Europe in the Middle Ages
Ch. 10 sec. 1
I. New Agriculture
_______________ and Stability led to more farming
______________ Changed in favor of farming
Harnessed power of wind and water
_______________field system of crop rotation
–Carruca: heavy, wheeled ________ w/ iron plow pulled by 6 oxen
II. The Manorial System
Manor: Agr.________________ run by a lord and worked by peasants.
Serfs: peasants legally _____________to the land.
–Worked 3 days a week for lord
–Paid lords to use ___________
–Must pay the ______________
–Serfs were not ________________
–Lords land made up 1/3-1/2
Rest was used to grow food for serfs
III. Daily life of Peasants
Homes made out of ____________ frame, and simple_________________ roofs.
Two Rooms: Main room (_________________) another for sleeping
Diet consisted mainly on ________________
__________ was very important since it was not easy to obtain pure sources of water.
–Drank 3+ gallons of ale a day
IV. Cycle of Labor
Harvest in August and________________
October plant _______________ crops
November slaughter of excess________________
March: Fields were ______________
50 days off for holidays
–Christmas, Easter, ________________
–Peasants believed they needed to _________________ for a good harvest
V. Revival of Trade
Trade associated with growth of cities
Venice: traded with ________________ Empire developed a mercantile fleet.
_______________: area along the coast of present day Belgium and N. France
Money Economy: economic system based on money instead of _______________
Commercial Capitalism: An economic system in which people invest in trade and
goods in order to make ________________
VI. The Growth of Cities
Revival of trade leads to merchants settling in old __________________ cities.
Cities established in N. Europe around __________________.
–Lords would offer protection
–New walls were built, cities became known as __________________
VII. City Government
Lords thought they could treat townspeople as ___________….. they were wrong.
Townspeople needed ___________________ to trade.
Basic________________: buy & sell property, freedom of military service to lord,
guaranteed the freedom of the townspeople.
Townspeople began setting up __________________
Only _______________ born in the city or lived there a long time were citizens.
–Elections rigged to make sure the___________________ won.
VIII. Daily Life in the Medieval City
Houses built out of wood = __________________
Streets smelled of ____________________ matter
Air Pollution: Cheap grades of __________
Water pollution: Butchers dumped______________ in rivers. Tanners unloaded tannic
acids, fat and______________ into rivers.
–People drank out of ________________b/c the rivers were so polluted
–32 public bath houses
Expected to run the_______________, often widows would pick up husbands trade.
–Could live independent lives.
Some created own ________________ such as brewers, weavers, and hat makers.
X. Industry and Guilds
Mass production of goods in Cities.
Guilds: business associations
–Set number of ____________________
Apprentices: Students to a master
–Start at 10, not paid but received ___________________
–Worked 5-7 years
Journeyman: Paid by master
–Must create a ___________________ that would be judged to see if he was to
become a master.