Government Unit 3 Fill in the Blank by Tb406M3

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									       Unit 3
The Legislative Branch
Ch 10 – Congress
Ch 11 – Powers of Congress
Ch 12 – Congress in Action
                Ch 10 – Congress
• The Congress      • _________ branch of the gov.’t (______ the
                      laws)
                    • Powers listed in the 1st __________ of the
                      Constitution
                    • Congress became the ___________ of the
                      branches of gov.’t WHY?
                          • B/c the founding fathers feared a
                            strong __________ after their
                            experience under a ________
        _________ • Congress is bicameral (has 2 houses) for
                      several reasons:
                          • ________ – Britain’s parliament has 2
                            houses
               ________ • __________ – the Great Compromise
   House of
______________
                          • ________ – the 2 houses could
                            act as a check on one another
• Terms +    • Each congressional term lasts _____.
  Sessions     They start every _____ yr on Jan. 3rd.
               The 112th congressional term began
               in Jan. ’11.
             • A session of Congress is the period of
               time during which Congress
               _____________ regularly to conduct
               business each yr. The session lasts
               most of the yr.
             • If Congress isn’t in session, the
               president may call Congress into a
               special session to deal w/ some
               ____________ situation.
                   • Example: calling the Senate in to
                     ratify a _______.         End Section 1
• The House of    • Known as the “_____________”.
  Representatives • Representation in the House is based on
                      states’ ___________.
                  •   The # of representatives is fixed at ______
                      (since 1929). Each state is guaranteed at
                      least ______________ no matter how small
                      their population.
                  •   The # of representatives each state gets is
                      reevaluated every 10 yrs after the _______.
                  •   Members of the House are elected for ____.
                  •   Elections take place on _____ yrs on the 1st
                      Tuesday following the 1st Monday in
                      November.
                  •   Every 4 yrs the _________ is elected. Off-
                      year elections are election yrs when the
                      president is not up for election.
                  •   No ______________.
• ___________   • To run for the House of
  for House       Representatives, the _____________
  members         requires that the person:
                       1. Must be at least _____ yrs old.
                       2. Must be a US citizen for at
                          least ______.
                       3. Must be an inhabitant of the
                          _______ from which he/she is
                          elected.
                • _______ requires that he/she must live
                  in the __________ he/she represents.
                • The House may _________ to seat a
                  member-elect by a 2/3 vote if they
                  believe he/she is ___________. They
                  can also expel a member for disorderly
                  behavior w/ a 2/3 vote.
• Congressional                   • Each state is divided into ____________
  ___________                         districts (except in states w/ 1
                                      representative) every _____ yrs.
                                  • In 1842, a federal law required that
                                      states draw up their own Congressional
                                      districts + that they must be continuous
                                      territory (not ___________), made up of
                                      roughly equal ______________, and be
                                      “compact” – comparatively small area.
                                           • This law was often __________ by
                                             the state legislatures + almost
                                             never _______ by Congress. – Led
                                             to some very oddly ________
                                             districts.
                                  • The Supreme Court has since declared
                                      that congressional districts must be as
South Carolina has 6 Representatives. evenly divided by ________ as possible.
• Gerrymandering   • Gerrymandering is the drawing electoral
                     district lines in order to limit the _________
                     strength of a particular group or _________.
                   • Gerrymandering is done in 2 ways:
                           1. To __________ the opposition’s voters
                             in one or a few districts, leaving the
                             other districts to the ________ party, or
                           2. To _______ the opposition as thinly as
                             possible among several districts,
                             limiting the opposition’s ability to _____
                             anywhere in the region.
                   • As congressional districts are drawn after a
                     ________, whatever party is in power in each
                     state shortly after is especially important. B/c
                     although the __________________ declared
                     gerrymandering based solely on ____ to be a
                     violation of the 15th Amendment,
                     gerrymandering based on ____________ still
                     goes on today.
End Section 2
• The Senate   • Known as the “_____________”.
               • All states have __________ regardless of size
                 or population. _______________
               • Members of the Senate are elected for __ yrs
                 + represent the entire state.
               • Elections take place on even yrs on the 1st
                 Tuesday following the 1st Monday in
                 November. ______ of the Senate is up for
                 election every ____ yrs (33 or 34), but never 2
                 from the same _________ at the same time.
               • No ______________.
               • Until the 17th Amendment (1912), Senators
                 had been chosen by state ________. It used
                 to be known as the “__________________”.
               • B/c of its smaller size, Senators tend to get
                 more ______ coverage + are more likely to be
                 nominated for president or ______________.
• ____________   • To run for the Senate, the Constitution
  for Senators     requires that the person:
                       1. Must be at least ____ yrs old.
                       2. Must be a US citizen for at
                           least _______.
                       3. Must be an inhabitant of the
                           ________ from which he/she is
                           elected.
                 • The Senate, like the House, may
                   _____ to seat a member-elect by a 2/3
                   vote if they believe he/she is
                   unqualified. They can also _______ a
                   member for disorderly behavior w/ a
                   2/3 vote.

