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vocabulary book

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									                                                  Mathematical Vocabulary Book
                                                  INTRODUCTION




Who is this book for?
          The purpose of this book is to identify the words and phrases that children need to
          understand and use if they are to make good progress in mathematics. It is designed to
          support the National Numeracy Strategy alongside the Framework for Teaching
          Mathematics.

          This booklet will be of particular interest to you if you are:

          a class teacher

          a member of staff supporting pupils learning English as an additional language

          a special needs teacher or assistant

          a classroom assistant working with pupils in mathematics lessons

          a parent or other adult supporting children in class or at home




Why is the book needed?
          There are three main ways in which children’s failure to understand mathematical vocabulary
          may show itself: children do not respond to questions in lessons, they cannot do a task they
          are set and/or they do poorly in tests.

          Their lack of response may be because:

          they do not understand the spoken or written instructions,
          such as ‘draw a line between…’, ‘ring…’ or ‘find two different ways to…’

          they are not familiar with the mathematical vocabulary,
          that is, words such as ‘difference’, ‘subtract’, ‘divide’ or ‘product’

          they may be confused about mathematical terms,
          such as ‘odd’ or ‘table’, which have different meanings in everyday English

          they may be confused about other words,
          like ‘area’ or ‘divide’, which are used in everyday English and have similar, though more
          precise, meanings in mathematics

          There are, then, practical reasons why children need to acquire appropriate vocabulary so
          that they can participate in the activities, lessons and tests that are part of classroom life.
          There is, however, an even more important reason: mathematical language is crucial to
          children’s development of thinking. If children don’t have the vocabulary to talk about division,
          or perimeters, or numerical difference, they cannot make progress in understanding these
          areas of mathematical knowledge.



                                                 1
How is the book organised and how can it be used?
         To help you introduce appropriate mathematical language at the right time, this book
         provides four pages of vocabulary checklists for each year group. The first three pages
         for each year cover mathematical vocabulary relating to the Framework for Teaching
         Mathematics, organised according to its five strands:
         numbers and the number system
         calculations
         solving problems
         handling data
         measures, shape and space

         Using and Applying Mathematics is integrated throughout.

         The fourth page for each year group lists the language commonly used when
         giving instructions about mathematical problems, both in questions in national tests
         and in published resources.

         The words listed for each year include vocabulary from the previous year, with new
         words for the year printed in red from Year 1 onwards. Some words may appear under
         different strands in different years, as their meaning is expanded or made more
         specific.

         Class teachers can use these lists to identify the vocabulary relating to a series of
         lessons they are planning. They can make provision for the introduction of new
         vocabulary and the consolidation of familiar terms. They can ask support staff and
         parents to emphasise this vocabulary for an appropriate period.

         The checklists are not intended to be exhaustive; you can add more words if you would
         like to do so.



How do children develop their understanding of
mathematical vocabulary?
         Teachers often use informal, everyday language in mathematics lessons before or
         alongside technical mathematical vocabulary. Although this can help children to grasp
         the meaning of different words and phrases, you will find that a structured approach to
         the teaching and learning of vocabulary is essential if children are to move on and
         begin using the correct mathematical terminology as soon as possible.

         Some children may start school with a good understanding of mathematical words
         when used informally, either in English or their home language. Find out the extent of
         their mathematical vocabulary and the depth of their understanding, and build on this.

         You need to plan the introduction of new words in a suitable context, for example, with
         relevant real objects, mathematical apparatus, pictures and/or diagrams. Explain their
         meanings carefully and rehearse them several times. Referring to new words only once
         will do little to promote learning. Encourage their use in context in oral sessions,
         particularly through your questioning. You can help sort out any ambiguities or
         misconceptions your pupils may have through a range of open and closed questions.
         Use every opportunity to draw attention to new words or symbols with the whole class,
         in a group or when talking to individual pupils. The final stages are learning to read and
         write new mathematical vocabulary in a range of circumstances, ultimately spelling the
         relevant words correctly.


                                              2
Regular, planned opportunities for development
It is not just younger children who need regular, planned opportunities to develop
their mathematical vocabulary. All children throughout Key Stages 1 and 2 need to
experience a cycle of oral work, reading and writing as outlined below.
oral work based on practical work
so that they have visual images and tactile experience of what mathematical words
mean in a variety of contexts
other forms of oral work
so that they have opportunities to:

– listen to adults and other children using the words correctly

– acquire confidence and fluency in speaking, using complete sentences that
  include the new words and phrases, sometimes in chorus with others and
  sometimes individually

– describe, define and compare mathematical properties, positions, methods,
  patterns, relationships, rules

– discuss ways of tackling a problem, collecting data, organising their work…

– hypothesise or make predictions about possible results

– present, explain and justify their methods, results, solutions or reasoning, to the
  whole class or to a group or partner

– generalise, or describe examples that match a general statement

reading aloud and silently, sometimes as a whole class and sometimes
individually,
for example, reading:
– numbers, signs and symbols, expressions and equations in blackboard
  presentations

– instructions and explanations in workbooks, textbooks, CD-ROMs…

– texts with mathematical references in fiction and non-fiction books and books
  of rhymes during the literacy hour as well as mathematics lessons

– labels and captions on classroom displays, in diagrams, graphs, charts and
  tables…

– definitions in illustrated dictionaries, including dictionaries that they themselves
  have made, in order to discover synonyms, origins of words, words that start with
  the same group of letters (such as triangle, tricycle, triplet, trisect…)

writing and recording in a variety of ways, progressing from words,
phrases and short sentences to paragraphs and longer pieces of writing,
for example:
– writing prose in order to describe, compare, predict, interpret, explain, justify…

– writing formulae, first using words, then symbols

– sketching and labelling diagrams in order to clarify their meaning

– drawing and labelling graphs, charts or tables, and interpreting and making
  predictions from the data in them, in mathematics and other subjects




                              3
?
The skill of questioning
          Children cannot learn the meanings of words in isolation. The use of questions is crucial in
          helping them to understand mathematical ideas and use mathematical terms correctly.

          It is important to ask questions in different ways so that children who do not understand the first time
          may pick up the meaning subsequently. Pupils for whom English is an additional language
          benefit and so will others who are not always familiar with the vocabulary and grammatical
          structures used in school.

          It is easy to use certain types of questions — those that ask the listener to recall and apply
          facts — more often than those that require a higher level of thinking. If you can use the full
          range of question types you will find that children begin to give more complex answers in
          which they explain their thinking.




?
Types of question
          Recalling facts
          What is 3 add 7?
          How many days are there in a week?
          How many centimetres are there in a metre?
          Is 31 a prime number?

          Applying facts
          Tell me two numbers that have a difference of 12.
          What unit would you choose to measure the width of the table?
          What are the factors of 42?

          Hypothesising or predicting
          Estimate the number of marbles in this jar.
          If we did our survey again on Friday, how likely is it that our graph would be the same?
          Roughly, what is 51 times 47?
          How many rectangles in the next diagram?
          And the next?

