6804 uk energy sector indicators 2012 energy prices by L0Oho6

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									  UK energy sector indicators 2012:
  energy prices and competition




Relates to URN 12D/193
This workbook was produced in October 2012

Contents
6.1a Fuel price indices for the industrial sector including the CCL (gas and electricity)                     8.1a Fuel price indices for the domestic sector (gas and electricity)
6.1b Fuel price indices for the industrial sector including the CCL (heavy fuel oil and coal)                 8.1b Fuel price indices for the domestic sector (heating oils and coal & smokeless fuels)
6.2 Petrol and diesel prices indices                                                                          8.2a Domestic gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27: converted to UK pence per kWh
6.3 Trends in NW European marker price of coal                                                                8.2b Domestic gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27: PPS
6.4 Trends in the price of Brent crude oil                                                                    8.2c Percentage change in domestic gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27
6.5 Trends in the wholesale price of gas                                                                      8.3a Domestic electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27: converted to UK pence per kWh
6.6 Industrial gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27: converted to UK pence per kWh                 8.3b Domestic electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27: PPS
6.7 Percentage change in industrial gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27                           8.3c Percentage change in domestic electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27
6.8a Industrial electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27: converted to UK pence per kWh        8.4 Security and availability of electricity supply for the average customer
6.8b Industrial electricity prices for extra-large consumers within the EU27: converted to UK pence per kWh   8.5 Security and availability of gas supply for the average customer
6.9a Percentage change in industrial electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27                  8.6 Proportion of customers on fixed or online tariffs
6.9b Percentage change in industrial electricity prices for extra-large consumers within the EU27             8.7 Number of online and offline tariffs available to domestic customers
6.10 European unleaded petrol/ULSP prices in pence/litre                                                      8.8 Number of customer accounts on social and discounted tariffs and suppliers' total annual spend on these tariffs
6.11 European diesel prices in pence/litre                                                                    8.9 Number of electricity customer accounts on accredited green tariffs
6.12 Taxes and duties as a percentage of selling price for unleaded petrol                                    8.10 Total number of energy supplier transfers per quarter
6.13 Taxes and duties as a percentage of selling price for diesel                                             8.11a Percentage of electricity customers serviced by their home supplier, GB
                                                                                                              8.11b Percentage of gas customers serviced by their home supplier, GB
7.1 Competition in electricity generation                                                                     8.12 Energy supplier performance regarding complaints handling, 3 month rolling average
7.2 Competition in electricity sales to the industrial sector                                                 8.13 Number of households and vulnerable households in fuel poverty, UK
7.3 Competition in electricity sales to the commercial sector                                                 8.14 Trends in fuel poverty by severity (based on required spend as a proportion of income), England
7.4 Competition in electricity sales to the domestic sector                                                   8.15 Proportion of total household expenditure on energy products
7.5 Competition in gas sales to electricity generators
7.6 Competition in gas sales to the industrial sector
7.7 Competition in gas sales to the commercial sector
7.8 Competition in gas sales to the domestic sector
Chart 6.1a & b:
Fuel price indices for the industrial sector, 1980 to 2011 including the Climate Change Levy

             Electricity      Gas Heavy fuel oil      Coal
      1980       149.94     126.47          129.44   193.12
                 156.05     137.77          139.36   200.55
                 159.65     136.76          137.50   222.39
                 151.91     131.85          143.50   218.11
                 145.57     130.77          163.80   209.60
      1985       143.23     132.19          157.28   206.26
                 140.41     111.91           73.43   190.19
                 129.90     100.43           74.85   173.79
                 129.22      90.22           52.13   145.68
                 129.04      81.26           52.90   132.65
      1990       120.93      77.66           54.03   128.09
                 116.50      73.11           44.26   117.65
                 119.25      71.17           41.28   115.54
                 122.53      67.22           43.15   106.38
                 116.44      64.89           46.04   103.64
      1995       112.36      59.14           52.37    94.70
                 105.23      43.83           56.10    87.38
                  97.25      44.48           52.60    83.63
                  94.46      45.91           42.99    83.90
                  92.98      44.59           48.15    80.86
      2000        85.63      48.21           69.24    80.44
                  81.54      66.85           68.08    91.51
                  78.05      63.40           69.68    91.40
                  73.70      64.08           78.49    82.60
                  78.13      68.75           77.10    88.64
      2005       100.00     100.00          100.00   100.00
                 129.28     120.31          123.91    93.38
                 129.21      94.87          125.67   104.79
                 154.36     138.23          177.60   129.45
                 164.36     118.21          170.85   120.81
                 145.63     108.87          204.60   134.98
      2011       144.02     130.51          242.03   145.26

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
ing the Climate Change Levy




                           from 331 annual ccl
                gdp used         Coal      Heavy      Gas    Electricity
                  146.14       88.97     200.43    112.98      84.08
                149.3476        97.88     206.20    124.01     92.01
Chart 6.2:
Petrol and diesel prices index, 1990 to Q2 2012