                                                  End Section 3
• The ______ • There are ___ members of Congress.
  member of    The average member is:
  Congress   • ________
             • _______
             • _________ yrs old
             • _____________ class
             • ____________
             • Married
             • ____ children
             • College educated (1/3 _________)
             • The average Senator is serving a ___
               term + Representative a ____.
• The _____ of a • A Congressman has many different duties to
  Congressman      perform. He/she must be a:
                    • Legislator: ______________
                    • Representative of his/her constituents:
                       • 4 types:
                               1. ______ – Congressman votes based
                               on what he/she thinks is best
                               2. __________ – Congressman votes
                               based on what his/her constituents
                               would want
                               3. ______ – Congressman votes based
                               on his/her party’s platform
                               4. ________ – Combination of all of the
                               above
                    • Committee member: _____________
                      before sending them to the house floor +
                      overseeing executive agencies
                    • Servant of their constituent: help
                      constituents/provide _________
                    • Politician
• ____________•   While there are ___________ in Congress,
  for             some Congressmen are __________ on their
  Congressmen     salary
              •   Salary: __________ – Congress sets its own
                  salary. BUT, if it passes a law to get a raise, it
                  doesn’t take effect until after the next ______!
              •   Federal income tax deduction to maintain 2
                  _________.
              •   ________ allowances
              •   __________
              •   Retirement plan
              •   Given an _____ in DC + funds for an office in
                  home state + for _________
              •   Franking privilege – _____________
              •   Gym/pool access, free parking at the Capitol
                  + DC’s major airports
              •   ________ from libel/slander for anything said
                  or written on the house floor or in __________
                                                          End Section 4
 Ch 11 – __________ of Congress
• Powers of    • The national gov.’t’s powers are known as
  Congress       delegated powers (powers granted to it by the
  (Review        ________________)
  from Unit 1) • 3 types of ____________ powers:
                     1. Expressed (or enumerated) – spelled out
                       in the Constitution
                     2. Implied – powers that are reasonably
                       ____________ by the expressed powers
                             - the “Necessary + Proper Clause” or
                             the “Elastic Clause”
                            “…to make all Laws which shall be necessary
                            and proper for carrying into Execution the
                            foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested by
                            this Constitution in the Government of the
                            United States, or in any Department or
                            Officer thereof.” - Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18
                      3. Inherent – powers that national gov.’ts
                      have ____________ possessed
                            - Ex. Controlling __________ +
                            diplomacy
• Examples of    • Create a national public _______
  things           system
  Congress       • Require people to _______
  ________ do:   • Set a minimum age for marriage,
                   drivers’ licenses, or __________
                 • Censor a newspaper __________
                 • Abolish _______ trials
                 • Confiscate all _____________
• __________ the • Ever since the __________ of the
  Constitution     Constitution, there has been a _____ over
                   how to interpret it.
                 • The strict constructionists (led by Thomas
                   Jefferson) believed that Congress should
                   only be able to exercise the expressed
                   powers + those ________ to carry out the
                   expressed powers.
                       • They believed “that government is
                         best which governs _______.”
                       • Wanted the states’ gov.’ts to have
                         the most ________
                 • The loose constructionists – or ________
                   constructionists (led by Alexander
                   Hamilton) believed that Congress should
                   have most ______ power except for those
                   explicitly _______ to it by the Constitution.
                       • Wanted the national gov.’t to have
                         the most ___________
• The loose constructionists have had
  more ___________ in the beginning +
  throughout history due to various
  factors:
      • _______
      • _________ crises/national
        emergencies
      • Advances in transportation +
        ________________
      • The people’s demand for more
        __________
      • General __________ among the
        people (consensus)
• But the ________ continues today…
                              End Section 1
• Congress’s     •   The power to tax (a charge levied by the gov.’t
  power to _____     on people or property to raise $ to meet _____
                     ______ – although they can serve other needs
                     ex. protective tariff). The gov.’t will collect over
                     $___________ each year.
                 •   There are 4 ________ on Congress’s taxation
                     power:
                        1. May tax only for ______ purposes, NOT
                           private ________
                        2. May NOT tax __________
                        3. Direct taxes must be distributed among
                           the states based on __________ (except
                           income taxes – 16th Amendment)
                           HOWEVER, Congress hasn’t collected
                           any direct taxes other than income since
                           the 1800s.
                        4. ______________ (gas, tobacco, alcohol)
                           must be the same in all _________.
• Other       • ___________ $
  expressed $      • The US gov.’t regularly _______ more $
  powers of          than it raises. The deficit is the ______
  __________         owed by the gov.’t.
              • Regulate _____________
                        • _________ (b/w the states, NOT in one
                          state)
                        • _________
                        • 3 Restrictions:
                                1. Cannot tax __________
                                2. Cannot favor the ______ of one
                                  state over another
                                3. Cannot require ________ going
                                  from one state to another to pay
                                  a tax
                  • _______ $
                  • ______________ Regulation
                                                         End Section 2
• Other       • ___________________ (shares w/ president)
  expressed         • Issues w/ ____________
  powers of         • ______________
  Congress
                    • ______________ issues
              • __________________ (shares w/ president)
                    • Raise + support an army, navy, etc
                    • Declare _______
                    • Ratify ___________ (the Senate)
              • ______________________
                    • Sets process by which immigrants become ______
              • ________ Power (tampering w/ mail is a FEDERAL crime)
              • Copyrights + ___________
              • Regulate Weights + _____________
              • Power over _______________
                    • Includes DC, Puerto Rico, ____________, national
                      parks, etc
              • ____________ Powers
                    • Creates all federal courts except for Supreme Court
                                                               End Section 3
• The _______ • Implied – powers that are reasonably
  powers        __________ by the expressed powers
                           - the “Necessary + Proper Clause”
                           or the “Elastic Clause”
                           “…to make all Laws which shall be
                           necessary and proper for carrying
                           into Execution the foregoing
                           Powers and all other Powers
                           vested by this Constitution in the
                           Government of the United States,
                           or in any Department or Officer
                           thereof.” - Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18
              • The Necessary + Proper Clause is what
                makes our Constitution _______. W/o it, the
                Constitution would have quickly become
                __________.
Expressed Powers                        Implied Powers
                                      - Punish tax ___________
Lay + collect ________             - Regulate sales of commodities
                           - Set conditions for states to get federal funding

