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					World War I
     1. Major Causes

        o   Rise of Germany
                 Germany became a major power in Europe
                 many small countries gradually united into one
        o   Clash of Empires
                 Britain, France, Spain and Portugal had colonies around the world
                 Germany wanted colonies too
                        built up their navy (see below)
        o   Militarism - Naval and Arms Race
                 Britain had largest navy in world
                 “Battleship” H.M.S. Dreadnought
                 Germany began building battleships too
                 Each country tried to build more and better battleships
                 an arms race
        o   Nationalism
                 all countries more interested in building their national pride
        o   Mass Education and Media
                 Government could use radio and newspapers to promote their cause (propaganda)
        o   Alliance System
                 Countries formed protection alliances
                 “I promise to help you if someone attacks you”.

                                 Triple Alliance
                           Germany
                           Austria-Hungary
                           Italy

                                  Triple Entente
                           France
                           Russia
                           Britain
                           as a member of the British Empire,Canada was with

     2. “Minor” Cause, but the “spark”

        o   Assassination (political killing) of Crown Prince of Austria
                Archduke Franz Ferdinand visiting Boznia-Herzegovina, a state in the Austrian Empire in June
                A Serbian terrorist group “The Black Hand” killed him
        o   Austria made demands on Serbia which Serbia refused
        o   Russia had a separate alliance with Serbia
3. The Early Days of War

   o   hostilities began when Austria invaded Serbia 28 July, 1914
   o   Russia mobilized army along German and Austrian borders. Germany declared war on Russia
   o   Germany declared war on France on 3 August
   o   Germany invaded Belgium
   o   Britain had promised to come to aid of Belgium
   o   Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August
   o   Canada and rest of British Empire at war.
   o   Everyone in Canada thought war would be over by Christmas 1914

The Schlieffen Plan

   o   plan developed by German general
   o   move rapidly against France and not worry about Russians
   o   move troops through neutral Belgium, attack France from north, then attack Paris from west
   o   expected to take six weeks
   o   assumed Britain would not defend Belgium
   o   didn’t work because:
            generals turned south toward Paris too soon
            Britain came to defense of Belgium
            French troops able to move north to stop German advance
            Germans couldn’t continue to advance, so dug in

Canadian Response

   o   young men joined armed forces
   o   generally British born or had British parents
   o   initially as volunteers, later as conscripts (required to join)
   o   included Highland Regiments
             bagpipes
             kilts
             “ladies from hell” to the Germans
   o   looking for adventure
   o   loyal to the Crown
   o   included about 4,000 aboriginal Canadians
             valued as scouts and snipers
   o   war questioned in Quebec
   o   did not want involved in British or European war
   o   expeditionary force formed even before Britain asked
             British wanted Canadians under British officers
             Minister of Militia, Sam Hughes refused
             Canadians fought as Canadian Corps

4. Through the Next Four Years

   o   Eastern Front
   o   Germany battles Russians
   o   Western Front
            Stalemate between Austrians and Germans against British, French and Canadians
                    some movement back and forth, but little ground really gained
                    extensive trench systems
            Italy joins with British and French
   o   young women volunteered as nurses and ambulance drivers at the battlefront
   o   Farming communities
            provided sixty percent of men fighting
            provided food for soldiers and Britain
                    tripled cheese exports
                    doubled land growing wheat
                    greatly increased pork and beef production for export
   o   Industry
            produced armaments
            shells
            fuses and explosives
            ships
            airplanes
            uniforms
            medical supplies
            guns and rifles
                    Ross rifle
                            good target or sniper rifle
                            jammed in battlefield
                            eventually replaced by British Lee Enfield rifle
   o   Canadian Men and Women at home
            women worked
                    in factories
                    in service jobs
                    on farms
            all did without luxuries
            planted war gardens to provide own food
            knitted socks for soldiers
            bought Victory Bonds
                    a way of lending money to the government
            began to pay
                    Corporate tax (businesses)
                    Income Tax (“temporary”)
   o   8,000,000 soldiers died, including 66,000 from Canada