             Index (real terms)
                               Diesel     Unleaded     Diesel (DERV)
      Year       Unleaded     (DERV)    (excl taxes)     (excl taxes)
      1990           65.81      62.44          26.78            25.93
                     69.10      62.66          27.28            19.34
                     72.22      62.98          30.79            20.48
                     73.13      69.67          31.76            26.49
      1991           66.12      64.35          26.42            22.67
                     72.35      65.14          26.47            22.73
                     72.31      65.24          26.90            23.27
                     69.90      65.83          25.31            24.18
      1992           67.41      63.20          22.97            21.72
                     70.44      64.67          24.75            22.26
                     69.34      64.63          23.44            21.87
                     71.23      67.20          25.29            24.27
      1993           71.11      67.88          25.65            25.28
                     74.94      70.32          25.41            24.10
                     73.55      69.38          24.62            23.67
                     73.07      70.42          23.16            23.54
      1994           73.88      71.31          21.51            22.05
                     75.47      72.08          22.69            22.56
                     76.78      72.51          23.80            22.92
                     74.85      71.18          21.86            21.21
      1995           76.21      73.71          19.96            19.86
                     77.54      74.52          21.36            20.81
                     76.70      73.46          20.81            20.06
                     75.47      72.94          18.63            18.55
      1996           76.75      75.01          17.33            18.03
                     75.77      73.75          17.24            17.66
                     77.38      74.87          18.85            18.83
                     82.01      80.41          21.56            22.38
      1997           81.96      79.77          19.47            19.88
                     80.70      78.17          18.69            18.80
                     85.76      82.39          18.86            18.45
                     85.92      82.25          18.94            18.26
      1998           83.55      80.03          17.36            16.80
                     87.56      84.87          15.90            14.99
                     87.34      84.37          16.12            14.96
                     84.98      82.18          14.70            13.67
      1999           83.54      82.10          12.40            11.76
                     91.20      90.82          16.11            14.85
                     93.74      92.43          18.57            20.22
                     95.80      93.95          20.59            21.78
      2000           98.03      96.22          22.76            23.96
                   105.14      100.69          26.32            25.40
                   105.61      101.25          26.79            25.94
                   103.39      102.30          25.25            27.17
      2001           97.30      97.60          21.40            24.85
                     98.82      94.47          25.79            24.78
                     97.35      93.57          24.93            24.34
                     90.78      91.46          19.41            22.60
      2002           88.20      89.18          17.71            21.14
                    92.53      90.39         21.89   22.64
                    91.34      89.05         21.06   21.68
                    91.32      88.88         21.23   21.71
       2003         93.39      91.23         23.70   24.39
                    92.20      90.83         22.98   24.34
                    91.25      89.09         22.23   22.91
                    91.29      88.99         21.01   21.63
       2004         91.66      89.32         21.63   22.18
                    94.99      92.15         25.05   25.15
                    95.18      92.24         25.60   25.61
                    96.83      95.41         27.62   28.89
       2005         92.93      93.94         24.46   27.79
                    98.33      98.54         29.28   31.93
                   104.86     104.11         35.06   36.86
                   103.80     103.35         34.37   36.43
       2006        100.76     100.78         32.58   35.00
                   107.26     105.33         38.21   38.97
                   105.88     104.18         37.39   38.33
                    95.42      97.11         28.64   32.46
       2007         96.52      96.48         28.60   31.00
                   103.72     100.68         35.19   35.01
                   104.44     100.86         35.95   35.30
                   108.39     107.25         37.65   39.14
       2008        112.30     113.07         41.48   44.58
                   120.17     126.14         48.53   56.04
                   122.05     129.01         50.28   58.63
                   100.99     108.94         33.15   42.39
       2009         93.52     100.41         26.06   34.55
                   103.27     104.74         32.38   35.86
                   109.10     104.96         37.38   36.38
                   111.02     107.10         38.24   37.47
       2010        116.17     112.32         41.04   40.37
                   122.52     118.65         45.67   45.03
                   118.46     115.53         42.42   42.57
                   120.40     118.59         43.68   44.80
       2011        129.35     128.55         48.80   50.80
                   135.18     133.90         54.91   56.45
                   134.46     132.56         54.36   55.39
                   131.57     132.22         52.35   55.49
       2012        132.49     133.93         53.55   57.33
                   133.29     132.89         54.70   56.92

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 6.3:
Trends in the NW European marker price of coal , 1980 to 2011

                         US$ per tonne
            Spot price   Deflated price
     1980        61.74           162.05
                 76.94           181.46
                 66.31           146.06
                 53.88           112.48
                 48.28            96.75
     1985        49.32            93.59
                 44.50            81.95
                 32.66            57.30
                 37.77            62.53
                 42.87            66.16
     1990        44.23            64.10
                 44.30            59.86
                 39.87            52.25
                 34.85            44.79
                 38.47            48.76
     1995        46.05            56.85
                 39.00            46.71
                 36.80            43.19
                 30.49            35.09
                 28.79            32.42
     2000        36.03            40.30
                 39.45            43.45
                 31.43            33.83
                 43.50            45.69
                 72.24            74.02
     2005        61.13            61.13
                 63.92            62.12
                 88.83            84.44
               146.95            135.69
                 70.46            64.17
                 92.07            81.62
     2011      121.55            105.05

Source: Platts; DECC
Chart 6.4:
Trends in the price of Brent crude oil, 1980 to 2011

                                   £ per barrel
            Current price   Real 2005 prices
     1980           15.82                41.52
                    17.74                41.84
                    18.85                41.52
                    19.49                40.70
                    21.45                42.98
     1985           21.20                40.23
                     9.80                18.05
                    11.24                19.73
                     8.41                13.92
                    11.11                17.14
     1990           13.33                19.32
                    11.34                15.32
                    10.97                14.37
                    11.37                14.61
                    10.42                13.21
     1995           10.89                13.45
                    13.32                15.95
                    11.76                13.80
                     7.93                 9.12
                    11.28                12.71
     2000           19.11                21.37
                    17.19                18.93
                    16.72                18.00
                    17.55                18.43
                    20.82                21.33
     2005           30.18                30.18
                    35.86                34.85
                    36.30                34.51
                    53.12                49.05
                    39.96                36.39
                    51.98                46.08
     2011           69.17                59.78

Source: Platts, Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 6.5:
Trends in the wholesale price of gas, 1996 to 2011

                     pence per therm
            Current price   Real 2005 prices
     1996           11.95                14.31
                    11.92                13.99
                    11.25                12.95
                     9.76                10.99
     2000           17.88                20.00
                    22.05                24.28
                    15.78                16.99
                    20.39                21.41
                    24.32                24.92
     2005           40.56                40.56
                    42.70                41.50
                    30.00                28.52
                    58.34                53.87
                    30.95                28.19
                    42.41                37.60
     2011           56.28                48.64

