destination countries of trafficked women and girls.
Furthermore, men from all sectors of society support the trafficking industry. 37 Thus, the sex
industry has developed into one of the fastest growing global enterprises, with a multi-billion
dollar yearly profit.
Due to the unique environments of the various sources of victims for trafficking, local
conditions must be taken into consideration in determining the best design for programs targeted
For discussion of how agents recruit women and children into trafficking, please see the paper prepared by Jesse
Macias for the 51st session of the Commission on the Status of Women on behalf of Human Rights Advocates.
Soroptimist International Report, supra note 29.
UNODC. Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons, supra note 22, p. xviii.
UNODC. Trafficking in persons: Global Patterns. Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings
(2006) p. 18-20.
Soroptimist International Report, supra note 29.
at preventing women from being trafficked and rescuing those currently being victimized.
V. Effects and consequences of trafficking:
The effects and consequences of trafficking justify the inclusion of preventing and combating
trafficking in consideration of the theme of the 52nd Session of the CSW.38 For example, women
and girl children are trapped in prostitution despite the fact that a number of international
covenants and protocols impose upon parties an obligation to criminalize commercial sexual
exploitation.39 A 2003 study found 89 percent of women in prostitution want to escape
prostitution but had no other options for survival.40 Discrimination against women in source
countries results in the unequal availability of education and employment opportunities between
girl and boy children. Oftentimes girls grow up unemployed, under-paid, or in jobs for which
they are not paid (strenuous household work, child raising, etc.)41
The marginalization of women in the employment realm often results from gender
discrimination. For example, existing gender divisions of labor limit the employment
opportunities for women, while at the same time making them economically dependent on men.
This in turn leaves women vulnerable to trafficker when economic support is withdrawn.42
Discrimination against women through socially conditioned gendered cultural practices is not
only a root cause of trafficking, it is also a denial of women’s human rights.
The Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
requires all member states to take appropriate measures to “modify or abolish existing . . .
The theme of the 52nd Session of the CSW is “Financing for gender equality and empowerment of women.”
Seee the Trafficking Protocol and UN.GIFT.
Melissa Farley, Editor. Prostitution, Trafficking, and Traumatic Stress. Journal of Trauma Practice. Vol. 2,
Numbers 3/4, 2003.
Isabella Bakker, Financing for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: Paradoxes and Possibilities
by. EGM/FFGE/2007/BP.1, (August 29, 2007) pp. 7-8.
Jean D’Cunha, Trafficking in Persons: A Gender and Rights Perspective, prepared for the Expert Group Meeting
on Trafficking in Women and Girls, (Nov. 18-22, 2002).
customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women.”43 Furthermore, CEDAW
defines discrimination against women as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the
basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment
or exercise by women . . . of human rights and fundamental freedoms.”44 Thus, addressing and
changing the practices that contribute to the problem of trafficking should be one significant
focus of anti-trafficking efforts by states.
Where jobs are available, a stalled gender-wage gap, as well as an increase in women’s part-
time and informal sector work, push women into poorly-paid jobs and long-term and hidden
unemployment, further leaving women vulnerable to trafficking.45 If women experienced
improved economic and social status, trafficking would in large part be eradicated.46
Furthermore, sex trafficking promotes societal breakdown by removing women and girls
from their families and communities.47 Profits from trafficking consequently fuel organized
crime groups that usually participate in many other illegal activities, including drug and weapons
trafficking and money laundering. Trafficking negatively impacts local and national labor
markets, due to the loss of human resources.48 Sex trafficking also burdens public health
systems, due to widespread sexually transmitted infections, AIDS, and pregnancy.49 Victims of
trafficking face a range of needs including physical and mental health care, job training and
employment issues, housing issues and, possibly, childcare.
VI. Current Anti-Trafficking Programs:
As mentioned above, the Trafficking Protocol has paved the way for many state and
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Article 2(f).
Id., Article 1.
Bakker, supra note 41, p. 7-8.