5. Technology of War

   o   trench warfare
   o   harsh living conditions (letter from the trenches project)
            water and duckboards
            mud
            going “over the top”
            shelling
                     barrage
                     shell shock (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
            bad food in short supply
            trench foot
            trench fever
            rats
            lice
            death
o   extensive use of artillery
         guns
         howitzers
         mortars
o   Mills bombs (grenades)
o   mines
o   barbed wire
         stretched out in front of trenches for defense
                  laid out under cover of darkness
o   airplanes
         transformed war
         for observation
                  means of seeing beyond front lines
            fighting
                  other aircraft
                  ground troops
         several air aces (30 or more ‘kills”)
                  German
                           Manfred von Richthofen
                  Canadian (11)
                           Raymond Colishaw (60)
                           Billy Bishop (72)
o   tanks
         first developed by allies
         first used at Battle of the Somme, 1916
o   machine gun
         especially devastating
         600 bullets per minute
o   battleships
         heavy guns
         heavy armour
o   submarines
         attacked cargo ships
         attacked passenger liners
                  R.M.S. Lusitania in 1915
o   supply convoys
         across Atlantic Ocean
         from Halifax, St. John’s, Quebec
o   Halifax explosion, Dec. 6, 1917
         collision of two ships
                  Mont Blanc loaded with explosives
                  Imo carrying relief supplies
         9:06 a.m. largest explosion ever (until atomic bomb)
                  2,000 killed
                  9,000 injured
                  10,000 homeless
6. Some Important Battles for Canadians

Second Battle of Ypres

   o   April 22, 1915
   o   in Belgium
   o   Germans used chlorine gas against French and Canadian troops
            combines with moisture in eyes and lungs to form hydrochloric acid
            neither French or Canadian troops had gas masks
            Canadians used urine soaked cotton cloths over their faces
                     hoped it neutralize chlorine
                             didn’t really
   o   Canadians lost ground and then held the line for two days until relieved by British troops
   o   loss of 6,000 soldiers

Battle of the Somme

   o   July 1916-November 1916
   o   in France
   o   British and French advance along 20 km front
   o   one of bloodiest of battles
             60,000 men and officers died the first day, to gain 950 metres
             British lost total of 418,000
             Canadians lost total of 24,029
             French lost total of 195,000
             Germans lost total of 623,000
   o   first use of tanks by British and Canadians
   o   maximum ground gained was 10 km

Taking of Beaumont Hamel

   o   1 July, 1916
   o   Newfoundland Regiment all but wiped out
            9% of regiment survived (79 out of 840)

Battle of Vimy Ridge

   o   April 9, 1917- April 12, 1917
   o   in France
   o   part of Battle of Arras
   o   all four Divisions of Canadian Corps together for first time
   o   both French and British had tried to take the ridge previously
   o   Germans extensively entrenched, in tunnels and dugouts
             from top of ridge controlled plains for many kilometres
   o   Canadians dug extensive tunnel system (over five kilometres total) in chalk bedrock
             included caves for housing hundreds of soldiers
             stored supplies and ammunition nearby
   o   The Attack
             barrage lasted over 2 weeks
                     1100 guns firing 2500 tons/day
                     German artillery badly damaged by Canadian artillery
                             position known by sound ranging and air photographs
   o   heavy artillery fire on German trenches
            creeping barrage of artillery and machine gun fire with soldiers advancing behind
            Canadians well trained
                     each man knew the entire plan and had a map
                     Canadians had trained on model of ridge
            most of ridge was held by Canadians in five hours
            last holdout, the Pimple, was captured 48 hours later
   o   success gained Canadians respect
            from British army
            at home
            some say Canada became a nation at Vimy Ridge
   o   cost was 10,000 Canadian lives

Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres)

   o   31 July, 1917 - 14 November, 1917
   o   in Belgium
   o   31 July to Oct 25 British and Australian troops fought, but gained little ground
   o   In October Canadian Corps took over Australian positions
            whole battlefield a sea of shell craters
            Allied trenches in very muddy and boggy conditions
                    shelling spread out streams
            Germans on slightly higher ground
                    drier
                    artillery fire at Canadians easier
                    entrenched in concrete pillboxes
                             walls one and a half m. thick
   o   Canadians built wooden walkways, wooden supports for the guns, drainage ditches
            faster than German artillery could destroy them
            1,500 casualties during preparation period
   o   German aircraft bombed and shot at Canadians
            The attacks
            26 Oct. 1917, 30 Oct. 1917, 6 Nov. 1917
            men crawled through mud to throw grenades into gun slits in pillboxes
            heavy German fire
            heavy Canadian artillery barrages
            Canadians had advanced just past village of Passchendaele, but were surrounded by Germans
               on three sides
            held the position until British reinforcements arrived Nov. 14
            cost was 15,654 dead, 1000 of which were never found in the mud