Source:BP Statistical Review of World Energy, Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 6.6:
Industrial gas prices for medium consumers within the EU27 in 2011: converted to UK pence per kWh

           2011
EU27 Industrial Gas Prices
country          p per kwh
Romania                 2.06
UK                      2.27
Estonia                 2.55
Bulgaria                2.63
Spain                   2.70
Latvia                  2.72
Poland                  2.80
Czech Republic          2.86
Belgium                 2.87
Italy                   2.88
Netherlands             2.92
Portugal                3.12
France                  3.22
Hungary                 3.25
Slovakia                3.27
Ireland                 3.37
Lithuania               3.39
Finland                 3.81
Luxembourg              3.99
Germany                 4.14
Slovenia                4.19
Sweden                  4.62
Denmark                 5.77



Source: Derived from Eurostat data
2011: converted to UK pence per kWh
Chart 6.7:
Percentage change in industrial gas prices for medium consumers within the EU 27, 2010 to 2011

EU27 Industrial Gas Prices
country             percentage change
Czech Republic      -      0.6
Poland                     4.1
Estonia                    4.2
Netherlands                4.2
Romania                    8.3
Slovakia                   9.8
Latvia                     9.9
France                   10.5
Spain                    10.9
Denmark                  12.0
Italy                    12.3
Bulgaria                 13.0
Slovenia                 14.9
Belgium                  15.1
Hungary                  15.4
UK                       16.5
Sweden                   17.3
Luxembourg               17.5
Portugal                 19.7
Lithuania                19.8
Germany                  19.9
Ireland                  31.3
Finland                  40.7




Source: Derived from Eurostat data
mers within the EU 27, 2010 to 2011
Chart 6.8 a:
Industrial electricity prices for medium consumers within the EU27 in 2011:
converted to UK pence per kWh
            2011
EU27 Industrial Electricity Prices
country           p per kwh
 Bulgaria                5.11
 Romania                 6.10
 France                  6.25
 Estonia                 6.27
 Finland                 6.32
 Luxembourg              6.35
 Sweden                  6.50
 Poland                  7.16
 Slovenia                7.35
 Netherlands             7.52
 Greece                  7.83
 UK                      7.91
 Portugal                7.94
 Ireland                 8.03
 Spain                   8.04
 Denmark                 8.11
 Latvia                  8.22
 Hungary                 8.33
 Czech Republic          8.52
 Belgium                 8.64
 Lithuania               8.88
 Germany                 9.81
 Slovakia               10.12
 Italy                  11.68
 Malta                  13.88
 Cyprus                 15.13


Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Chart 6.8 b:
Industrial electricity prices for extra-large consumers within the EU27 in 2011:
converted to UK pence per kWh
             2011
EU27 Industrial Electricity Prices
country            p per kwh
 Bulgaria                4.32
 Romania                 5.13
 France                  5.15
 Greece                  5.25
 Sweden                  5.33
 Finland                 5.40
 Estonia                 5.69
 Ireland                 5.91
 Portugal                6.09
 Spain                   6.25
 Netherlands             6.52
 Slovenia                6.65
 Hungary                 6.67
 Belgium                 6.77
 Poland                  6.88
 Latvia                  7.00
 UK                      7.17
 Denmark                 7.30
 Slovakia                8.19
 Czech Republic          8.39
 Germany                 8.73
 Italy                   8.92
 Cyprus                12.66




Source: Derived from Eurostat data
the EU27 in 2011:
Chart 6.9 a:
Percentage change in industrial electricity prices for medium consumers
within the EU 27, 2010 to 2011

EU27 Industrial Electricity Prices
country           percentage change
Luxembourg        -        6.1
Netherlands       -        5.7
Poland            -        2.5
Slovenia                   0.1
Denmark                    0.7
Romania                    0.8
Malta                      1.1
Bulgaria                   1.2
Spain                      2.7
Hungary                    3.1
Czech Republic             4.0
Sweden                     4.1
UK                         4.7
Estonia                    5.2
Greece                     6.2
Lithuania                  6.8
Belgium                    7.1
Italy                      8.7
Finland                    9.3
Ireland                    9.8
Slovakia                 10.0
France                   10.1
Germany                  11.5
Latvia                   14.3
Portugal                 15.2
Cyprus                   16.9

Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Chart 6.9 b:
Percentage change in industrial electricity prices for extra-large consumers
within the EU27, 2010 to 2011

EU27 Industrial Electricity Prices
country            percentage change
Greece             -     12.0
Netherlands        -      9.1
Hungary            -      8.5
Sweden             -      4.9
Poland             -      1.3
Denmark            -      0.2
Slovakia                  2.1
Bulgaria                  2.3
Slovenia                  2.4
France                    2.8
Italy                     3.2
UK                        4.3
Romania                   5.9
Czech Republic            6.2
Finland                   6.8
Belgium                   7.7
Latvia                    7.9
Spain                     8.2
Germany                  18.0
Cyprus                   19.2
Ireland                  22.4
Estonia                  23.6
Portugal                 28.5




Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Chart 6.10:
European unleaded petrol/ULSP prices in pence/litre at December 2011
                                                                    Prices
                                                             including tax
                 Price excluding tax and duty   Tax and Duty      and duty
Bulgaria                               49.7            46.9         96.6
Poland                                 51.3            49.9        101.2
Cyprus                                 57.5            44.7        102.2
Romania                                53.2            49.9        103.1
Estonia                                52.3            53.5        105.8
Luxembourg                             54.6            53.3        107.8
Latvia                                 54.2            54.8        109.0
Lithuania                              53.7            55.9        109.6
Spain                                  55.5            54.3        109.8
Hungary                                53.9            56.3        110.1
Slovenia                               51.3            60.6        111.9
Austria                                51.1            63.7        114.7
Czech Republic                         54.0            61.9        115.9
Malta                                  61.5            58.0        119.6
Slovakia                               54.7            69.0        123.6
France                                 53.4            72.4        125.8
Germany                                51.5            75.8        127.4
Ireland                                56.6            70.9        127.5
Sweden                                 50.8            77.3        128.2
Belgium                                54.3            74.4        128.7
Portugal                               55.4            73.6        129.0
Finland                                54.4            75.6        130.0
United Kingdom                         52.1            80.0        132.1
Denmark                                58.4            75.2        133.7
Netherlands                            53.8            83.3        137.1
Greece                                 55.2            83.9        139.1
Italy                                  57.5            84.3        141.9