                                      - Establish the Federal
     __________ $                   Reserve System of ________


     Establish                 - Regulate + limit __________________
_______________ laws



Raise armies + a ______         - ________ Americans into the military


                                  - Establish a ________________
  Regulate commerce
                          - Ban ___________ in workplaces + public facilities
(interstate + ________)
                                         - Regulate banking

                                       - Prohibit mail _________
Establish ____________
                             - Bar the shipping of certain items in the mail
                                                                    End Section 4
• The         • Propose ______________ – or call on a national
  ___________   convention to do so (never happened).
  powers of   • If no candidate wins a majority of electoral
  Congress      votes, the House ______ the President from the
                top 3 candidates w/ each ______ getting one vote.
              • The ______________ has the power to impeach
                (to accuse or _____ a high official). Impeachment
                requires a simple majority vote. If impeached, the
                __________ tries, or judges, the official (if a
                president, the ____________ presides). A guilty
                verdict requires a 2/3 majority vote.
                     • 2 presidents have been impeached –
                       _____________ (1868) + Bill Clinton (1998)
              • The Senate has 2 __________ powers – all major
                _____________ made by the president must be
                confirmed by the Senate in a simple majority
                vote. Also, the Senate must ratify any ________
                negotiated by the president by 2/3 majority vote.
              • Congress can ___________ any matter that falls
                w/in the scope of its legislative powers.
                                                         End Section 5
            Ch 12 – Congress in Action
• The officers in            • At the beginning of each _____, Congress
  Congress                     must choose its officers for each chamber.
              The House of
                                                                   The Senate
             Representatives


 Speaker of the House                             President of the Senate   President Pro Tempore
John Boehner (R – OH)                               V.P. Joe Biden (D)        Dan Inouye (D – HI)




