Playground Safety Training by CMmoo4ez



    Why is playground safety so important?

• 76% of injuries to children occur on public playgrounds

• 44% of all injuries are caused by falls

• Estimated 200,000 emergency room treated injuries

• Climbers are involved in more than 50% of these injuries

• Children between 2-9 account for 83% of injuries

• Some deaths caused by falls to hard surfaces, head
  entrapments, entanglements, and impact injuries.

    What’s happened in the world of
          playground safety?
• Changes to CPSC’s Public Playground Safety
  Handbook that was updated November 2010

• EEC regulations effective January 2010
  include a focus on hazards that may lead to
  injuries such as head entrapments

• QRIS includes outdoor environments and the
  use of the Environmental Rating Scales

 Playground Safety is addressed
        in QRIS and ERS
• Category 2 of QRIS includes
  “demonstrates healthy, safe and clean
  indoor and outdoor environments”.
• The Environmental Rating Scale is the
  tool used for self assessment and
  assessment by a reliable rater of the
  indoor and outdoor environment.
       Experience tells us that:

• Children are being injured while using
  outdoor play equipment
• Some of the injuries may have been
  prevented with changes to the outdoor
  environment and with adequate supervision
• EEC staff continue to build on their
  knowledge of playground safety and
• The provider community must be included
  in the plan for improving playground safety
    Consumer Product Safety Commission’s
      Public Playground Safety Handbook

    *Federal agency charged with protecting public
    from products that may cause injury or death
    * CPSC’s Public Playground Safety Handbook used
    by many states to develop regulations and policy
    *The Environmental Rating Scales that are
    imbedded in QRIS use CPSC’s Handbook as a
    guide for the assessments related to outdoor
    space and equipment.

    Regulations related to Playground Safety

7.07 (7) Outdoor Space

7.07 (16)(e) Playground Safety

7.07 (13) Safety Requirements for
  Equipment, Materials and Furnishings

7.10 (5) Supervision

 What does this mean for all of us?

The goal is threefold:
• To provide ongoing training to ensure that all licensing
  staff have a solid knowledge base so that clear,
  consistent information can be provided to programs
• To provide training and information for programs so
  that they have the tools and the knowledge to be able
  to assess and provide safe indoor and outdoor spaces
  for children in their care.
• To conduct enhanced playground inspections that will
  focus on surfacing, fall zones and entrapments
An enhanced inspection takes a closer
        Revised EEC Policy
• Playground safety
  inspection will
  include using the
  2011 EEC Playground
  Safety Policy that
  was built on the
  foundation of the
  1997 Playground
  Safety Policy
    Playground Safety Policy
• Focuses on 5 areas of concern:
     - Equipment
     - Surfacing
     - Fall zones
     - Hazards including entrapments
     - Supervision
 *Refer to Playground Safety Policy

     • Must be
       appropriate for the
       ages of the children
       using it.
     • Must be free of
     • Must not be
       identified by CPSC
       as being unsafe for
       any age group

• Falls from equipment is the #1 cause of
  injury to children.
• The function of surfacing is to reduce
  the severity of injuries due to falls.
• The fall height of equipment
  will determine the amount of surfacing

     Determining Fall Height

     Minimum Compressed loose fill surfacing

         Inches   Loose-fill    Protects to fall height
            of       material
           6      Shredded/        10 feet
           9      Sand             4 feet
           9      Pea gravel       5 feet
           9      Wood mulch       7 feet
                    (non CCA)
           9      Wood chips       10 feet

             Appropriate Surfacing
     Unitary Materials       Loose Fill
     •   Rubber mats         •   Pea gravel (not for
     •   Tiles                   infants/toddlers)
     •   Poured surfaces     •   Sand
                             •   Shredded/recycled
                                 rubber mulch
                             •   Wood mulch including
                                 engineered wood fiber
                             •   Wood chips

     All manufactured surfacing materials must meet
        ASTM standards.

       Loose fill surfacing materials

• Compresses at least 25% over time
• Requires frequent maintenance
• May need a method of containment
• May be affected by the drainage and resulting
  standing water
• Loose fill material can not be used as the only
  protective surfacing over hard areas such as
  asphalt or concrete
• Surfacing installed over a hard area must be
  installed professionally according to CPSC

     Hazards related to maintenance of

                Fall zones
• The fall zone is the distance around each
  piece of equipment that will need surfacing
• In general fall zones must extend 6 feet
  around from the perimeter of any piece of
          Determining fall zones

General requirements:
- For composite structures, the fall zone
  must be 6 feet from the perimeter
- Two pieces of equipment that are not more
  than 30” high can share a use zone as long
  they are at least 6 feet apart.
- Two pieces of equipment that are over 30”
  high can share a use zone if they are at
  least 9 feet apart.
    Determining fall zones for swings

• To and fro swings- The use zone is 2 x the distance
  from the pivot point to the surfacing and 6’ out from
  the side poles

        Fall zones for tire swings

Tire swings- The use zone must be the
  distance from the pivot point to the tire
  plus 6’ and 6’ out from the side of the
  poles .

       Fall zones for bucket swings

Bucket swings- The use zone
must be 2 x the distance from
the pivot point to the sitting
surface and 6’ out from the side

       Surfacing and fall zone issues

Lack of a fall zone with
  appropriate amount of
  surfacing material

Exposed cement can be a
  tripping hazard and can
  cause head injuries

Entrapment Hazards

         • Head entrapment areas are
           between 3.5” and 9”
         • The child’s body can fit
           through a space that does
           not allow the head to pass
         • Applies to indoor as well as
           outdoor environments
         • Even if the child’s feet are
           on the ground, the child is in
           danger of strangulation

     Another head entrapment hazard

     Another entrapment hazard

Checking a partially bound
• Routine inspection and ongoing maintenance is
• Hazards might include:
  -broken equipment
  -lack of surfacing
  -head entrapments
  - weather related hazards such as frozen ground
  -metal equipment in direct sun light
  - inadequate shade
Supervision plays an important role in keeping
  children safe while on the playground.

  Programs should be encouraged to develop
  playground supervision and monitoring plan so
  that staff know and understand their

  Programs should train staff on how to
  effectively supervise the playground as well
  as how to monitor the playground

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