Source: European Commission Oil Bulletin
Chart 6.11:
European diesel prices in pence/litre at December 2011
                 Price excluding              Price including
                    tax and duty Tax and Duty    tax and duty
Bulgaria                   57.9         43.6           101.5
Luxembourg                 61.5         40.4           101.9
Poland                     60.3         43.5           103.7
Romania                    61.1         45.9           106.9
Slovenia                   60.7         46.9           107.6
Lithuania                  64.4         44.5           108.9
Spain                      63.9         46.1           110.0
Cyprus                     67.4         43.3           110.7
Latvia                     63.9         48.8           112.6
Malta                      63.9         49.8           113.6
Estonia                    62.8         52.5           115.3
Austria                    60.1         56.4           116.5
France                     60.4         56.2           116.5
Netherlands                61.9         55.1           116.9
Slovakia                   63.7         54.1           117.7
Czech Republic             62.0         56.0           118.0
Germany                    59.4         58.8           118.1
Belgium                    62.0         56.9           118.9
Portugal                   65.8         53.1           119.0
Finland                    66.4         53.1           119.5
Hungary                    64.1         55.5           119.6
Denmark                    64.1         57.5           121.6
Ireland                    60.5         62.2           122.7
Greece                     68.3         60.2           128.5
Sweden                     61.9         68.7           130.6
Italy                      65.9         74.7           140.6
United Kingdom             59.2         81.4           140.6




Source: European Commission Oil Bulletin
Chart 6.12:
Taxes and duties as a percentage of selling price of unleaded petrol, 1990 to 2011

                       UK            EU 15 Average              EU 27 Average
     1990              58                       62
                       63                       64
                       65                       67
                       67                       68
     1994              70                       71
                       74                       72
                       76                       72
                       77                       70
     1998              82                       73
                       82                       71
                       75                       66
                       76                       64
     2002              78                       68
                       76                       68
                       74                       66                           62
                       69                       62                           59
     2006              67                       60                           56
                       67                       60                           56
                       62                       58                           54
                       68                       64                           61
                       64                       60                           57
     2011              60                       56                           54

Source: European Commission Oil Bulletin, International Energy Agency Energy Prices and Taxes
Chart 6.13:
Taxes and duties as a percentage of selling price for diesel, 1990 to 2011

                     UK        EU 15 Average       EU 27 Average
     1990            59                   55
                     63                   56
                     65                   61
                     65                   60
     1994            69                   63
                     73                   65
                     75                   63
                     77                   62
     1998            82                   66
                     81                   64
                     74                   56
                     74                   57
     2002            76                   60
                     74                   60
                     72                   59                   56
                     67                   53                   51
     2006            65                   51                   49
                     65                   51                   49
                     58                   47                   45
                     65                   55                   54
                     63                   52                   51
     2011            59                   48                   47

Source: European Commission Oil Bulletin, International Energy Agency Energy Prices and Taxes
Chart 7.1:
Competition in electricity generation 1989 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman    Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1989                                            7388.889
                                                    5004.8485
                           2620.808                  2620.808
                           2542.098
     1993                  2217.553
                           2041.706
                           1919.342
                           1653.342
     1997                  1432.259
                           1358.456
                           1134.954
                            935.704
     2001                   892.093
                            879.899
                            908.424
                            896.145
     2005                   937.709
                            913.705
                            912.785
                            821.546
                           1058.277
                            924.108
     2011                  1116.174

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.2:
Competition in electricity sales to the industrial sector, 1989 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1989                            10000
                                   5363.536
                       727.0726401 727.0726
                        733.452901
     1993              746.7983361
                        819.517381
                       877.5605113
                        861.013213
     1997              759.1429712
                       993.9765715
                          882.7082
                         1050.0173
     2001                1560.2617
                         1758.4761
                         1470.4126
                         1292.1752
     2005                1164.6916
                         1175.4632
                         1170.2672
                         1202.2307
                         1554.4101
                         1726.0496
     2011                1534.9203

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.3:
Competition in electricity sales to the commercial sector, 1989 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1989                             10000
                                    5440.63
                       881.2591805 881.2592
                       876.5558436
     1993              858.2313449
                       789.5037419
                       806.5910843
                       808.7954566
     1997              996.0811068
                       943.1723566
                          881.9133
                         1187.1626
     2001                1659.4449
                         1897.1921
                         1508.6518
                         1433.4337
     2005                1359.1397
                         1393.1627
                         1385.7563
                         1439.5853
                         1774.1727
                         1685.4842
     2011                1421.6905

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.4:
Competition in electricity sales to the domestic sector, 1989 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1989                                   10000
                                            10000
                                            10000
                                            10000
     1993                                   10000
                                            10000
                                            10000
                                            10000
     1997                                   10000
                                      5462.152894
                           924.306        924.306
                          1102.160       1102.160
     2001                 1326.711       1326.711
                          1685.398       1685.398
                          1676.537       1676.537
                          1628.487       1628.487
     2005                 1636.058       1636.058
                          1635.929       1635.929
                          1631.158       1631.158
                          1656.945       1656.945
                          1618.983       1618.983
                          1639.056       1639.056
     2011                 1631.576       1631.576

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.5:
Competition in gas sales to electricity generators, 1986 to 2012