Soroptimist International Report, supra note 29.
international efforts to prevent and combat trafficking. This section includes examples of what
states and Non Governmental Organizations are doing to use financing for gender equality in
order to prevent and combat trafficking.50 Since NGOs often find themselves in the front line in
the fight against trafficking in persons, they play an important role in the battle against
The NGO, Child Wise, along with the Government of Australia, has sponsored a regional
education campaign in order to combat child sex tourism, which was adopted by the ten ASEAN
Tourism Ministers on January 16, 2006.51 The campaign includes raising awareness among
those with the opportunity to stop trafficking such as airline personnel, a local hotline to report
The Government of Bangladesh has instituted a program in which anti-trafficking
information is distributed to beneficiaries of a micro-credit lending programs.52 This is critical
because women in rural areas are the primary beneficiaries of micro-credit and they are also
among the most at-risk for trafficking.53 As a result of the program, the government was able to
reach over 400,000 women in their anti-trafficking campaign. The combined approach of using
targeted lending programs to disseminate anti-trafficking information demonstrates the beneficial
relationship of broader economic and social development initiatives and the prevention of
Brazil has targeted major re-entry points for victims and has partnered with the NGO,
This section focuses on programs aimed at preventing and combating trafficking. It does not cover those
programs aimed at punishing perpetrators sex-trafficking, such as Mexico’s new federal position to prosecute
violence against women and human exploitation. See the article by E. Eduardo Castillo, Mexico to Focus on Crimes
Against Women, The Associated Press, (Jan. 31, 2008).
U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Interim Assessment, 2006 Report. Available at
http://www.state.gov/ g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65984.htm. [hereinafter Interim Assessment].
Association for the Defense of Woman and Youth, in order to transport victims back to their
home communities and provide information about government protection services and legal
In Colombia, the UNODC worked with the producer of the popular soap opera to
incorporate a storyline, which dramatized the plight of a trafficking victim.56 Use of the widely
viewed Spanish language television series, broadcast throughout Colombia and exported to
Venezuela, Ecuador, and the U.S., educated the public, reaching large sections of the population.
It also helped potential victims identify with the character, and understand some of the methods
used to deceive victims and witness the abuse they could face in a trafficker’s hands.
In Ecuador, volunteers from the National Institute for Children and Family, worked with
visiting international musician Ricky Martin, his charitable foundation, and Colombian
entertainer Carlos Vives to disseminate anti-trafficking messages and information that reached
approximately 24,000 people attending their concerts in Quito and Guayaquil.57 In addition,
some 50,000 soccer spectators in Ecuador watched a game played on a field bedecked with a
huge National Institute of Children and Family (INNFA) "No to Trafficking in Persons"
graphic.58 Ecuador also used public transportation to disseminate messages by adhering stickers
inside local taxis advocating anti-trafficking messages.59
In 2004, the Scout Movement in Indonesia, which incorporates nearly all public school
students across the country, began an anti-trafficking campaign.60 In its current phase, the Scout
Movement provides anti-trafficking education to 25,000 students in 116 schools and has trained
Id. The show in reference is “Everybody Loves Marilyn”
Id. The Scout Movement was initially started in Indramayu, West Jave, where there is a high rate of women and
girls falling victim to trafficking.
285 school-level facilitators who utilize innovative training and a campaign kit containing a four-
part video documentary, comic books, and other anti-trafficking materials.61
Similarly, Lithuania has also been raising awareness in the classroom. The Missing Person
Families Support Center designed an educational program for schools to ensure students have
adequate information on the risks of trafficking.62 The Center conducts twenty sessions annually
where Center employees give students one-hour lessons including viewing a documentary in
which young victims tell their stories and engage students in a roundtable discussion.
The Government of Romania commissioned the most comprehensive report on human
trafficking in Romania to date.63 The report was supported and partially financed by UNICEF,
and researched by a nongovernmental entity. Researchers had complete access to government
officials and official information enabling the report to be extremely candid and critical of
current gaps in anti-trafficking policy. The report has already begun to serve as a roadmap for
how to improve government efforts. This report can be further used to incorporate financing for
gender equality in order to prevent and combat trafficking.
