THE DEFORESTATION OF THE
A global problem
I.I.S.S. BOSELLI SAVONA
• The rainforest: a fantastic structure
• The wonders of nature
• The climate
• People in the forest
• The resources of the forest
• The importance of the forest for life
• The abuse of the forest resources
• How are these areas used?
• We have to solve this problem
• Rescue is arriving!
The rainforest is the most
extensive coverage How they are distributed on the planet
of the arboreal. It is located
across the equatorial belt
of the globe, between the SHOWN IN GREEN
two tropics. We find it in:
ASIA: India, Indonesia, Birmania,
Thailandia, China, New Guinea.
AFRICA: Nigeria and Congo.
AMERICA: Mexico, Brazil,
Venezuela,Colombia, Costa Rica,
Suriname, Ecuador, Perù and
A fantastic structure
The vegetation in the last layer isn’t
deciduous too. Thanks to the high humidity,
trees can reach the height of 70 meters.
In the third layer there are evergreen
plants that can measure about 30 - 40
The forest has a complex
morphology, and so we
distinguish the tropical forest
The second layer is composed of woody
in different layers: plants that grow from 3 to 5 metres.
The lowest layer consists of plants
that don’t exceed one meter height.
The wonders of the forest
In the rainforest there is
the biggest varieties of
flora of the planet. It is
rich in biodiversity
compared to any other
place. We find many THE KAPOK!
species of plants such as
WHAT A WONDER THE
giant plants like choker
ficus, red cedar, Kapok
and many other species.
The wonders of the fauna How various
is this fauna?
In this case too there is a
big variety of species.
We can find bugs,
snakes and crocodiles,
colorful birds like parrots.
There are also fish like
piranhas and finally
mammals like monkeys
and the frightening
The climate of equatorial zone is really particular.
There aren’t seasons similar to ours: There are warm temperatures at
we find only the rainy one so about 30 degrees, with a constant
there isn’t any lack of water. humidity, that arrives at 90%.
When rains are particular abundant,
Rains take away some ground rivers’ level increases of 10 meters,
nutrients, on the contrary the lush
forests are completely flooded, and so
vegetation produces abundant humus. we can find piranhas and very rare
animals like the pink dolphin among trees.
The rivers of the forest
The most important rivers are:
• Amazon river in Southern America
• Congo in Central Africa
• Mekong in the southeast of Asia
It has the biggest catchment area
Amazon river higher than 1000 km and it’s
the second longest in the world. They are really
important for the
It has the second catchment They have a regular
Congo area in the world. and abundant regime
all year long because
of the rains.
With his tributaries it wets
Mekong all southeastern Asia.
People in the forest
The equatorial forest is one of
the least populated in the
planet, there is a lower density
than in the other parts of the
world. That is caused by the
uncomfortable warmth and by
Zambos: born from the African
ethnicity and the local one.
The inhabitants are called
INDIOS and they are divided Mulattoes: born from the African
according to their ethnicity ethnicity and the European one.
Mestizos: born from the local
ethnicity and the European one.
Visit the forest
The rainforest isn’t a good and easy place to live in; to visit it you
have to respect a lot of rules. It’s also true that it represents a great
local touristic resource.
To get inside you have to land After that, when you are settled
You must respect all the
at Manaus, the most important you have to bring some sources rules of the zone
city built in the heart of the of water and food and you and you mustn’t
forest. have to be accompanied by an turn on any fire.
expert guide to go inside. It may flare up a fire.
It will even be difficult but in the end, the show will make you ecstatic.
The resources of the forest
The forest’s ecosystem is really These natural resources are
fragile. really precious because they
The rainforest provides a big are fundamental for the life of
quantity of resources. the forest: in fact this ecosystem
There is a big deposit of is also called the “green gold”.
minerals and much water and It’s also important because in
timber. the deforested zones the warm
In Paraguay and Brazil it was climate makes it possible to
built one of the biggest grow many kinds of vegetables
hydroelectric central of the and food.
The importance of the forest for life
The rainforest has also the nickname of lungs
of the Earth, because vegetation uses water
and in particular carbon gas to produce Finally :
carbohydrates and oxygen during the Forest = Life
6CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy C6H12O6+6O2
You can observe in the formula that when there
is the sun light plants produce additional oxygen
which goes into the atmosphere making it
breathable by heterotrophic beings.
The plants always breath, but it isn’t true
that they use only oxygen during the day and
carbon gas during the night.
This fact happens minute by minute.
The abuse of the forest resources
Inside the forest,
these resources like !
the other natural The damages provoked to the forest
resources in the world, Deforested or burnt
aren’t used correctly; hettars of wood.
in fact we abuse of To do space for the Many local people
them. agricultural zones. are banned from
Look at that disaster!
species are killed.
Pollution in the
Use of fossil fuels forest
and toxic Pollution in the
How are these areas used?
These deforested areas are used in many ways:
Factories Agriculture Pastures
In particular they are used for growing food, such as soy, sugar cane,
pineapples and coffee.
This causes an impoverishment of the land which isn’t grown “at fallow”:
they don’t alternate old and new lands.
The intense rains prevent the vegetation from blooming again and so it
causes a desertification. Finally the polluting substances from industries go
into the ground.
To find solutions it’s absolutely necessary to put heavy taxes to the
people who cut the trees and we will have to alternate the growing
plants. But it’s only the beginning!.
Man has always needed Nature to feed himself, but there is a limit to
The 80% of the forest is still unspoiled but the deforestation is
First it is necessary to do accurate controls, to find all the illegal
activities that take place in this zone.
Authorities should help the institutions that keep this fantastic and
delicate ecosystem alive.
We must rescue the endangered species
Rescue is arriving!
Fortunately we aren’t the first people
who realize that the rainforest and so the National parks
global climate is in danger. Many institutions
have taken some measures about this topic.
In the north of the forest in Brazil there is
one of the most important and well equipped
They welcome species in national parks in the world. We may call it the
danger! “Yellowstone Park” of the Amazon: it’s Manu’s
W the biodiversity!
Manu’s park occupies a part of the forest of
approximately 20000 squared km.
it’s really difficult to be classified as it is estimated
that for every hectare of this region there
are 500 different species of plants and
about 400 species of animals live there.
Thank you very
much for your