                      Herfindahl-Hirschman
            Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1986                  10000
                           10000
                           10000
                           10000
     1990                  10000
                10000      10000
             3898.222
             2644.381
     1994    1910.069
             1956.865
             1727.739
             1421.363
     1998    1639.207
             2132.913
             3276.387
             3060.564
     2002    3754.175
             3719.126
             3216.581
             2965.150
     2006    2665.721
             2458.791
             2562.400
             2538.791
             2591.865
     2011    3050.527

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.6:
Competition in gas sales to the industrial sector, 1986 to 2011

               Herfindahl-Hirschman    Herfindahl-Hirschman
        1986                                              10000
                                                        9842.34
                                                        9684.68
                                                        9527.01
        1990                  9369.348                  9369.35
                              8255.284
                              6544.918
                              5105.952
        1994                  3658.271
                              1510.622
                              1157.292
                              1152.461
        1998                  1078.471
                              1315.779
                              1066.604
                              1046.886
        2002                  1076.172
                              1230.432
                              1634.374
                              1525.008
        2006                  1469.526
                              1636.786
                              1431.650
                              1663.576
                              1651.354
        2011                  1797.277


Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.7:
Competition in gas sales to the commercial sector, 1986 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman    Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1986                                             10,000
                                                       9,999
                                                       9,999
                                                       9,999
     1990                 9,998.641                    9,999
                          9,972.386
                          8,892.035
                          6,026.430
     1994                 3,592.617
                          1,883.075
                          1,419.174
                          1,037.047
     1998                   948.674
                            868.146
                            786.701
                           1123.015
     2002                  1367.118
                           1498.491
                           1624.273
                           1556.376
     2006                  1935.557
                           1748.693
                           1589.549
                           1492.872
                           1523.450
     2011                  1524.967

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 7.8:
Competition in gas sales to the domestic sector, 1986 to 2011

            Herfindahl-Hirschman    Herfindahl-Hirschman
     1986                                             10,000
                                                      10,000
                                                      10,000
                                                      10,000
     1990                                             10,000
                                                      10,000
                                                      10,000
                                                      10,000
     1994                                             10,000
                         10,000.000                   10,000
                          9,911.850
                          9,527.633
     1998                 7,929.208
                          6,095.701
                          5,214.679
                          4,366.701
     2002                 4,065.019
                          3,770.457
                          3,739.321
                          3,212.608
     2006                 2,573.414
                          2,633.389
                          2,506.837
                          2,328.060
                          2,284.321
     2011                 2,223.588

Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change
Chart 8.1:
Fuel price indices for the domestic sector, 1980 to 2011

                                                      Coal &
                                         Heating   smokeless
              Electricity         Gas       Oils       fuels
     1980           118.3         85.5      82.3        92.5
                    127.9         96.8      87.9        97.5
                    131.1        112.6      93.3        97.8
                    128.8        119.5     100.0        98.6
                    125.4        118.9      96.4       102.0
     1985           122.5        117.1      99.1       102.8
                    121.4        115.7      82.6       102.7
                    115.1        109.3      72.8        98.7
                    114.5        103.9      62.6        94.2
                    114.5        101.0      62.8        89.1
     1990           116.2        101.3      76.9        86.7
                    119.3        101.1      68.9        86.1
                    121.7         97.8      58.9        86.7
                    118.9         92.2      61.3        85.5
                    121.2         96.4      60.5        89.7
     1995           119.6         97.1      58.9        88.9
                    115.5         94.3      62.9        87.0
                    107.8         91.5      60.1        86.0
                    100.9         86.7      49.3        85.1
                     97.5         84.3      54.0        85.0
     2000            94.8         81.7      75.3        85.8
                     92.5         82.6      72.1        88.5
                     90.9         85.8      66.5        91.0
                     89.6         85.3      72.0        90.7
                     92.6         89.3      79.9        93.0
     2005           100.0        100.0     100.0       100.0
                    118.2        128.1     110.0       104.5
                    124.9        135.0     108.6       109.5
                    140.3        157.1     152.2       126.7
                    144.6        176.2     115.1       146.9
                    137.3        161.4     142.9       143.0
     2011           143.5        174.1     174.1       146.2

Source: Office for National Statistics
Chart 8.2a:                                                       Chart 8.2b:
Domestic gas prices for medium consumers within the               Domestic gas prices for medium c
EU27 in 2011: converted to UK pence per kWh                       within the EU27 in 2011: PPS

EU27 Domestic Gas Prices                         pence per kWh    country
country        Price (excluding taxes) Tax component      Total   Luxembourg
Romania                            1.27          1.16     2.43    United Kingdom
Latvia                             3.05          0.61     3.66    Ireland
Estonia                            2.90          0.82     3.71    Romania
Bulgaria                           3.26          0.65     3.91    France
UK                                 3.92          0.20     4.11    Spain
Poland                             3.40          0.78     4.18    Germany
Lithuania                          3.49          0.73     4.23    Belgium
Slovakia                           3.53          0.70     4.24    Estonia
Spain                              3.96          0.71     4.67    Austria
Luxembourg                         4.26          0.47     4.73    Latvia
Ireland                            4.07          0.82     4.89    Netherlands
Hungary                            3.92          0.98     4.90    Slovakia
Czech Republic                     4.12          0.82     4.94    Italy
France                             4.43          0.89     5.32    Czech Republic
Germany                            3.96          1.37     5.33    Lithuania
Portugal                           5.25          0.60     5.85    Poland
Belgium                            4.74          1.18     5.92    Portugal
Austria                            4.54          1.60     6.14    Denmark
Netherlands                        3.92          2.41     6.32    Slovenia
Slovenia                           4.89          1.44     6.34    Sweden
Italy                              4.35          2.46     6.81    Hungary
Denmark                            4.91          4.84     9.75    Bulgaria
Sweden                             5.68          4.52    10.20

Source: Derived from Eurostat data                                Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Domestic gas prices for medium consumers
within the EU27 in 2011: PPS