The Italian Department of Equal Opportunities has used Article 18 of Legislative Decree
No. 289/98 in order to allow the granting of special residence permits to victims of trafficking
and for the participation is social and integration assistance programs.64 This is especially
helpful to victims of trafficking since they would otherwise be prosecuted as criminals under the
Italian legal system.
All of the above programs are examples of money spent in the effort to prevent and combat
Id. The Scout’s involvement in anti-trafficking is part of a larger strategy initiated by the Indonesian Government,
the American Center for International Labor Solidarity (the Solidarity Center), and the International Catholic
Migration Commission (ICMC) to mobilize existing mass-membership institutions and their significant networks to
ECPAT: Questions and Answers, supra note 4, p. 26.
trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation.65 However, it is important to the 52nd Session of
the CSW to assess whether these programs are having the desired effects?66 Therefore, when
developing and implementing programs aimed at preventing and combating trafficking,
procedures for reporting and evaluating the effectiveness of such programs need to be a part of
the process. Nonetheless, it is certain that more support, in the form of financing for equality and
the empowerment of women, is needed in this human rights battle against trafficking.
VII. Conclusion and Recommendations:
Trafficking in women is a complicated phenomenon with many forces coming together
resulting in its proliferation. However, there is international consensus that trafficking in persons
is a serious crime that must be eradicated. Conventional approaches to dealing with trafficking
usually focus on labor standard compliance, in line with international conventions (i.e. ILO
Conventions 29, 39, 105, and 182).67 Relying solely on labor standard compliance fails to take
into consideration the necessity to provide a viable alternative to women and children who are
likely to become victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation or who need rescuing from their
Rather, programs are needed, which provide resources and teach skills necessary to find and
create employment opportunities in local markets. Such programs should include
macroeconomic polices focused on gender equality commitments, in particular, those stemming
For further information on development strategies to combat trafficking in persons, please see the paper prepared
by Caryn R. Nutt for the 50th session of the Commission on the Status of Women on behalf of Human Rights
For a discussion of Gender Responsive Budgeting, please see Budgeting for Equity: Gender Budgeting Initiatives
Within a Framework of Performance Oriented Budgeting by Rhonda Sharp. (2003 UNIFEM), pp, 56-69.
U.S. Department of State Publication 11407, Office of the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs and
Bureau of Public Affairs. (Revised June 2007).
For discussion of, and recommendations regarding, the use of anti-trafficking prosecution and rescue operations,
please see the paper prepared by Jesse Macias for the 51 st session of the Commission on the Status of Women on
behalf of Human Rights Advocates.
from the Monterrey Consensus.69 Gender responsive budgets are also needed in order to foster
development initiatives and look towards results, which foster greater gender equality.70 In
situations where there are no jobs available and it is not feasible to create new jobs specifically
for women, at the very least job skills training programs can also teach women how to safely
migrate to a location where such jobs exist.
Therefore: Human Rights Advocates
A. Calls upon states parties to recognize gender-wage gaps and women in unpaid, underpaid
and poorly paid jobs, such as those in the sex trafficking trade and to initiate gender
responsive budgeting in order to improve the effectiveness of targeted expenditures and
revenues and to facilitate the greater participation of women in economic policy making.
B. Urges states parties to allocate sufficient domestic resources to provide alternate
employment and income earning opportunities for women in compliance with the ILO’s
definition of ‘decent work’.71 Programs should include skills training, employment
creation, alternative livelihoods, general education, and funding for campaigns targeted at
preventing and combating trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation. In
addition, programs should include procedures for reporting and evaluating the
effectiveness of such programs.
C. Stresses the need for states parties to provide social services to survivors of trafficking.
Funding for housing, health care, rehabilitation, education, and job training is necessary
to reintegrate victims back into society. Where a trafficking victim has been transferred
across national borders, states should provide refugee status.
Monterrey Consensus, supra note 16.
For more on these two topics, please see Financing for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women:
Paradoxes and Possibilities by Isabella Bakker. EGM/FFGE/2007/BP.1, August 29, 2007.
Decent Work, Report of Mr. Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General, 87th session of the ILO Conference, (1999).
The ILO defines ‘decent work’ as “productive work in which rights are protected, which generates an adequate
income, with adequate social protection."