          Designing and comparing procedures
          How might we count this pile of sticks?
          How could you subtract 37 from 82?
          How could we test a number to see if it is divisible by 6?
          How could we find the 20th triangular number?
          Are there other ways of doing it?

          Interpreting results
          So what does that tell us about numbers that end in 5 or 0?
          What does the graph tell us about the most common shoe size?
          So what can we say about the sum of the angles in a triangle?

          Applying reasoning
          The seven coins in my purse total 23p. What could they be?
          In how many different ways can four children sit at a round table?
          Why is the sum of two odd numbers always even?



                                                  4
?
On this and the following page are further examples of questions to
help you promote good dialogue and interaction in mathematics
lessons
Below are examples of closed questions with just one correct answer and open questions which have a number
of different correct answers. Open questions give more children a chance to respond and they often provide a
greater challenge for higher attaining pupils, who can be asked to think of alternative answers and, in suitable
cases, to count all the different possibilities.

Closed questions                                               Open questions

Count these cubes.                                             How could we count these cubes?

A chew costs 3p. A lolly costs 7p.                             A chew and a lolly cost 10p altogether. What could
What do they cost altogether?                                  each sweet cost?

What is 6 – 4?                                                 Tell me two numbers with a difference of 2.

What is 2 + 6 – 3?                                             What numbers can you make with 2, 3 and 6?

Is 16 an even number?                                          What even numbers lie between 10 and 20?

Write a number in each box so              3         9         Write a number in each circle so
                                                                                                               12
that it equals the sum of the two                              that the number in each box
numbers on each side of it.                                    equals the sum of the two numbers         10         13
                                           7         4         on each side of it. Find different              11
                                                               ways of doing it.

Copy and complete this addition table.            + 4 7        Find different ways of completing
                                                  2            this table.                                      3 4
                                                  6                                                             7

What are four threes?                                          Tell me two numbers with a product of 12.

What is 7 x 6?                                                 If 7 x 6 = 42, what else can you work out?

How many centimetres are there in a metre?                     Tell me two lengths that together make 1 metre.

Continue this sequence: 1, 2, 4…                               Find different ways of continuing this sequence:
                                                               1, 2, 4…

What is one fifth add four fifths?                             Write eight different ways of adding two numbers
                                                               to make 1.

What is 10% of 300?                                            Find ways of completing: …% of … = 30


What is this shape called?                                     Sketch some different triangles.


                        °C                                     This graph shows      °C
This graph shows
                        19                                                           19
room temperature                                               room temperature
                        18                                                           18
on 19 May.                                                     on 19 May.
                        17                                                           17

                        16                                                           16
What was the                                                   Can you explain it?
                        15                                                           15
temperature at
10.00 am?                    0900   1000   1100    1200                                   0900   1000   1100    1200
                                                    Time                                                        Time




                                                           5
?
Questions that can help to extend children’s thinking

Ask children who are getting started
with a piece of work:
                                                         Ask children who are stuck:
                                                         Can you describe the problem in your own
How are you going to tackle this?                        words?

What information do you have? What do you need           Can you talk me through what you have done
to find out or do?                                       so far?

What operation/s are you going to use?                   What did you do last time? What is different this
                                                         time?
Will you do it mentally, with pencil and paper,
using a number line, with a calculator…? Why?            Is there something that you already know that
                                                         might help?
What method are you going to use? Why?
                                                         Could you try it with simpler numbers… fewer
What equipment will you need?                            numbers… using a number line…?
What questions will you need to ask?                     What about putting things in order?
How are you going to record what you are doing?          Would a table help, or a picture/diagram/graph?
What do you think the answer or result will be?          Why not make a guess and check if it works?
Can you estimate or predict?
                                                         Have you compared your work with anyone
                                                         else’s?
Make positive interventions to check
progress while children are working,
by asking:                                               During the plenary session of
                                                         a lesson ask:
Can you explain what you have done so far?
What else is there to do?                                How did you get your answer?

Why did you decide to use this method or do it           Can you describe your method/pattern/rule to us
this way?                                                all? Can you explain why it works?

Can you think of another method that might have          What could you try next?
worked?
                                                         Would it work with different numbers?
Could there be a quicker way of doing this?
                                                         What if you had started with… rather than…?
What do you mean by…?
                                                         What if you could only use…?
What did you notice when…?
                                                         Is it a reasonable answer/result? What makes
Why did you decide to organise your results like         you say so?
that?
                                                         How did you check it?
Are you beginning to see a pattern or a rule?
                                                         What have you learned or found out today?
Do you think that this would work with other
                                                         If you were doing it again, what would you do
numbers?
                                                         differently?
Have you thought of all the possibilities? How can
                                                         Having done this, when could you use this
you be sure?
                                                         method/information/idea again?

                                                         Did you use any new words today? What do they
                                                         mean? How do you spell them?

                                                         What are the key points or ideas that you need to
                                                         remember for the next lesson?


                                                     6
Mathematical Vocabulary Checklists
RECEPTION to YEAR 6




   7
RECEPTION


Counting and recognising                          Adding and subtracting
numbers                                           add, more, and
                                                  make, sum, total
COUNTING                                          altogether
number                                            score
zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond       double
zero, ten, twenty… one hundred                    one more, two more, ten more…
none                                              how many more to make… ?
how many…?                                        how many more is… than…?
count, count (up) to                              take (away), leave
count on (from, to)                               how many are left/left over?
count back (from, to)                             how many have gone?
count in ones, twos… tens…                        one less, two less… ten less…
more, less, many, few                             how many fewer is… than…?
odd, even                                         difference between
every other                                       is the same as
how many times?
pattern, pair
guess how many, estimate
nearly, close to, about the same as
just over, just under
too many, too few, enough, not enough

COMPARING AND ORDERING NUMBERS
the same number as, as many as
Of two objects/amounts:
greater, more, larger, bigger
less, fewer, smaller
Of three or more objects/amounts:
greatest, most, biggest, largest
least, fewest, smallest
one more, ten more
one less, ten less
compare
order
size
first, second, third… tenth
last, last but one
before, after
next
between
above, below




                                              8
                                                                      RECEPTION


Solving problems                        Measures, shape and space
REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS OR SHAPES       MEASURES (GENERAL)
pattern                                 measure
puzzle                                  size
answer                                  compare
right, wrong                            guess, estimate
what could we try next?                 enough, not enough
how did you work it out?                too much, too little
count, sort                             too many, too few
group, set                              nearly, close to, about the same as
match                                   just over, just under
same, different
list                                    LENGTH
                                        length, width, height, depth
PROBLEMS INVOLVING ‘REAL LIFE’          long, short, tall
OR MONEY                                high, low
compare                                 wide, narrow
double                                  deep, shallow
half, halve                             thick, thin
pair                                    longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
count out, share out                    longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
left, left over                         far, near, close

money                                   MASS
coin                                    weigh, weighs, balances
penny, pence, pound                     heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
price                                   balance, scales, weight
cost
buy                                     CAPACITY
sell
spend, spent                            full
pay                                     half full
change                                  empty
dear, costs more                        holds
cheap, costs less, cheaper              container
costs the same as
how much…? how many…?                   TIME
total                                   time
                                        days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…
                                        day, week
                                        birthday, holiday
                                        morning, afternoon, evening, night
                                        bedtime, dinnertime, playtime
                                        today, yesterday, tomorrow
                                        before, after
                                        next, last
                                        now, soon, early, late
                                        quick, quicker, quickest, quickly
                                        slow, slower, slowest, slowly
                                        old, older, oldest
                                        new, newer, newest
                                        takes longer, takes less time
                                        hour, o’clock
                                        clock, watch, hands