                  PPS          PPS/kWh
                        4.52       4.52
                        4.73       4.73
                        5.16       5.16
                        5.36       5.36
                        5.42       5.42
                        5.77       5.77
                        5.88       5.88
                        6.03       6.03
                        6.16       6.16
                        6.35       6.35
                        6.40       6.40
                        6.68       6.68
                        7.12       7.12
                        7.51       7.51
                        7.65       7.65
                        7.96       7.96
                        8.06       8.06
                        8.14       8.14
                        8.22       8.22
                        8.89       8.89
                        9.06       9.06
                        9.27       9.27
                        9.68       9.68


Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Chart 8.2c:
Percentage change in domestic gas prices for
medium consumers within the EU27, 2010 to 2011

EU27 domestic gas prices
country                                          percentage change
 Belgium                                                      21.9
 Luxembourg                                                   21.6
 Lithuania                                                    19.0
 Latvia                                                       18.6
 Slovenia                                                     17.8
 Czech Republic                                               16.9
 Austria                                                      16.9
 UK                                                           15.9
 Sweden                                                       15.2
 Bulgaria                                                     14.3
 Estonia                                                      13.5
 France                                                       13.2
 Italy                                                        13.2
 Slovakia                                                     12.0
 Portugal                                                     11.5
 Ireland                                                      11.4
 Germany                                                       9.3
 Denmark                                                       5.5
 Hungary                                                       5.0
 Poland                                                        4.8
 Netherlands                                                   4.2
 Romania                                                       2.5
 Spain                                                         1.3

Source: Derived from Eurostat data
Chart 8.3a:                                                       Chart 8.3b:
                                                                  Domestic electricity prices for me
Domestic electricity prices for medium consumers within           consumers within the EU27 in 20
the EU27 in 2011: converted to UK pence per kWh                   PPS

EU27 Domestic Electricity Prices                  pence per kWh
country         Price (excluding taxes) Tax component Total       country
Bulgaria                            6.14          1.24     7.38   France
Estonia                             6.37          2.38     8.74   Finland
Romania                             7.25          2.15     9.40   Greece
Lithuania                           8.73          1.83    10.57   Luxembourg
Greece                              8.80          2.00    10.80   Estonia
Latvia                              8.92          1.97    10.89   United Kingdom
France                              8.73          3.45    12.17   Sweden
Poland                              9.53          2.71    12.24   Netherlands
Finland                             9.14          3.48    12.63   Austria
Slovenia                            9.67          3.06    12.73   Slovenia
Czech Republic                     10.59          2.26    12.85   Bulgaria
UK                                 12.47          0.62    13.09   Ireland
Hungary                            10.97          3.07    14.04   Belgium
Luxembourg                         12.53          1.97    14.49   Latvia
Slovakia                           12.01          2.71    14.72   Italy
Malta                              14.01          0.74    14.75   Czech Republic
Portugal                            9.04          6.30    15.34   Lithuania
Netherlands                        11.47          4.07    15.54   Romania
Austria                            12.52          4.62    17.14   Portugal
Ireland                            14.49          2.81    17.30   Denmark
Spain                              14.24          3.42    17.65   Spain
Italy                              12.31          5.46    17.78   Malta
Sweden                             11.78          6.16    17.95   Poland
Belgium                            13.74          4.72    18.46   Germany
Cyprus                             16.34          3.02    19.36   Cyprus
Germany                            12.15          9.80    21.95   Slovakia
Denmark                            11.19         14.34    25.53   Hungary


Source: Derived from Eurostat data.                               Source: Derived from Eurostat data.
                                         Chart 8.3c:
Domestic electricity prices for medium
consumers within the EU27 in 2011:       Percentage change in domestic electricity prices for medium
PPS                                      consumers within the EU27, 2010 to 2011

                                         EU27 domestic electricity prices
                 PPS/kWh                 Country Percentage change
                    12.41                Latvia         21.0
                    12.94                Cyprus         16.4
                    13.57                Spain          15.0
                    13.84                France         11.5
                    14.50                Denmark        10.6
                    15.04                Sweden         10.2
                    15.94                Portugal       10.0
                    16.43                Ireland         9.6
                    17.72                Czech Republic 9.4
                    17.84                Belgium         9.4
                    18.26                Finland         9.2
                    18.27                Slovakia        8.7
                    18.79                UK              7.6
                    19.04                Italy           6.6
                    19.41                Netherlands     6.5
                    19.85                Germany         6.3
                    19.91                Romania         5.2
                    20.72                Greece          5.2
                    21.32                Slovenia        4.9
                    21.52                Poland          4.8
                    21.83                Bulgaria        4.6
                    23.01                Lithuania       3.8
                    23.51                Estonia         3.2
                    24.21                Austria         2.5
                    24.66                Malta           1.1
                    24.69                Hungary        -0.2
                    26.47                Luxembourg     -2.8


Source: Derived from Eurostat data.      Source: Derived from Eurostat data.
estic electricity prices for medium
7, 2010 to 2011
Chart 8.4:
Security and availability of electricity supply for the average customer, 1991/92 to 2010/11

            Minutes lost per customer      Interruptions per 100 customers
1991/92                102                                88
1992/93                106                                95
1993/94                 96                                85
1994/95                 97                                88
1995/96                 97                                91
1996/97                 87                                89
1997/98                 88                                88
1998/99                 81                                78
1999/00                 71                                81
2000/01                 86                                84
2001/02                 84                                87
2002/03                110                                86
2003/04                 81                                83
2004/05                 94                                78
2005/06                 69                                74
2006/07                100                                88
2007/08                 82                                77
2008/09                 76                                73
2009/10                 81                                72
2010/11                 70                                69


Source: Electricity Distribution Annual Report, Ofgem.
, 1991/92 to 2010/11
Chart 8.5:
Security and availability of gas supply for the average customer, 2003/04 to 2009/10