 Majority Floor Leader    Minority Floor Leader    Majority Floor Leader     Minority Floor Leader
 Eric Cantor (R – VA)     Nancy Pelosi (D – CA)     Harry Reid (D – NV)     Mitch McConnell (R- KY)




     Majority Whip           Minority Whip            Majority Whip             Minority Whip
 Kevin McCarthy (R- CA)   Steny Hoyer (D – MD)    Richard Durbin (D – IL)      Jon Kyl (R – AZ)
• The Speaker • The most _______ member of Congress.
  of the House • 2nd in line for ___________ after the v.p.
               • He/she is the elected leader of the House
                 + the chosen leader of its ______ party.
               • Presides + ____________ of the House.
               • No member may ______ until recognized
                 by the Speaker.
               • _________ + applies the House rules,
                 refers bills to _________, rules on points
                 of order, puts motions to _____, decides
                 the outcome of votes, signs all
                 resolutions + bills passed by the House,
                 + ________ the members of all select +
                 conference committees (but not standing
                 committees).
• The President • The Constitution names the ____________ as the
  of the Senate   President of the Senate
                • __________ members, puts questions to a vote, +
                  many of the other presiding duties
                • The President of the Senate __________ take the
                  floor to speak or _______ + may only vote to break
                  a _____.
                • B/c he isn’t a _________ of the Senate (+ often not
                  even a member of the majority party), he won’t
                  have much _________ w/in the Senate, unless he
                  builds relationships w/ Senators (more _________
                  if the v.p. was once a member of the Senate)




• The President • _________ by the Senate
  Pro Tempore • Always a leading member of the majority party
  (or Pro Tem)    (usually the ___________ serving member)
                • Presiding officer when the v.p. is ________ (often)
                • 3rd in line for ___________ after v.p. + the speaker
• The Majority +   • Floor leaders do not hold _________
  Minority Floor     positions in either house, but are party
  Leaders            officers chosen by their _____ in each
                     chamber.
                   • They try to carry out the _________ of
                     their parties + steer floor action to their
                     parties’ __________.
                   • Serve as chief ____________ for their
                     parties in their chamber.
                   • The majority floor leader largely
                     controls the order of _________ on the
                     floor in his chamber.
• The Majority +  • Chosen by their parties to _____ their
  Minority ______   parties’ floor leaders in each chamber.
                  • Serve as links b/w the parties’
                    __________ + the other members.
                  • Check w/ party members + tell leaders
                    which _________ + how many votes
                    can be __________ for any particular
                    vote.
                  • Make sure that all party members are
                    ___________ for any important votes.
• Committee     • Most of the work in Congress (especially in
  ___________     the House) is done in ______________.
                • Committee chairmen are members who
                  head the standing committees in each
                  chamber.
                • Chosen from the majority party by the
                  ________________.
                • Committee chairmen decide ________ their
                  committees will meet, which _____ they will
                  take up, whether they will hold _________
                  hearings, + what _________ the committee
                  should call.
                • The seniority rule is a custom that gives the
                  most important ______ in the formal + party
                  organization to the longest _____ members
                  of Congress.

                                                      End Section 1
• Committees • Serve as a way to ______ up the work.
             • Not mentioned in the _____________.
              • Congress is “a collection of committees that comes
                together periodically to approve one another’s actions.”
                                                 - Representative Clem Miller (D. – CA)
  Congressional Committees

                    Standing Committees – ____________ committees in
                      each chamber.

                      Select (or Special) Committees - _____________
                     committees set up for a specific _____________.
                      (Often to investigate a current issue – ex. Watergate + 9/11)


                    Joint Committees – composed of members of ______
                     chambers, may serve as a standing or select
                      committees.

                    Conference Committees – temporary joint committee
                    formed when both houses pass 2 different _______
                    of the same bill + need to __________.
• Standing     • The # of committees ______ in each chamber.
  committees   • _______ committees have 10-75 members +
                 _________ committees have 14-28 members.
               • Representatives are normally assigned to ___
                 committees + Senators to _____ committees.
               • Committees are where most bills receive their
                 most thorough ___________ + where the fate
                 of the bills are usually ___________.
               • Most standing committees are divided up into
                 __________________.
               • Some committees are more prominent – leads
                 to more prominence, or _________, for those
                 committee members.
               • The majority party in each __________ always
                 holds a majority of the _____ on each standing
                 committee.
End Section 2
• The origin   • About _____ measures are introduced
  of ______      every Congressional term, but fewer
                 than ____% ever become law.
               • A bill is a ____________ presented to
                 the House or Senate for consideration.
               • Most bills originate in the __________
                 branch. But many are drafted by
                 special ____________, Congressmen,
                 or even ______ (or at least the idea for
                 a bill).
               • Bills can originate in either chamber,
                 except for ____ bills, which can only
                 start in the ________.
               • A rider is a provision that would not
                 pass on its own, so it is attached to a
                 ______________ to insure it passes.
• Types of bills
  + resolutions