                                    9
RECEPTION


EXPLORING PATTERNS, SHAPE AND SPACE        POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
shape, pattern                             position
flat                                       over, under
curved, straight                           above, below
round                                      top, bottom, side
hollow, solid                              on, in
corner                                     outside, inside
face, side, edge, end                      around
sort                                       in front, behind
make, build, draw                          front, back
                                           before, after
3D SHAPES                                  beside, next to
cube                                       opposite
pyramid                                    apart
sphere                                     between
cone                                       middle, edge
                                           corner
                                           direction
2D SHAPES
                                           left, right
circle                                     up, down
triangle                                   forwards, backwards, sideways
square                                     across
rectangle                                  close, far, near
star                                       along
                                           through
PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY                      to, from, towards, away from
size                                       movement
bigger, larger, smaller                    slide
symmetrical                                roll
pattern                                    turn
repeating pattern                          stretch, bend
match




                                      10
                                                            RECEPTION


Instructions               tick, cross
                           draw
listen                     draw a line between
join in                    join (up)
say                        ring
                           cost
think                      count
imagine                    work out
remember                   answer
                           check
start from
start with
start at
look at
                           General
point to                   same number/s
show me                    different number/s
put, place                 missing number/s
fit                        number facts
arrange                    number line, number track
rearrange                  number square
change, change over        number cards
split                      counters, cubes, blocks, rods
separate                   die, dice
carry on, continue         dominoes
repeat                     pegs, peg board
what comes next?           same way, different way
find                       best way, another way
choose                     in order, in a different order
collect                    not
use                        all, every, each
make
build
tell me
describe
pick out
talk about
explain
show me
read
write
trace
copy
complete
finish, end
fill in
shade
colour




                      11
YEAR 1


Numbers                                                 Calculations
and the number system
                                                        ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS                         +, add, more, plus
                                                        make, sum, total
AND NUMBER SEQUENCES
                                                        altogether
number                                                  score
zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond             double, near double
zero, ten, twenty… one hundred                          one more, two more… ten more
none                                                    how many more to make…?
how many…?                                              how many more is… than…?
count, count (up) to                                    how much more is…?
count on (from, to)                                     −, subtract, take (away), minus
count back (from, to)                                   leave
count in ones, twos… tens…                              how many are left/left over?
more, less, many, few                                   how many have gone?
odd, even                                               one less, two less, ten less…
every other                                             how many fewer is… than…?
how many times?                                         how much less is…?
pattern, pair                                           difference between
                                                        half, halve
PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING                                =, equals, sign, is the same as
units, ones
tens
exchange
digit
‘teens’ number
the same number as, as many as
equal to
Of two objects/amounts:
greater, more, larger, bigger
less, fewer, smaller
Of three or more objects/amounts:
greatest, most, biggest, largest
least, fewest, smallest
one more, ten more
one less, ten less
compare
order
size
first, second, third… tenth, eleventh… twentieth
last, last but one
before, after
next
between, half-way between
above, below

ESTIMATING
guess how many, estimate
nearly, roughly, close to
about the same as
just over, just under
too many, too few, enough, not enough




Words new to Year 1 are in red                     12
                                                                                     YEAR 1


Solving problems                             Organising and using data
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING               count, sort, vote
pattern                                      group, set
puzzle                                       list
answer                                       same, different
right, wrong                                 table
what could we try next?
how did you work it out?
count out, share out, left, left over        Measures, shape and space
number sentence
sign, operation                              MEASURES (GENERAL)
                                             measure
MONEY                                        size
money                                        compare
coin                                         guess, estimate
penny, pence, pound                          enough, not enough
price                                        too much, too little
cost                                         too many, too few
buy                                          nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as
sell                                         just over, just under
spend, spent
pay                                          LENGTH
change
                                             length, width, height, depth
dear, costs more
                                             long, short, tall
cheap, costs less, cheaper
                                             high, low
costs the same as
                                             wide, narrow
how much…? how many…?
                                             deep, shallow
total
                                             thick, thin
                                             longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
                                             longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
                                             far, near, close
                                             metre
                                             ruler, metre stick

                                             MASS
                                             weigh, weighs, balances
                                             heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
                                             balance, scales, weight

                                             CAPACITY
                                             full
                                             half full
                                             empty
                                             holds
                                             container




                                        13                             Words new to Year 1 are in red
YEAR 1


TIME                                            PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY
time                                            size
days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…              bigger, larger, smaller
seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter         symmetrical
day, week, month, year                          pattern
weekend, birthday, holiday                      repeating pattern
morning, afternoon, evening                     match
night, midnight
bedtime, dinnertime, playtime                   POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
today, yesterday, tomorrow                      position
before, after                                   over, under, underneath
next, last                                      above, below
now, soon, early, late                          top, bottom, side
quick, quicker, quickest, quickly               on, in
fast, faster, fastest                           outside, inside
slow, slower, slowest, slowly                   around
old, older, oldest                              in front, behind
new, newer, newest                              front, back
takes longer, takes less time                   before, after
hour, o’clock, half past                        beside, next to
clock, watch, hands                             opposite
how long ago?                                   apart
how long will it be to…?                        between
how long will it take to…?                      middle, edge
how often?                                      centre
always, never, often, sometimes, usually        corner
once, twice                                     direction
                                                journey
SHAPE AND SPACE                                 left, right
shape, pattern                                  up, down
flat                                            forwards, backwards, sideways
curved, straight                                across
round                                           close, far, near
hollow, solid                                   along
corner                                          through
point, pointed                                  to, from, towards, away from
face, side, edge, end                           movement
sort                                            slide
make, build, draw                               roll
                                                turn, whole turn, half turn
3D SHAPES                                       stretch, bend
cube
cuboid
pyramid
sphere
cone
cylinder

2D SHAPES
circle
triangle
square
rectangle
star




Words new to Year 1 are in red             14
                                                                   YEAR 1


Instructions               cost
                           count
listen                     work out
join in                    answer
say                        check

think
imagine
remember
                           General
start from                 same number/s
start with                 different number/s
start at                   missing number/s
                           number facts
look at
point to                   number line, number track
show me                    number square
                           number cards
put, place                 abacus
fit                        counters, cubes, blocks, rods
arrange                    die, dice
rearrange                  dominoes
change, change over        pegs, peg board
split
separate                   same way, different way
                           best way, another way
carry on, continue         in order, in a different order
repeat
what comes next?           not
                           all, every, each
find
choose
collect
use
make
build
tell me
describe
pick out
talk about
explain
show me
read
write
record
trace
copy
complete
finish, end
fill in
shade
colour
tick, cross
draw
draw a line between
join (up)
ring
arrow