          Interruptions per 1000 customers   Minutes lost per customer
2003/04                     9                             12
2004/05                    13                             12
2005/06                    17                             10
2006/07                    21                             12
2007/08                    24                             13
2008/09                    24                             16
2009/10                    23                             14

Source: Ofgem
09/10
Chart 8.6:
Proportion of customers on fixed or online tariffs in Q2 2012

                                                     Electricity   Gas
Fixed and/or online tariff                              19%        16%
Direct Debit excluding fixed/online tariffs             37%        41%
Standard Credit excluding fixed and online tariffs      28%        29%
Pre-payment excluding fixed/online tariffs              16%        13%


Source: Domestic Fuels Inquiry data, DECC.
Chart 8.7:
Number of online and offline tariffs available to domestic consumers, January 2007 to
January 2011

                Offline tariffs Online tariffs
       Jan-07                 161              42
       Jan-08                 182              45
       Jan-09                 221              59
       Jan-10                 231            112
       Jan-11                 261            135


Source: energyshop.com data used in the Retail Market Review, Ofgem.
Chart 8.8:
Number of customer accounts on social and discounted tariffs and suppliers’ total annual spend on
these tariffs, 2007/08 to 2010/11

Number of customer accounts on social and discounted tariffs

           2007-08             2008-09         2009-10         2010-11
Total      458,494             1,004,470       1,010,382       1,029,332


Suppliers' contribution (£m)

           2007-08             2008-09         2009-10         2010-11
Total      34                  130             113             92



Source: Monitoring Suppliers’ Social Spend reports, Ofgem.
annual spend on
Chart 8.9:
Number of electricity customer accounts on accredited ‘green’ tariffs, 2010 to Q2 2012

          Number of 'green' tariffs
Q1 2010                    285,332
Q2 2010                    292,463
Q3 2010                    304,800
Q4 2010                    304,613
Q1 2011                    298,820
Q2 2011                    474,928
Q3 2011                    412,196
Q4 2011                    437,561
Q1 2012                    255,063
Q2 2012                    241,293

Source: Domestic Fuels Inquiry data, DECC.
Chart 8.10:
Total number of energy supplier transfers per quarter, 2003 to Q2 2012


                                     Gas Transfers -   Total Electricity   Electricity Transfers -
Quarter        Total Gas Transfers   moving average          Transfers          moving average
2003      Q1            673,000                           1,031,000
          Q2            713,000                           1,022,000
          Q3            809,000           792,250         1,066,000                 1,050,500
          Q4            864,000           836,375         1,085,000                 1,048,250
2004      Q1            893,000           853,375         1,027,000                 1,040,875
          Q2            846,000           875,500         1,008,000                 1,042,750
          Q3            812,000           881,125         1,021,000                 1,045,875
          Q4          1,038,000           879,500         1,145,000                 1,055,250
2005      Q1            764,000           899,375           992,000                 1,073,000
          Q2            962,000           891,250         1,118,000                 1,089,125
          Q3            855,000           890,250         1,053,000                 1,123,500
          Q4            930,000           915,750         1,242,000                 1,153,125
2006      Q1            864,000           942,750         1,170,000                 1,177,500
          Q2          1,066,000           967,750         1,177,000                 1,202,125
          Q3            967,000           988,625         1,189,000                 1,211,500
          Q4          1,018,000           992,000         1,303,000                 1,224,750
2007      Q1            943,000           986,750         1,184,000                 1,255,000
          Q2          1,014,000           991,750         1,269,000                 1,281,500
          Q3            977,000           994,500         1,339,000                 1,297,750
          Q4          1,048,000         1,000,625         1,365,000                 1,314,750
2008      Q1            935,000         1,027,625         1,252,000                 1,342,625
          Q2          1,071,000         1,043,250         1,337,000                 1,359,500
          Q3          1,136,000         1,034,250         1,494,000                 1,341,625
          Q4          1,014,000         1,015,000         1,345,000                 1,315,875
2009      Q1            897,000           980,375         1,129,000                 1,282,375
          Q2            955,000           958,250         1,254,000                 1,257,750
          Q3            975,000           949,125         1,309,000                 1,249,125
          Q4            998,000           931,000         1,333,000                 1,228,250
2010      Q1            840,000           909,750         1,072,000                 1,206,250
          Q2            867,000           894,250         1,144,000                 1,192,750
          Q3            893,000           883,625         1,243,000                 1,177,750
          Q4            956,000           871,500         1,291,000                 1,163,625
2011      Q1            797,000           872,375           994,000                 1,152,500
          Q2            813,000           848,750         1,109,000                 1,098,625
          Q3            954,000           784,500         1,189,000                 1,020,500
          Q4            706,000           721,125           914,000                   949,750
2012      Q1            533,000                             746,000
          Q2            570,000                             791,000

Source: Ofgem
Q2 2012
Chart 8.11a:                                                 Chart 8.11b:
Percentage of electricity customers serviced by their home   Percentage of gas customers serviced
                                                                     (1)
supplier, Great Britain, 2001 to Q2 2012                     supplier , Great Britain, 2001 to Q2 201