7. Issues at Home

Conscription Crisis

   o   Prime Minister Robert Borden had said no conscription (forced enlistment)
   o   fewer volunteers
            knowledge of the war
                   casualties returned
                   news of the war
   o   mood in Quebec
            very against assisting in war
            unhappy volunteers all had to speak English
            Minister of Militia (Sam Hughes) was Protestant and hated Roman Catholics
   o   pacifism
            settlers in west against fighting
                    had moved to Canada to get away from wars
                    many had come from Triple Alliance countries
                    against religion
                            Mennonites
                            Doukhobours
                            Quakers
            women against fighting
                    Canadian Women’s Peace Party
   o   War Measures Act
   o   Ukrainians, Germans and Italians, and other enemy aliens detained
            Berlin, Ontario changed to Kitchener, Ontario
            named after British General
   o   Wartime Elections Act
   o   Robert Borden needed votes for conscription in 1917 Election
   o   gave vote to women in 1917 election if
               army nurses
            if they had close relatives who were soldiers
   o   took vote away in 1917 from
            citizens who had come from “enemy” countries
   o   Unionist Party and Robert Borden won election
            conscription began


   o   Minister of Defence Sam Hughes, issued large contracts to friends
           companies performed poorly
           high prices for sloppy cheap goods
           army boots that fell apart
   o   Hughes dubbed Sir Sham Shoes
           canned meat for troops made of diseased animals
           bribery to get government contracts

8. The End of the War

Russian Revolution

   o   1917
             overthrow of Tzar by Bolsheviks
             troops left Eastern Front
             peace treaty with Germany 1918
   o   American entry
           declared war April 1917
           part of counter attack July 1918
   o   German unrest
           no food
           protests against continued war
           parts of Navy mutinied
The Hundred Days

   o     Spring 1918
              Germans advanced
              massed attacks at weak points
                       attempt to gain ground before Americans arrived
                       got within 75 km of Paris
   o     ran out of troops and supplies, so stopped advance


   o     in summer 1918 Canadians sent to counter attack
              surprise attack August 8th
              weak German response
              French, Australians, Canadians, all attack with tank and airplane support
              broke through German front lines
              advanced 8 miles (12 km) in one day
              24 kilometres gained over next 10 days
                     12,000 missing injured or dead

Hindenburg Line

   o     German retreated to this fortified line
   o     Canadians under Arthur Currie
   o     Attacked from Arras
              underground complex
              Battalions billeted there
              August 1918, attack against heavy fortifications and great resistance
              eventually successful; at high cost

Canal du Nord

   o     September 1918
   o     great obstacle to cross
              heavily defended
              attack through dry part of canal, down one side and up the other
              4,000 men had to be hidden in woods until attack
              once across canal, spread out to continue attack


   o     September 27, 28, 1918
             Germans being pushed back
             high casualties, great resistance
             Germans abandoned Cambrai in early October, Germans burned the city
   o     Canadians and British continue to push
             roads blocked with refugees
                     to slow advance, towns were destroyed

    o   last great battle of the War
    o   armistice planned for November 11
    o   Currie ordered attack on Mons, November 10th
              symbolic - where Germans had defeated British in 1914
    o   Armistice (cease fire)
    o   agreement to cease hostilities
    o   11/11/11/1918
              60,000 dead
    o   Remembrance Day commemorates
              Last Post, Minute of Silence, and Reveille
              Poppy, symbol
                      “In Flanders Fields”
              National War Memorial
              Vimy Ridge
              Ottawa
                      unknown soldier
                      from Vimy

9. Treaty of Versailles

    o   after Armistice
             Germany withdraw troops to within German borders
             Germany surrender fleet to Britain
             Germany to disarm the army
    o   Paris Peace Conference at Versailles, 1919
             attempt by Britain and France to prevent another war; attempt to punish Germany
             Germans considered conditions unfair
                     Germany lost all colonies
                     take all armies out of Rhineland bordering France
                     Alsace-Lorraine transferred back from Germany to France
                     part of eastern Germany given to Poland
                     coal region under French control
                     Germany army restricted in size and weapons
                     Germany had to accept responsibility for the war; War Guilt Clause
                     Germany had to pay money to Britain, France and Belgium

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