                      15                             Words new to Year 1 are in red
YEAR 2


Numbers                                             ESTIMATING
                                                    guess how many, estimate
and the number system                               nearly, roughly, close to
                                                    about the same as
COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS                     just over, just under
AND NUMBER SEQUENCES                                exact, exactly
number                                              too many, too few, enough, not enough
zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond         round, nearest, round to the nearest ten
zero, ten, twenty… one hundred
zero, one hundred, two hundred… one thousand        FRACTIONS
none                                                part, equal parts
how many…?                                          fraction
count, count (up) to                                one whole
count on (from, to)                                 one half, two halves
count back (from, to)                               one quarter, two… three… four quarters
count in ones, twos, threes, fours, fives…
count in tens
more, less, many, few
tally                                               Calculations
odd, even
every other                                         ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
how many times?                                     +, add, addition, more, plus
multiple of                                         make, sum, total
sequence                                            altogether
continue                                            score
predict                                             double, near double
pattern, pair, rule                                 one more, two more... ten more... one hundred more
                                                    how many more to make…?
PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING                            how many more is… than…?
units, ones                                         how much more is…?
tens, hundreds                                      −, subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus
digit                                               leave, how many are left/left over?
one-, two- or three-digit number                    one less, two less… ten less… one hundred less
‘teens’ number                                      how many fewer is… than…?
place, place value                                  how much less is…?
stands for, represents                              difference between
exchange                                            half, halve
the same number as, as many as                      =, equals, sign, is the same as
equal to                                            tens boundary
Of two objects/amounts:
greater, more, larger, bigger                       MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
less, fewer, smaller                                lots of, groups of
Of three or more objects/amounts:                   ×, times, multiply, multiplied by
greatest, most, biggest, largest                    multiple of
least, fewest, smallest                             once, twice, three times… ten times…
one more, ten more                                  times as (big, long, wide… and so on)
one less, ten less                                  repeated addition
compare                                             array
order                                               row, column
size                                                double, halve
first, second, third… tenth… twentieth              share, share equally
twenty-first, twenty-second…                        one each, two each, three each…
last, last but one                                  group in pairs, threes… tens
before, after                                       equal groups of
next                                                ÷, divide, divided by, divided into
between, half-way between                           left, left over
above, below


Words new to Year 2 are in red                 16
                                                                                                          YEAR 2


Solving problems                                           LENGTH
                                                           length, width, height, depth
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING                             long, short, tall, high, low
                                                           wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin
pattern, puzzle
                                                           longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
calculate, calculation
                                                           longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
mental calculation
                                                           far, further, furthest, near, close
jotting
                                                           metre (m ), centimetre (c m )
answer
                                                           ruler, metre stick, tape measure
right, correct, wrong
what could we try next?
how did you work it out?                                   MASS
number sentence                                            weigh, weighs, balances
sign, operation, symbol                                    heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
                                                           kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g )
MONEY                                                      balance, scales, weight
money
coin                                                       CAPACITY
penny, pence, pound (£)                                    capacity
price, cost                                                full, half full
buy, bought, sell, sold                                    empty
spend, spent                                               holds, contains
pay                                                        litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l )
change                                                     container
dear, costs more
cheap, costs less, cheaper                                 TIME
how much…? how many…?                                      time
total                                                      days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…
                                                           months of the year: January, February…
                                                           seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter
Organising and using data                                  day, week, fortnight, month, year
                                                           weekend, birthday, holiday
count, tally, sort, vote                                   morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight
graph, block graph, pictogram                              bedtime, dinnertime, playtime
represent                                                  today, yesterday, tomorrow
group, set                                                 before, after
same, different                                            next, last
list, table                                                now, soon, early, late
label, title                                               quick, quicker, quickest, quickly
most popular, most common                                  fast, faster, fastest
least popular, least common                                slow, slower, slowest, slowly
                                                           old, older, oldest
                                                           new, newer, newest
                                                           takes longer, takes less time
Measures, shape and space                                  how long ago? how long will it be to…?
                                                           how long will it take to…?
MEASURES (GENERAL)                                         hour, minute, second
measure                                                    o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past
size                                                       clock, watch, hands
compare                                                    digital/analogue clock/watch, timer
measuring scale                                            how often?
guess, estimate                                            always, never, often, sometimes, usually
enough, not enough                                         once, twice
too much, too little
too many, too few
nearly, roughly, about, close to, about the same as
just over, just under



                                                      17                                    Words new to Year 2 are in red
YEAR 2


SHAPE AND SPACE                       POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
shape, pattern                        position
flat, curved, straight                over, under, underneath
round                                 above, below
hollow, solid                         top, bottom, side
corner                                on, in
point, pointed                        outside, inside
face, side, edge, end                 around
sort                                  in front, behind
make, build, draw                     front, back
surface                               before, after
                                      beside, next to
3D SHAPES                             opposite
cube                                  apart
cuboid                                between
pyramid                               middle, edge
sphere                                centre
cone                                  corner
cylinder                              direction
                                      journey, route
                                      left, right
2D SHAPES
                                      up, down
circle, circular                      higher, lower
triangle, triangular                  forwards, backwards, sideways
square                                across
rectangle, rectangular                close, far, near
star                                  along
pentagon                              through
hexagon                               to, from, towards, away from
octagon                               clockwise, anti-clockwise
                                      movement
PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY                 slide
size                                  roll
bigger, larger, smaller               whole turn, half turn, quarter turn
symmetrical                           right angle
line of symmetry                      straight line
fold                                  stretch, bend
match
mirror line, reflection
pattern
repeating pattern




Words new to Year 2 are in red   18
                                                                               YEAR 2


Instructions                           read
                                       write
listen                                 record
join in                                write in figures
say                                    present
recite                                 represent
                                       trace
think                                  copy
imagine                                complete
remember                               finish, end
start from                             fill in
start with                             shade, colour
start at                               label
look at                                tick, cross
point to                               draw
show me                                draw a line between
                                       join (up)
put, place
                                       ring
fit
                                       arrow
arrange, rearrange
change, change over                    cost, count, tally
split
separate                               calculate
                                       work out
carry on, continue                     solve
repeat                                 answer
what comes next?                       check
predict
describe the pattern
describe the rule
                                       General
find, find all, find different
investigate                            same, different
                                       missing number/s
choose                                 number facts
decide                                 number pairs
collect                                number bonds
use
make                                   number line, number track
build                                  number square, hundred square
                                       number cards
tell me                                number grid
describe                               abacus
name                                   counters, cubes, blocks, rods
pick out                               die, dice
discuss                                dominoes
talk about                             pegs, peg board
explain                                geo-strips
explain your method
explain how you got your answer        same way, different way
give an example of…                    best way, another way
show how you…                          in order, in a different order
                                       not
                                       all, every, each




