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					        PowerPoint Summary of:
       Key Negotiation Concepts




Negotiation
                                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                                        Key Negotiation Concepts


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                    PowerPoint Summary of:
                   Key Negotiation Concepts




        Negotiation
     How often do you do it?
Do you like doing it? A=Yes, B= No
Are you good at it? A= Yes, B=No
            Discuss.
                            PowerPoint Summary of:
                          Key Negotiation Concepts



      Negotiation – My Definition
A discussion between two or more disputants
  who are trying to work out a solution to their
  problem.
 It is done when neither side can get what

  he/she wants on its own.
 The purpose is …?
                           PowerPoint Summary of:
                          Key Negotiation Concepts



          Purpose of Negotiation
   To win. (Competitive)
   To reach a good agreement. (Cooperative)

How would you define a GOOD agreement?
                                    PowerPoint Summary of:
                                  Key Negotiation Concepts



          What is a good agreement?
Fisher and Ury argue that a good agreement is:
  wise
       satisfy the parties' interests
       is fair
       is lasting.
       efficient
       Cost effective,
       Time conserving
       improves parties' relationship.
                                     PowerPoint Summary of:
                                    Key Negotiation Concepts



                       Negotiation…
   Can be cooperative (win-win/positive
    sum/integrative/principled) or competitive (win-lose/zero
    sum/distributive/positional).
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



               Think back…
List the last 3 – 4 times that you have used
  negotiation.
Then label each as competitive or cooperative.
What makes you say that?
                           PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



               Think back…
What are the characteristics of competitive
 negotiation?
What are the benefits?
What are the costs?
                            PowerPoint Summary of:
                           Key Negotiation Concepts



      Competitive Negotiation…
Starts with the solution.
Parties propose solutions to one another and
Make offers and counter-offers until
They find a solution that is acceptable to both (it
 falls within their ZOPA or “bargaining range.”
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



      Competitive Negotiation…
Based on your knowledge of conflict styles
…when  do you think competitive
 negotiation is best used?
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts

     Competitive Negotiation is best
             used when…
   Situation is short term and not repeating.
   The agenda is more important than the
    relationship, or
   The other party is expecting you to be
    competitive.
   The primary issues are tangible and/or
    splittable—money, time, dates, etc.
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



               Buying a car
Who has recently bought a car?
Describe the negotiation…how did it go?
Who started the negotiation? Did they get what
 they asked for initially?
                             PowerPoint Summary of:
                           Key Negotiation Concepts



                        ZOPAs
   = Zone of Possible Agreement
   Otherwise known as “bargaining range”
   Tells you whether or not an agreement is
    possible.
   B below = buyer; S below = seller
   OO below = opening offer WAP = walkaway pt

    B - OO    S- WAP      B-WAP                   S - OO
    $10,000   $12,000     $12,500                 $15,000
                               PowerPoint Summary of:
                              Key Negotiation Concepts



           Positional negotiation
Typical strategy:
 Extreme opening position


 Argue for its “fairness” or why it is “right”


 Intend to give in a little, but try to give in as little

  as possible.
                              PowerPoint Summary of:
                             Key Negotiation Concepts

      Positional negotiation—typical
                 attitudes
   The “pie” is limited—my goal is to get the
    biggest piece.
   A win for me = a loss for the other
   Negotiators are opponents or enemies
   There is one right solution—mine!
   I should stay on the offensive
   Concessions are a sign of weakness.
   Avoid compromise if at all possible, if not, give
    in as little as possible.
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



               Buying a car
Typical tactics of positional negotiation:
 Bluffing


 Wearing down the other side


 Devaluing other sides’ offers


 Threatening


 Softening them up, then squeezing them
                                       PowerPoint Summary of:
                                      Key Negotiation Concepts



        The “Principles” of Principled
                 Negotiation
1. Separate the People from the Problem
  a.   Focus first on the relationship and identity
       issues
  b.   Then on the topic issue issues
        (RIT)
                             PowerPoint Summary of:
                            Key Negotiation Concepts



       The “Principles” of Principled
                Negotiation
2. Attend to the communication issues
  a.   Acknowledge and manage emotions
  b.   Avoid the blame game
  c.   Listen
  d.   Use I-messages, XYZ messages, 3,
       etc.
              The “Principles” of Principled
                       Negotiation
3. Focus on Interests, not Positions
Positions: Simple statements about what you want. No reasons, no
subtlety, no justification. Just a demand:
         I want the orange!
   Interests: The reasons underlying the position
    —what you really want or need
    —the answer to the question WHY.
         I need the rind to bake a cake.
         I'm hungry. I want to eat the orange.
                                  PowerPoint Summary of:
                                 Key Negotiation Concepts