  Year      Quarter    Credit   Direct Debit Prepayment        Year     Quarter
  2000        Q4        78           70          88            2000       Q4
  2001        Q1        76           68          85            2001       Q1
              Q2        74           66          80                       Q2
              Q3        71           64          76                       Q3
              Q4        69           63          72                       Q4
  2002        Q1        69           62          68            2002       Q1
              Q2        69           61          68                       Q2
              Q3        68           61          65                       Q3
              Q4        65           59          64                       Q4
  2003        Q1        64           59          65            2003       Q1
              Q2        64           55          64                       Q2
              Q3        63           55          63                       Q3
              Q4        63           53          62                       Q4
  2004        Q1        63           52          62            2004       Q1
              Q2        63           53          63                       Q2
              Q3        63           51          62                       Q3
              Q4        60           50          60                       Q4
  2005        Q1         60          50               60       2005       Q1
              Q2         59          48               55                  Q2
              Q3         60          46               58                  Q3
              Q4         61          46               58                  Q4
  2006        Q1         59          44               56       2006       Q1
              Q2         58          43               56                  Q2
              Q3         57          43               54                  Q3
              Q4         55          42               53                  Q4
  2007        Q1         55          41               53       2007       Q1
              Q2         54          40               51                  Q2
              Q3         53          39               50                  Q3
              Q4         54          40               53                  Q4
  2008        Q1         54          40               52       2008       Q1
              Q2         53          38               51                  Q2
              Q3         52          39               50                  Q3
              Q4         51          37               49                  Q4
  2009        Q1         51          36               48       2009       Q1
              Q2         52          38               51                  Q2
              Q3         51          36               48                  Q3
              Q4         51          36               47                  Q4
  2010        Q1         50          36               46       2010       Q1
              Q2         49          36               46                  Q2
              Q3         49          35               45                  Q3
              Q4         48          35               44                  Q4
  2011        Q1         47          35               43       2011       Q1
              Q2         47          35               43                  Q2
              Q3         46          35               42                  Q3
              Q4         46          34               42                  Q4
  2012        Q1         46          34               41       2012       Q1
              Q2         46          34               40                  Q2


Source: Table 2.4.1, Quarterly Energy Prices, DECC.             Source: Table 2.5.1, Quarterly Energy Pric
rcentage of gas customers serviced by their home
      (1)
pplier , Great Britain, 2001 to Q2 2012

                    Credit   Direct Debit Prepayment
                     72           67          87
                     71           66          87
                     68           64          83
                     67           63          82
                     67           62          82
                     67           60          81
                     67           58          82
                     67           57          78
                     66           57          77
                     66           56          77
                     66           56          76
                     65           56          74
                     63           56          74
                     62           55          74
                     64           54          74
                     64           53          73
                     63           50          71
                      62          50           71
                      61          51           69
                      62          50           69
                      61          49           67
                      58          48           67
                      56          45           64
                      55          44           64
                      56          41           63
                      56          39           62
                      56          37           60
                      57          36           59
                      56          37           58
                      57          37           56
                      56          36           55
                      55          35           53
                      56          34           48
                      56          35           49
                      56          35           49
                      57          34           48
                      57          33           47
                      58          34           47
                      58          34           47
                      58          34           46
                      58          34           46
                      58          33           46
                      58          34           45
                      58          33           45
                      58          33           44
                      58          33           44
                      57          33           43


Source: Table 2.5.1, Quarterly Energy Prices, DECC.
2001
Chart 8.12:
Energy supplier performance regarding complaints handling,
3 month rolling average, April 2010 to March 2012

 Month    Industry Average (Big Six)
Apr-2010            109.4
May-2010             97.5
Jun-2010             83.5
 Jul-2010             84
Aug-2010             86.5
Sep-2010              93
Oct-2010              94
Nov-2010             98.7
Dec-2010             95.2
Jan-2011              93
Feb-2011             86.9
Mar-2011             86.3
Apr-2011             75.7
May-2011             70.8
Jun-2011             68.8
 Jul-2011            80.8
Aug-2011             86.7
Sep-2011             86.4
Oct-2011             84.7
Nov-2011             85.9
Dec-2011              83
Jan-2012             82.5
Feb-2012              78
Mar-2012              77




Source: Consumer Focus
Chart 8.13:
Number of households and vulnerable households in Fuel Poverty, UK, 1996 to 2010

Numbers in Fuel Poverty (Millions)
                                      1996             1998                              2002             2004          2006          2008          2010
UK                                     6.5              4.8                        2.5     2.3   2.000      2.0   2.5    3.5    4.0     4.5   5.5     4.8
UK vulnerable                          5.0              3.5                        2.0     1.8      1.5     1.5   2.0    2.8   3.25    3.75   4.5     4.0


Source: Fuel Poverty datasets, DECC
Chart 8.14:
Trends in fuel poverty by severity (based on required spend as a proportion
of income), England, 1996 to 2010


% of income required to be spent on fuel
                         1996               1998            2000              2002
10-15%    marginal       2.730      2.435   2.139   1.836   1.534     1.231   1.079
15-20%    moderate       0.923      0.732   0.540   0.497   0.453     0.410   0.300
>20%      severe         0.629      0.615   0.600   0.468   0.337     0.205   0.156

Source: Fuel Poverty datasets, DECC
                                                        millions
        2004            2006            2008            2010
0.926   0.915   1.112   1.636   1.807   2.149   2.549   2.275
0.189   0.206   0.269   0.441   0.515   0.635   0.748   0.641
0.107   0.116   0.148   0.354   0.501   0.550   0.666   0.620
Chart 8.15:
Proportion of total household expenditure on energy products, 1980 to 2011

              Percentage of total Percentage of total
              expenditure spent expenditure spent on
               on electricty, gas  vehicle fuels and
                and other fuels       lubricants
   1980              4.8%                3.5%
                     5.2%                3.8%
                     5.4%                3.9%
                     5.3%                3.9%
                     5.0%                3.9%
   1985              5.0%                3.8%
                     4.7%                3.2%
                     4.3%                3.0%
                     3.8%                2.9%
                     3.6%                2.9%
   1990              3.6%                3.0%
                     3.9%                2.9%
                     3.7%                2.9%
                     3.6%                2.8%
                     3.5%                3.0%
   1995              3.4%                3.0%
                     3.3%                3.0%
                     3.0%                3.1%
                     2.6%                3.1%
                     2.4%                3.2%
   2000              2.4%                3.2%
                     2.3%                3.1%
                     2.2%                2.9%
                     2.1%                2.9%
                     2.4%                3.0%
   2005              2.7%                3.1%
                     3.2%                3.1%
                     3.3%                3.2%
                     3.9%                3.5%
                     4.0%                3.3%
                     4.1%                3.5%
   2011              3.7%                3.5%


Source: Office for National Statistics

								
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