                                  19                             Words new to Year 2 are in red
YEAR 3


Numbers                                             ESTIMATING
                                                    guess how many, estimate
and the number system                               nearly, roughly, close to
                                                    approximate, approximately
COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS                     about the same as
AND NUMBER SEQUENCES                                just over, just under
number                                              exact, exactly
zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond         too many, too few, enough, not enough
zero, ten, twenty… one hundred                      round (up or down)
zero, one hundred, two hundred… one thousand        nearest, round to the nearest ten
none
how many…?                                          FRACTIONS
count, count (up) to                                part, equal parts
count on (from, to)                                 fraction
count back (from, to)                               one whole
count in ones, twos, threes, fours, fives…          one half, two halves
count in tens, hundreds                             one quarter, two… three… four quarters
more, less, many, few                               one third, two thirds, three thirds
tally                                               one tenth
odd, even
every other
how many times?
multiple of                                         Calculations
sequence
continue                                            ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
predict                                             +, add, addition, more, plus
pattern, pair, rule                                 make, sum, total
relationship                                        altogether
                                                    score
PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING                            double, near double
units, ones                                         one more, two more... ten more... one hundred more
tens, hundreds                                      how many more to make…?
digit                                               how many more is… than…?
one-, two- or three-digit number                    how much more is…?
‘teens’ number                                      −, subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus
place, place value                                  leave, how many are left/left over?
stands for, represents                              one less, two less… ten less… one hundred less
exchange                                            how many fewer is… than…?
the same number as, as many as                      how much less is…?
equal to                                            difference between
Of two objects/amounts:                             half, halve
greater, more, larger, bigger                       =, equals, sign, is the same as
less, fewer, smaller                                tens boundary, hundreds boundary
Of three or more objects/amounts:
greatest, most, biggest, largest                    MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
least, fewest, smallest                             lots of, groups of
one more, ten more, one hundred more                ×, times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by
one less, ten less, one hundred less                multiple of, product
compare                                             once, twice, three times… ten times…
order                                               times as (big, long, wide… and so on)
size                                                repeated addition
first, second, third… tenth… twentieth              array
twenty-first, twenty-second…                        row, column
last, last but one                                  double, halve
before, after                                       share, share equally
next                                                one each, two each, three each…
between, half-way between
above, below

Words new to Year 3 are in red                 20
                                                                                                       YEAR 3


group in pairs, threes… tens                            Measures, shape and space
equal groups of
÷, divide, division, divided by, divided into
                                                        MEASURES (GENERAL)
left, left over, remainder
                                                        measure
                                                        size
                                                        compare
Solving problems                                        measuring scale, division
                                                        guess, estimate
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING                          enough, not enough
pattern, puzzle                                         too much, too little
calculate, calculation                                  too many, too few
mental calculation                                      nearly, roughly, about, close to,
method                                                  about the same as, approximately
jotting                                                 just over, just under
answer
right, correct, wrong                                   LENGTH
what could we try next?                                 length, width, height, depth
how did you work it out?                                long, short, tall, high, low
number sentence                                         wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin
sign, operation, symbol, equation                       longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
                                                        longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
MONEY                                                   far, further, furthest, near, close
money                                                   distance apart/between, distance to… from…
coin, note                                              kilometre (k m ), metre (m ), centimetre (c m )
penny, pence, pound (£)                                 mile
price, cost                                             ruler, metre stick, tape measure
buy, bought, sell, sold
spend, spent                                            MASS
pay                                                     weigh, weighs, balances
change                                                  heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
dear, costs more, more/most expensive                   kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g )
cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive        balance, scales, weight
how much…? how many…?
total, amount
                                                        CAPACITY
value, worth
                                                        capacity
                                                        full, half full
                                                        empty
Handling data                                           holds, contains
                                                        litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l )
count, tally, sort, vote                                container
graph, block graph, pictogram
represent                                               TIME
group, set
list, chart, bar chart                                  time
table, frequency table                                  days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…
Carroll diagram, Venn diagram                           months of the year: January, February…
label, title, axis, axes                                seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter
diagram                                                 day, week, fortnight, month, year, century
most popular, most common                               weekend, birthday, holiday
least popular, least common                             calendar, date
                                                        morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight
                                                        am, pm
                                                        bedtime, dinnertime, playtime
                                                        today, yesterday, tomorrow




                                                   21                                    Words new to Year 3 are in red
YEAR 3


before, after                                       PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY
next, last                                          size
now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest            bigger, larger, smaller
quick, quicker, quickest, quickly                   symmetrical
fast, faster, fastest                               line of symmetry
slow, slower, slowest, slowly                       fold
old, older, oldest                                  match
new, newer, newest                                  mirror line, reflection
takes longer, takes less time                       pattern
how long ago? how long will it be to…?              repeating pattern
how long will it take to…?
hour, minute, second
                                                    POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past
clock, watch, hands                                 position
digital/analogue clock/watch, timer                 over, under, underneath
how often?                                          above, below
always, never, often, sometimes, usually            top, bottom, side
once, twice                                         on, in
                                                    outside, inside
                                                    around
SHAPE AND SPACE
                                                    in front, behind
shape, pattern                                      front, back
flat, curved, straight                              before, after
round                                               beside, next to
hollow, solid                                       opposite
corner                                              apart
point, pointed                                      between
face, side, edge, end                               middle, edge
sort                                                centre
make, build, draw                                   corner
surface                                             direction
right-angled                                        journey, route, map, plan
vertex, vertices                                    left, right
layer, diagram                                      up, down
                                                    higher, lower
3D SHAPES                                           forwards, backwards, sideways
cube                                                across
cuboid                                              close, far, near
pyramid                                             along
sphere, hemi-sphere                                 through
cone                                                to, from, towards, away from
cylinder                                            ascend, descend
prism                                               grid
                                                    row, column
2D SHAPES                                           clockwise, anti-clockwise
                                                    compass point
circle, circular, semi-circle
                                                    north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W)
triangle, triangular
                                                    horizontal, vertical
square
                                                    diagonal
rectangle, rectangular
                                                    movement
star
                                                    slide
pentagon, pentagonal
                                                    roll
hexagon, hexagonal
                                                    whole turn, half turn, quarter turn
octagon, octagonal
                                                    angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than
quadrilateral
                                                    right angle
                                                    straight line
                                                    stretch, bend




Words new to Year 3 are in red                 22
                                                                               YEAR 3


Instructions                           present
                                       represent
listen                                 interpret
join in                                trace
say                                    copy
recite                                 complete
                                       finish, end
think
imagine                                fill in
remember                               shade, colour
                                       label
start from
start with                             tick, cross
start at                               draw, sketch
                                       draw a line between
look at                                join (up)
point to                               ring
show me                                arrow
put, place                             cost, count, tally
fit
arrange, rearrange                     calculate
change, change over                    work out
split                                  solve
separate                               investigate
                                       question
carry on, continue                     answer
repeat                                 check
what comes next?
predict
describe the pattern
describe the rule
                                       General
find, find all, find different         same, different
investigate                            missing number/s
                                       number facts, number pairs, number bonds
choose                                 greatest value, least value
decide
collect                                number line, number track
                                       number square, hundred square
use                                    number cards
make                                   number grid
build                                  abacus
tell me                                counters, cubes, blocks, rods
describe                               die, dice
name                                   dominoes
pick out                               pegs, peg board
discuss                                geo-strips
talk about                             same way, different way
explain                                best way, another way
explain your method                    in order, in a different order
explain how you got your answer
give an example of…                    not
show how you…                          all, every, each
show your working
read
write
record
write in figures



