New Notes The Growth of Oceanography by HC12110401917


									The Growth of Oceanography
Why study oceanography?
Scientific Curiosity – How do oceans operate and interact with entire earth system?
Need for Marine Resources – We need both food and mineral resources from oceans to survive.
Impact on Human activities – Must maintain a balance between nature and human activities to protect the coastal
zones, prevent over polluting, ensure safe transportation/recreation on the world’s oceans and better prepare for natural
There are three major stages in the history of ocean research:
1. Ocean exploration was the period when people explored the ocean boundaries.
Notable explorers include:
-Phoenicians - explored the eastern Atlantic Ocean reaching England and sailing around Africa.
-The Greek Pytheas circumnavigated England and reached Iceland
-The Polynesians- sailed and explored the western Pacific Ocean in log rafts.
-Herodotus- prepared a world map in 450 BC illustrating three continents surrounded by a vast ocean.
-The Vikings- dominated marine exploration during the Middle Ages reaching North America.
-Bartholomew Diaz- reached the southern tip of Africa in an attempt to reach India in 1480s.
-Vasco de Gama- reached India in 1498 by sailing around Africa.
-An expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan, and continued after his death by Juan Sebastian Elcano, circumnavigated the
globe from 1519 to 1522.
2. Early scientific investigations began when people began to describe the ocean.
Notable explorers include:
-James Cook- In his ships the Endeavour, Resolution, & Discovery, made three voyages in the late 1700’s; these voyages:
Visited Tahiti; -Charted New Zealand; -Mapped the Great Barrier Reef; -Circumnavigated the Globe at high southerly
latitudes (71oS); -“Discovered” Hawaii
-John Harrison: in 1728 invented the chronometer, a clock that was spring driven, thus could work at sea and be used to
determine longitude
-Matthew Fountaine Maury- published The Physical Geography of the Sea in 1855 and became known as the father of
physical oceanography. He was also born in Virginia!
-The Voyage of the HMS Beagle: Charles Darwin was a naturalist aboard a 4 1/2 year voyage that began in 1831 and
later led to Darwin’s book “Origin of Species”
3. Modern oceanography began in the twentieth century with interdisciplinary oceanic research and use of complex
scientific instruments.
-HMS Challenger 1872, first purely scientific sailing expedition; 4 year voyage discovered 4,717 new species
 Took global ocean salinity, temperature, and water density measurements; The “Challenger Report”, a 50 volume set
documenting the findings of the Challenger expedition provided the foundation for modern oceanographic study
-In the 1920s the German vessel SMS Meteor studied the salinity, temperature, oxygen content, and sea floor
topography of the South Atlantic.
Current Research
-Major institutions were established. In the U.S. these include: Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institute, and Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.
-NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) founded in 1970, government branch that conducts
oceanography research and weather monitoring.
ASSIGNMENT! Please make a timeline (with at least 10 pictures) from the chart in your books, use the following
years: (read across! )
      4000BC                     2000-500 BC                     1000-600 BC
      450 BC                     325 BC                          AD 150
      AD 982                     AD 995                          1492
      1513                       1519-1522                       1569
      1769-1770                  1768-1779                       1831-1836
      1855                       1868-1870                       1872-1876
      1873                       1884-1901                       1888
      1893                       1903                            1912
      1925-1927                  1930                            1949
      1959-1965                  1970’s                          1998
So You Think You Can Explore?
In 6 groups, you will be given a card describing an explorer or peoples.
Using the kit given to you, you must create a skit (about 2 minutes long) that describes what is on your card.
Make sure you include who your card is about, where they explored, how they did it and what time period they were
active in.
+Phoenicians: Explored eastern Atlantic reaching England and sailing around Africa, Stuck to shoreline, Great boat
+Vikings: Also called Norsemen, Used longships to sail the oceans, Got as far west as Russia and Constantinople and as
far east as Greenland and Newfoundland (Canada), First N. American settlement by Leif Eriksson
+Pytheas the Greek: Sailed around England and reached Iceland, Found ice around the Arctic and brought back Celtic
culture to Europe, Took many notes about his journey
+Bartholomew Diaz: Portuguese knight who tried to find a sea route to India, Got as far as southern tip of Africa
Claimed the “Cape of Good Hope” for Portugal.
+Ferdinand Magellan: Led first mission to circumnavigate (sail around) the world from 1519-1522, Died before end,
finished by Juan Sebastian Elcano, First to cross Pacific Ocean, named after “peaceful sea”, Brought back enormous
amounts of spices, worth a fortune in his time.
+James Cook: Explorer and Cartographer, late 1700s, Made 3 voyages to the Pacific where he made contact with
Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. Kept many journals, which were published and widely read as entertainment.
Witnessed many native rituals and ceremonies previously unknown.

ASSIGNMENT -- Explorers Quiz – Next class
Summarize the achievements of the following:
James Cook                            Pytheas the Greek
Bartholomew Diaz                      The Vikings
Polynesians                           Juan Sebastian Elcano
Charles Darwin                        SMS Meteor
HMS Challenger                        M. F. Maury
Phoenicians                           John Harrison

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