Deforestation by xiaoyounan


 Amazonian rainforest
       A global problem

            Presented by
•   The rainforest: a fantastic structure
•   The wonders of nature
•   The climate
•   People in the forest
•   The resources of the forest
•   The importance of the forest for life
•   The abuse of the forest resources
•   How are these areas used?
•   We have to solve this problem
•   Rescue is arriving!
 The rainforest is the most
 extensive coverage                 How they are distributed on the planet
  of the arboreal. It is located
 across the equatorial belt
 of the globe, between the              SHOWN IN GREEN
 two tropics. We find it in:

ASIA: India, Indonesia, Birmania,
Thailandia, China, New Guinea.

AFRICA: Nigeria and Congo.

AMERICA: Mexico, Brazil,
Venezuela,Colombia, Costa Rica,
Suriname, Ecuador, Perù and
          A fantastic structure
                                      The vegetation in the last layer isn’t
                                  deciduous too. Thanks to the high humidity,
                                   trees can reach the height of 70 meters.

                                      In the third layer there are evergreen
                                      plants that can measure about 30 - 40
                                      meters height.
The forest has a complex
morphology, and so we
distinguish the tropical forest
                                     The second layer is composed of woody
in different layers:                 plants that grow from 3 to 5 metres.

                                    The lowest layer consists of plants
                                    that don’t exceed one meter height.
   The wonders of the forest
In the rainforest there is
the biggest varieties of
flora of the planet. It is
rich in biodiversity
compared to any other
place. We find many             THE KAPOK!
species of plants such as
                             WHAT A WONDER THE
giant plants like choker
ficus, red cedar, Kapok
and many other species.
The wonders of the fauna         How various
                                is this fauna?

 In this case too there is a
 big variety of species.
 We can find bugs,
 poisonous amphibians,
 snakes and crocodiles,
 colorful birds like parrots.
 There are also fish like
 piranhas and finally
 mammals like monkeys
 and the frightening
                            The climate
  The climate of equatorial zone is really particular.

 There aren’t seasons similar to ours:        There are warm temperatures at
  we find only the rainy one so               about 30 degrees, with a constant
 there isn’t any lack of water.               humidity, that arrives at 90%.

                                         When rains are particular abundant,
Rains take away some ground              rivers’ level increases of 10 meters,
nutrients, on the contrary the lush
                                         forests are completely flooded, and so
vegetation produces abundant humus.      we can find piranhas and very rare
                                         animals like the pink dolphin among trees.
          The rivers of the forest
The most important rivers are:
•   Amazon river in Southern America
•   Congo in Central Africa
•   Mekong in the southeast of Asia

                       It has the biggest catchment area
  Amazon river             higher than 1000 km and it’s
                        the second longest in the world.   They are really
                                                           important for the
                                                           equatorial zones.
                        It has the second catchment        They have a regular
     Congo                    area in the world.           and abundant regime
                                                           all year long because
                                                           of the rains.

                         With his tributaries it wets
     Mekong               all southeastern Asia.
               People in the forest
 The equatorial forest is one of
 the least populated in the
 planet, there is a lower density
 than in the other parts of the
 world. That is caused by the
 uncomfortable warmth and by
 dangerous animals.
                                    Zambos: born from the African
                                    ethnicity and the local one.

The inhabitants are called
INDIOS and they are divided         Mulattoes: born from the African
according to their ethnicity        ethnicity and the European one.

                                     Mestizos: born from the local
                                    ethnicity and the European one.
                                  Visit the forest
       The rainforest isn’t a good and easy place to live in; to visit it you
       have to respect a lot of rules. It’s also true that it represents a great
       local touristic resource.

 To get inside you have to land   After that, when you are settled
                                                                     You must respect all the
 at Manaus, the most important    you have to bring some sources     rules of the zone
 city built in the heart of the   of water and food and you          and you mustn’t
 forest.                          have to be accompanied by an       turn on any fire.
                                  expert guide to go inside.         It may flare up a fire.

It will even be difficult but in the end, the show will make you ecstatic.
   The resources of the forest
The forest’s ecosystem is really   These natural resources are
fragile.                           really precious because they
The rainforest provides a big      are fundamental for the life of
quantity of resources.             the forest: in fact this ecosystem
There is a big deposit of          is also called the “green gold”.
minerals and much water and        It’s also important because in
timber.                            the deforested zones the warm
In Paraguay and Brazil it was      climate makes it possible to
built one of the biggest           grow many kinds of vegetables
hydroelectric central of the       and food.
  The importance of the forest for life
   The rainforest has also the nickname of lungs
   of the Earth, because vegetation uses water
   and in particular carbon gas to produce                   Finally :
   carbohydrates and oxygen during the                     Forest = Life

6CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy              C6H12O6+6O2

     You can observe in the formula that when there
    is the sun light plants produce additional oxygen
    which goes into the atmosphere making it
    breathable by heterotrophic beings.

             The plants always breath, but it isn’t true
            that they use only oxygen during the day and
            carbon gas during the night.
            This fact happens minute by minute.
The abuse of the forest resources
  Inside the forest,
  these resources like                                          !
  the other natural         The damages provoked to the forest
  resources in the world,                         Deforested or burnt
  aren’t used correctly;                          hettars of wood.
  in fact we abuse of       To do space for the   Many local people
  them.                     agricultural zones.   are banned from
                                                  their lands
                                                  Many protected
   Look at that disaster!
                                                  species are killed.
                                                  Pollution in the
                            Use of fossil fuels   forest
                            and toxic             Pollution in the
                            substances            rivers
                                                  Species endangered
       How are these areas used?
    These deforested areas are used in many ways:

         Factories                   Agriculture                  Pastures

    In particular they are used for growing food, such as soy, sugar cane,
    pineapples and coffee.
    This causes an impoverishment of the land which isn’t grown “at fallow”:
    they don’t alternate old and new lands.
     The intense rains prevent the vegetation from blooming again and so it
    causes a desertification. Finally the polluting substances from industries go
    into the ground.

            To find solutions it’s absolutely necessary to put heavy taxes to the
            people who cut the trees and we will have to alternate the growing
            plants. But it’s only the beginning!.
Man has always needed Nature to feed himself, but there is a limit to
The 80% of the forest is still unspoiled but the deforestation is
First it is necessary to do accurate controls, to find all the illegal
activities that take place in this zone.
Authorities should help the institutions that keep this fantastic and
delicate ecosystem alive.
       We must rescue the endangered species
                          Rescue is arriving!
Fortunately we aren’t the first people
who realize that the rainforest and so the                    National parks
global climate is in danger. Many institutions
have taken some measures about this topic.

                                             In the north of the forest in Brazil there is
                                            one of the most important and well equipped
  They welcome species in                   national parks in the world. We may call it the
          danger!                           “Yellowstone Park” of the Amazon: it’s Manu’s
                                                                W the biodiversity!
Manu’s park occupies a part of the forest of
approximately 20000 squared km.
 it’s really difficult to be classified as it is estimated
that for every hectare of this region there
are 500 different species of plants and
 about 400 species of animals live there.
Thank you very
much for your

Giulia Canepa
                  Evelyn Ezzembergher
Valeria Parlato
                       Anna Tarchetti

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