                                  23                             Words new to Year 3 are in red
YEAR 4


Numbers                                                     FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS
                                                            part, equal parts
and the number system                                       fraction
                                                            one whole
PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING                          half, quarter, eighth
units, ones                                                 third, sixth
tens, hundreds, thousands                                   fifth, tenth, twentieth
ten thousand, hundred thousand, million                     proportion, in every, for every
digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number              decimal, decimal fraction
numeral                                                     decimal point, decimal place
‘teens’ number
place, place value
stands for, represents
exchange
                                                            Calculations
the same number as, as many as
equal to                                                    ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Of two objects/amounts:                                     add, addition, more, plus, increase
>, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than        sum, total, altogether
<, less than, fewer than, smaller than                      score
Of three or more objects/amounts:                           double, near double
greatest, most, largest, biggest                            how many more to make…?
least, fewest, smallest                                     subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease
one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less               leave, how many are left/left over?
compare, order, size                                        difference between
first… tenth… twentieth                                     half, halve
last, last but one                                          how many more/fewer is… than…?
before, after                                               how much more/less is…?
next                                                        equals, sign, is the same as
between, half-way between                                   tens boundary, hundreds boundary
guess how many, estimate                                    inverse
nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as
approximate, approximately                                  MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
just over, just under                                       lots of, groups of
exact, exactly                                              times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by
too many, too few, enough, not enough                       multiple of, product
round (up or down), nearest                                 once, twice, three times… ten times…
round to the nearest ten                                    times as (big, long, wide… and so on)
round to the nearest hundred                                repeated addition
integer, positive, negative                                 array
above/below zero, minus                                     row, column
                                                            double, halve
PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER                            share, share equally
SEQUENCES                                                   one each, two each, three each…
number, count, how many…?                                   group in pairs, threes… tens
odd, even                                                   equal groups of
every other                                                 divide, division, divided by, divided into
how many times?                                             remainder
multiple of                                                 factor, quotient, divisible by
digit                                                       inverse
next, consecutive
sequence
continue
predict
pattern, pair, rule
relationship
sort, classify, property



Words new to Year 4 are in red                         24
                                                                                                       YEAR 4


Solving problems                                        measuring scale, division
                                                        guess, estimate
                                                        enough, not enough
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING
                                                        too much, too little
pattern, puzzle                                         too many, too few
calculate, calculation                                  nearly, roughly, about, close to
mental calculation                                      about the same as, approximately
method                                                  just over, just under
jotting
answer                                                  LENGTH
right, correct, wrong
what could we try next?                                 length, width, height, depth, breadth
how did you work it out?                                long, short, tall, high, low
number sentence                                         wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin
sign, operation, symbol, equation                       longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
                                                        longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
                                                        far, further, furthest, near, close
MONEY
                                                        distance apart/between, distance to… from…
money                                                   edge, perimeter
coin, note                                              kilometre (k m ), metre (m )
penny, pence, pound (£ )                                centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m )
price, cost                                             mile
buy, bought, sell, sold                                 ruler, metre stick, tape measure
spend, spent
pay                                                     MASS
change
dear, costs more, more/most expensive                   mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances
cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive        weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
how much…? how many…?                                   weigh, weighs
total, amount                                           kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g )
value, worth                                            balance, scales

                                                        CAPACITY
                                                        capacity
Handling data                                           full, half full
count, tally, sort, vote                                empty
survey, questionnaire, data                             holds, contains
graph, block graph, pictogram                           litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l )
represent                                               pint
group, set                                              container, measuring cylinder
list, chart, bar chart, tally chart
table, frequency table                                  AREA
Carroll diagram, Venn diagram                           area, covers, surface
label, title, axis, axes                                square centimetre (c m 2 )
diagram
most popular, most common
                                                        TIME
least popular, least common
                                                        time
                                                        days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…
                                                        months of the year: January, February…
Measures, shape and space                               seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter
                                                        day, week, fortnight, month
MEASURES (GENERAL)                                      year, leap year, century, millennium
measure, measurement                                    weekend, birthday, holiday
size                                                    calendar, date, date of birth
compare                                                 morning, afternoon, evening, night
unit, standard unit
metric unit, imperial unit



                                                   25                                    Words new to Year 4 are in red
YEAR 4


am, pm, noon, midnight                                      square
today, yesterday, tomorrow                                  rectangle, rectangular, oblong
before, after, next, last                                   pentagon, pentagonal
now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest                    hexagon, hexagonal
quick, quicker, quickest, quickly                           heptagon
fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly        octagon, octagonal
old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest                      polygon
takes longer, takes less time                               quadrilateral
how long ago? how long will it be to…?
how long will it take to…?                                  PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY
timetable, arrive, depart                                   size
hour, minute, second                                        bigger, larger, smaller
o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past                symmetrical
clock, watch, hands                                         line of symmetry, line symmetry
digital/analogue clock/watch, timer                         fold
how often?                                                  match
always, never, often, sometimes, usually                    mirror line, reflection, reflect
                                                            pattern, repeating pattern, translation
SHAPE AND SPACE
shape, pattern                                              POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
flat, line                                                  position
curved, straight                                            over, under, underneath
round                                                       above, below, top, bottom, side
hollow, solid                                               on, in, outside, inside, around
corner                                                      in front, behind, front, back
point, pointed                                              before, after, beside, next to
face, side, edge, end                                       opposite, apart
sort                                                        between, middle, edge, centre
make, build, construct, draw, sketch                        corner
centre, radius, diameter                                    direction
net                                                         journey, route, map, plan
surface                                                     left, right
angle, right-angled                                         up, down, higher, lower
base, square-based                                          forwards, backwards, sideways, across
vertex, vertices                                            close, far, near
layer, diagram                                              along, through, to, from, towards, away from
regular, irregular                                          ascend, descend
concave, convex                                             grid
open, closed                                                row, column
                                                            origin, coordinates
3D SHAPES                                                   clockwise, anti-clockwise
3D, three-dimensional                                       compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W)
cube                                                        north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west
cuboid                                                      (NE, NW, SE, SW)
pyramid                                                     horizontal, vertical, diagonal
sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical                              movement
cone                                                        slide, roll
cylinder, cylindrical                                       whole turn, half turn, quarter turn, rotate
prism                                                       angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than
tetrahedron, polyhedron                                     right angle
                                                            degree
2D SHAPES                                                   straight line
2D, two-dimensional                                         stretch, bend
circle, circular, semi-circle                               ruler, set square
triangle, triangular                                        angle measurer, compasses
equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle



Words new to Year 4 are in red                         26
                                                                                           YEAR 4


Instructions                                       General
listen, join in, say, recite                       same, different
think, imagine, remember                           missing number/s
start from, start with, start at                   number facts, number pairs, number bonds
look at, point to, show me                         greatest value, least value
put, place                                         number line, number track
arrange, rearrange                                 number square, hundred square
change, change over                                number cards, number grid
split, separate                                    abacus
                                                   counters, cubes, blocks, rods
carry on, continue, repeat                         die, dice
what comes next? predict                           dominoes
describe the pattern, describe the rule            pegs, peg board, pin board
find, find all, find different                     geo-strips
investigate                                        same way, different way
choose, decide                                     best way, another way
collect                                            in order, in a different order

use, make, build, construct                        not
                                                   all, every, each
tell me, describe, name, pick out
discuss, talk about
explain
explain your method
explain how you got your answer
give an example of…
show how you…
show your working
justify
make a statement

read, write, record
write in figures
present, represent
interpret
trace, copy
complete, finish, end

fill in, shade, colour
label, plot
tick, cross
draw, sketch
draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow
cost, count, tally
calculate, work out, solve
investigate, question
answer
check




                                              27                             Words new to Year 4 are in red
YEAR 5


Numbers                                                     pattern, pair, rule
                                                            relationship
and the number system                                       sort, classify, property
                                                            formula
                                                            divisible (by), divisibility, factor
PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING
                                                            square number
                                                                                                 2 2
units, ones                                                 one squared, two squared… (1 , 2 …)
tens, hundreds, thousands
ten thousand, hundred thousand, million                     FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, PERCENTAGES,
digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number
                                                            RATIO AND PROPORTION
numeral
‘teens’ number                                              part, equal parts
place, place value                                          fraction, proper/improper fraction
stands for, represents                                      mixed number
exchange                                                    numerator, denominator
the same number as, as many as                              equivalent, reduced to, cancel
equal to                                                    one whole
Of two objects/amounts:                                     half, quarter, eighth
>, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than        third, sixth, ninth, twelfth
<, less than, fewer than, smaller than                      fifth, tenth, twentieth, hundredth
≥, greater than or equal to                                 proportion, ratio
≤, less than or equal to                                    in every, for every
Of three or more objects/amounts:                           to every, as many as
greatest, most, largest, biggest                            decimal, decimal fraction
least, fewest, smallest                                     decimal point, decimal place
one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less               percentage, per cent, %
compare, order, size
ascending/descending order
first… tenth… twentieth                                     Calculations
last, last but one
before, after, next
                                                            ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
between, half-way between
guess how many, estimate                                    add, addition, more, plus, increase
nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as                sum, total, altogether
approximate, approximately                                  score
≈, is approximately equal to                                double, near double
just over, just under                                       how many more to make…?
exact, exactly                                              subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease
too many, too few, enough, not enough                       leave, how many are left/left over?
round (up or down), nearest                                 difference between
round to the nearest ten/hundred                            half, halve
round to the nearest thousand                               how many more/fewer is… than…?
integer                                                     how much more/less is…?
positive, negative                                          equals, sign, is the same as
above/below zero, minus                                     tens boundary, hundreds boundary
                                                            units boundary, tenths boundary
                                                            inverse
PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER
SEQUENCES
                                                            MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
number, count, how many…?
                                                            lots of, groups of
odd, even
                                                            times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by
every other
                                                            multiple of, product
how many times?
                                                            once, twice, three times… ten times…
multiple of
                                                            times as (big, long, wide… and so on)
digit
                                                            repeated addition
next, consecutive
                                                            array
sequence
                                                            row, column
continue
                                                            double, halve
predict
                                                            share, share equally

Words new to Year 5 are in red                         28
                                                                                                 YEAR 5


one each, two each, three each…                         table, frequency table
group in pairs, threes… tens                            Carroll diagram, Venn diagram
equal groups of                                         label, title, axis, axes
divide, division, divided by, divided into              diagram
remainder                                               most popular, most common
factor, quotient, divisible by                          least popular, least common
inverse                                                 mode, range
                                                        maximum/minimum value
USING A CALCULATOR                                      classify, outcome
calculator
display, key, enter, clear                              PROBABILITY
constant                                                fair, unfair
                                                        likely, unlikely, likelihood
                                                        certain, uncertain
                                                        probable, possible, impossible
Solving problems                                        chance, good chance
                                                        poor chance, no chance
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING                          risk, doubt
pattern, puzzle
calculate, calculation
mental calculation
method, strategy                                        Measures, shape and space
jotting
answer                                                  MEASURES (GENERAL)
right, correct, wrong                                   measure, measurement
what could we try next?                                 size
how did you work it out?                                compare
number sentence                                         unit, standard unit
sign, operation, symbol, equation                       metric unit, imperial unit
                                                        measuring scale, division
MONEY                                                   guess, estimate
money                                                   enough, not enough
coin, note                                              too much, too little
penny, pence, pound (£)                                 too many, too few
price, cost                                             nearly, roughly, about, close to
buy, bought, sell, sold                                 about the same as, approximately
spend, spent                                            just over, just under
pay
change                                                  LENGTH
dear, costs more, more/most expensive                   length, width, height, depth, breadth
cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive        long, short, tall, high, low
how much…? how many…?                                   wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin
total, amount, value, worth                             longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
discount                                                longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
currency                                                far, further, furthest, near, close
                                                        distance apart/between, distance to… from…
                                                        edge, perimeter
                                                        kilometre (k m ), metre (m )
Handling data                                           centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m )
                                                        mile
count, tally, sort, vote
                                                        ruler, metre stick, tape measure
survey, questionnaire
data, database
graph, block graph, line graph                          MASS
pictogram,                                              mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances
represent                                               weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest
group, set                                              weigh, weighs
list, chart, bar chart, bar line chart                  kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g )
tally chart                                             balance, scales

                                                   29                              Words new to Year 5 are in red
YEAR 5


CAPACITY                                                    SHAPE AND SPACE
capacity                                                    shape, pattern
full, half full                                             flat, line
empty                                                       curved, straight
holds, contains                                             round
litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l )                   hollow, solid
pint, gallon                                                corner
container, measuring cylinder                               point, pointed
                                                            face, side, edge, end
AREA                                                        sort
area, covers, surface                                       make, build, construct, draw, sketch
square centimetre (c m 2 ), square metre (m 2 )             centre, radius, diameter
square millimetre (m m 2 )                                  net
                                                            surface
                                                            angle, right-angled
TIME
                                                            congruent
time                                                        base, square-based
days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…                          vertex, vertices
months of the year: January, February…                      layer, diagram
seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter                     regular, irregular
day, week, fortnight, month                                 concave, convex
year, leap year, century, millennium                        open, closed
weekend, birthday, holiday
calendar, date, date of birth                               3D SHAPES
morning, afternoon, evening, night
am, pm, noon, midnight                                      3D, three-dimensional
today, yesterday, tomorrow                                  cube, cuboid
before, after, next, last                                   pyramid
now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest                    sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical
quick, quicker, quickest, quickly                           cone
fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly        cylinder, cylindrical
old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest                      prism
takes longer, takes less time                               tetrahedron, polyhedron, octahedron
how long ago? how long will it be to…?
how long will it take to…?                                  2D SHAPES
timetable, arrive, depart                                   2D, two-dimensional
hour, minute, second                                        circle, circular, semi-circle
o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past                triangle, triangular
clock, watch, hands                                         equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle
digital/analogue clock/watch, timer                         square
24-hour clock, 12-hour clock                                rectangle, rectangular, oblong
how often?                                                  pentagon, pentagonal
always, never, often, sometimes, usually                    hexagon, hexagonal
                                                            heptagon
                                                            octagon, octagonal
                                                            polygon
                                                            quadrilateral