      The “Principles” of Principled
               Negotiation
4. Generate many options & look
for Options for Mutual Gain
     Brainstorm options by listing all
      possibilities first,
     Evaluating options second.
     Look for ways to meet everyone's
      interests at the same time.
                                  PowerPoint Summary of:
                                 Key Negotiation Concepts




   The “Principles” of Principled
            Negotiation
5. Find Legitimate Criteria to Guide Decisions
     What's been done before?
     What's “fair”
                              PowerPoint Summary of:
                             Key Negotiation Concepts




   The “Principles” of Principled
            Negotiation
6. Analyze the Best Alternative to a Negotiated
Agreement (BATNA)


BATNA = Walk Away Point—when you tell the
other person you are not interested in their offer
because you can do better in another way.
                            PowerPoint Summary of:
                           Key Negotiation Concepts



Why do you care about BATNAs?
   They tell you what you should agree to and
   what you should walk away from.
   They also give you negotiating power.
                           PowerPoint Summary of:
                          Key Negotiation Concepts




     The “Principles” of Principled
              Negotiation
7. Work with Fair and Realistic Commitements
Is agreement
   Reasonable?
   Doable?
   Face-saving?
   Practical?
                                     PowerPoint Summary of:
                                   Key Negotiation Concepts



           Negotiation – Exercise I
1. Break into groups and do the following:
2. Pick a political issue that you care about AND KNOW
SOMETHING ABOUT—for example: the economy, or education,
or health care or gay marriage. you must) about what is a
position and what is an interest.
             Negotiation – Exercise I
3. What is your position on that issue? (For example, I think that
   x should do y.)
4. Who opposes that position? What is their position? (If you
   differ w/in your groups fine; if you do not, figure out who else
   opposes all of you.)
5. What are your interests on the same issue?
6. What are the other side’s interests?
7. Note: Don't argue about who is right or wrong. Argue (if you
   must) about what is a position and what is an interest.
8. Is there a ZOPA in this conflict?
9. What is each sides’ BATNA? Which is better? The BATNA or
   the ZOPA? So what should each side do?
10. What form of negotiation should be used here? Why?
                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                         Key Negotiation Concepts



                 Exercise
Do Best Books/Paige Turner Negotiation & Debrief.
                                  PowerPoint Summary of:
                                 Key Negotiation Concepts



                When to use what?
   Integrative bargaining is best when:
       There is a possibility of “expanding the pie.”
       When the agenda and the relationship are
        important.
       When this is a recurring relationship or event.
       When you don’t have a good “BATNA.”
       But keep in mind….
                                  PowerPoint Summary of:
                                 Key Negotiation Concepts



               When to use what?
   Distributive bargaining is best when:
       There is no possibility of “expanding the pie.”
       When you need to get your way/as much as
        possible.
       When the agenda is much more important than the
        relationship.
       When this is a one-time event.
       When you have a good “BATNA.”
                                          PowerPoint Summary of:
                                        Distributive Bargaining

Slide 3:
Distributive and Integrative
Bargaining

Are not mutually exclusive!

•   Eventually even expanded pies
    have to be divided

•   A form of distributive
    bargaining is the last step of an
    integrative approach
Hard, Soft, Principled Negotiation
    Problem      I        Solution
    Positional Bargaining:                              Change the Game-
which Game Should You Play?                           Negotiate on the Merits

         Soft                        Hard                   Principled
 Participants are friends        Participants are      Participants are problem-
                                  adversaries                   solvers

 The goal is agreement         The goal is victory         The goal is a wise
                                                            outcome reached
                                                        efficiently and amicably

 Make concessions to         Demand concessions as     Separate the people from
cultivate the relationship     a condition of the            the problem
                                  relationship

Be soft on the people and     Be hard on the people     Be soft on the people,
       the problem              and the problem          hard on the problem
Hard, Soft, Principled Negotiation
                 II
         Soft                        Hard                    Principled
      Trust others               Distrust others        Proceed independent of
                                                                others

 Change your position         Dig into your position    Focus on interests, not
       easily                                                 positions

      Make offers                 Make threats             Explore interests

Disclose your bottom line    Mislead as your bottom      Avoid having a bottom
                                      line                        line

Accept one-sided losses     Demand one-sided gains      Invest options for mutual
  to reach agreement        as the price of agreement              gain


  Search for the single      Search for the single      Develop multiple options
answer: the one they will   answer: the one you will     to choose from; decide
         accept                     accept                        later

  Insist on agreement        Insist on your position    Insist on using objective
                                                                 criteria
 Hard, Soft, Principled Negotiation
                 III


         Soft                      Hard                     Principled
Try to avoid a contest of   Try to win a contest of      Try to reach a result
           will                       will              based on standards of
                                                           independent will

    Yield to pressure          Apply pressure          Reason and be open to
                                                      reasons; yield to principle,
                                                            not pressure




Source: Getting to Yes

				
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