          ______                              ____________

                                           Joint      Concurrent     Resolutions -
                                     Resolutions - Resolutions -       a measure
 Public Bills –   Private Bills –
                                      a proposal for a statement of   dealing w/ a
  apply to the    apply to certain
                                       some action ________ on an matter in one
________ as a      _________ or
                                       that has the  issue, doesn’t ______, doesn’t
     whole          _________
                                     ____________ have the force     have the force
                                        if passed        of law          of law

                                                                    Doesn’t require
                   Ex. $ paid to     Usually deals      Doesn’t
                                                                    the president’s
  Ex. a tax or    individuals for    w/ unusual or    require the
                                                                      signature –
 copyright law      losses from      ___________      president’s
                                                                     often about a
                       gov.’t           matters      ___________
                                                                      procedure
• Passing a bill • A proposed bill is put on the ________________.
  in the House • The clerk numbers + titles it. It is printed + all
                   members receive a copy – 1st __________.
                 • The bill is referred to the appropriate ___________
                   committee, which decides whether or not the bill is
                   worthy of ___________.
                         • Most bills are _______ in the committees.
                 • Bills that a committee wish to consider are often
                   ______________ in subcommittees to gather
                   information.
                 • Once a subcommittee completes its work, the bill is
                   sent back to the ____ committee, which then has 5
                   options:
                   1. ________ to report the bill (to pigeonhole it)
                   2. Report the bill ____________ to the full House
                   3. Report the bill in ________ form to the full House
                   4. Report the bill w/ an ________________
                   recommendation - rarely happens
                   5. Report a committee bill – a bill that the
                   committee ___________ for 1 or more referred to it
• Once sent to the House, the _____ Committee can
  kill the bill by refusing to put it on a ________ to be
  heard by the House. If they do put the bill on the
  calendar, they can put _______ rules on it (such as
  limiting the amount of time it can be debated on the
  floor).
• If a bill reaches the floor, it receives its 2nd reading.
• Floor debate is extremely ______, no member may
  speak for more than 1hr (unless given __________
  __________ to continue) + the Speaker can force
  anyone to stop debating if they get ____________.
  Anyone can demand a vote on the issue which
  allows only 40 min more of ___________.
• When voting occurs, separate votes are taken on
  the bill + on each _____________ to the bill.
• The bill, if approved, is printed in its _____ form. If
  approved in its 3rd reading, it is sent to the ______.
                                                 End Section 3
• Passing a bill • Mostly the same as it is in the House,
  in the Senate    but not quite as ________.
                 • A senator introduces a bill. It is given a
                   # + title, then read _______ before being
                   sent to committee.
                 • __________ committee process.
                 • If a bill is reported to the floor, the
                   majority floor leader calls for debate at
                   his/her _________. The major difference
                   is the almost __________ time senators
                   have to debate a bill. A filibuster is an
                   attempt to “___ a bill to death”. It occurs
                   when a __________ of senators seek to
                   delay or prevent the Senate action on a
                   measure. Even the _____ of a filibuster
                   has been known to kill bills.
• ___________ • Before being sent to the president to
  committees    sign, a bill must pass through the House
                + the Senate in ____________ form.
              • So what happens if they pass different
                versions, + can’t _______ to either one?
                    • A conference committee is formed
                      from members of each of the
                      respective _________ committees.
                    • Once they’ve ironed out their
                      different versions, they send it back
                      to __________ which must pass or
                      reject it as it is. It’s usually ______.
• The         • Once a bill reaches the president, he
  president’s   has 4 options:
  __________       1. Sign it into ______
                   2. Veto it (refuse to _______)
                          - Congress can override w/
                                   a 2/3 vote –
                _______
                   3. ______ the bill to become a law
                   w/o signing it – by not acting w/in
                   ________ (excluding Sundays) of
                   receiving it.
                   4. Use a pocket veto – if Congress
                   will _________ its session w/in 10
                   days of submitting the bill to the
                   president + he doesn’t sign it, the

								
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