                                                            PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY
                                                            size
                                                            bigger, larger, smaller
                                                            symmetrical
                                                            line of symmetry, axis of symmetry
                                                            line symmetry, reflective symmetry
                                                            fold
                                                            match
                                                            mirror line, reflection, reflect
                                                            pattern, repeating pattern, translation

Words new to Year 5 are in red                         30
                                                                                                    YEAR 5


POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT                            choose, decide
position                                                    collect
over, under, underneath                                     use, make, build, construct, bisect
above, below, top, bottom, side
on, in, outside, inside, around                             tell me, describe, name, pick out, identify
in front, behind, front, back                               discuss, talk about
before, after, beside, next to                              explain
opposite, apart                                             explain your method/answer/reasoning
between, middle, edge, centre                               give an example of…
corner                                                      show how you…
direction                                                   show your working
journey, route, map, plan                                   justify
left, right                                                 make a statement
up, down, higher, lower
                                                            read, write, record
forwards, backwards, sideways, across
                                                            write in figures
close, far, near
                                                            present, represent
along, through, to, from, towards, away from
                                                            interpret
ascend, descend
                                                            trace, copy
grid, row, column
                                                            complete, finish, end
origin, coordinates
clockwise, anti-clockwise                                   fill in, shade, colour
compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W)        label, plot
north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west
(NE, NW, SE, SW)                                            tick, cross
horizontal, vertical, diagonal                              draw, sketch
parallel, perpendicular                                     draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow
x-axis, y-axis                                              cost, count, tally
quadrant
movement                                                    calculate, work out, solve, convert
slide, roll                                                 investigate, question
whole turn, half turn, quarter turn                         answer
rotate, rotation                                            check
angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than
right angle, acute, obtuse
degree                                                      General
straight line
stretch, bend                                               same, different
ruler, set square                                           missing number/s
angle measurer, compasses, protractor                       number facts, number pairs, number bonds
                                                            greatest value, least value
                                                            number line, number track
Instructions                                                number square, hundred square
                                                            number cards, number grid
listen, join in, say, recite                                abacus
think, imagine, remember                                    counters, cubes, blocks, rods
start from, start with, start at                            die, dice, spinner
look at, point to, show me                                  dominoes
put, place                                                  pegs, peg board, pin board
arrange, rearrange                                          geo-strips
change, change over                                         same way, different way
split, separate                                             best way, another way
carry on, continue, repeat                                  in order, in a different order
what comes next? predict                                    not
describe the pattern, describe the rule                     all, every, each
find, find all, find different
investigate

                                                       31                             Words new to Year 5 are in red
YEAR 6


Numbers                                                     relationship
                                                            sort, classify, property
and the number system                                       formula
                                                            divisible (by), divisibility, factor, factorise
PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING                          square number
                                                                                                  2  2

units, ones                                                 one squared, two squared… (1 , 2 …)
tens, hundreds, thousands                                   prime, prime factor
ten thousand, hundred thousand, million
digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number              FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, PERCENTAGES,
numeral                                                     RATIO AND PROPORTION
‘teens’ number                                              part, equal parts
place, place value                                          fraction, proper/improper fraction
stands for, represents                                      mixed number
exchange                                                    numerator, denominator
the same number as, as many as                              equivalent, reduced to, cancel
equal to                                                    one whole
Of two objects/amounts:                                     half, quarter, eighth
>, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than        third, sixth, ninth, twelfth
<, less than, fewer than, smaller than                      fifth, tenth, twentieth
≥, greater than or equal to                                 hundredth, thousandth
≤, less than or equal to                                    proportion, ratio
Of three or more objects/amounts:                           in every, for every
greatest, most, largest, biggest                            to every, as many as
least, fewest, smallest                                     decimal, decimal fraction
one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less               decimal point, decimal place
compare, order, size                                        percentage, per cent, %
ascending/descending order
first… tenth… twentieth
last, last but one
before, after                                               Calculations
next
between, half-way between                                   ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
guess how many, estimate                                    add, addition, more, plus, increase
nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as                sum, total, altogether
approximate, approximately                                  score
≈, is approximately equal to                                double, near double
just over, just under                                       how many more to make…?
exact, exactly                                              subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease
too many, too few, enough, not enough                       leave, how many are left/left over?
round (up or down), nearest                                 difference between
round to the nearest ten/hundred/thousand                   half, halve
integer, positive, negative                                 how many more/fewer is… than…?
above/below zero, minus                                     how much more/less is…?
                                                            equals, sign, is the same as
PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER                            tens boundary, hundreds boundary
SEQUENCES                                                   units boundary, tenths boundary
number, count, how many…?                                   inverse
odd, even
every other                                                 MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
how many times?                                             lots of, groups of
multiple of                                                 times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by
digit                                                       multiple of, product
next, consecutive                                           once, twice, three times… ten times…
sequence                                                    times as (big, long, wide… and so on)
continue                                                    repeated addition
predict                                                     array, row, column
pattern, pair, rule                                         double, halve


Words new to Year 6 are in red                         32
                                                                                              YEAR 6


share, share equally                                    list, chart, bar chart, bar line chart
one each, two each, three each…                         tally chart
group in pairs, threes… tens                            table, frequency table
equal groups of                                         Carroll diagram, Venn diagram
divide, division, divided by, divided into              label, title, axis, axes
remainder                                               diagram
factor, quotient, divisible by                          most popular, most common
inverse                                                 least popular, least common
                                                        mode, range, mean, average, median
USING A CALCULATOR                                      statistics, distribution
calculator, display, key                                maximum/minimum value
enter, clear, sign change                               classify, outcome
constant, recurring, memory, operation key
                                                        PROBABILITY
                                                        fair, unfair
                                                        likely, unlikely, likelihood, equally likely
Solving problems                                        certain, uncertain
                                                        probable, possible, impossible
MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING                          chance, good chance,
pattern, puzzle                                         poor chance, no chance
calculate, calculation                                  equal chance, even chance, fifty-fifty chance
mental calculation                                      risk, doubt
method, strategy                                        biased, random
jotting
answer
right, correct, wrong
what could we try next?                                 Measures, shape and space
how did you work it out?
number sentence                                         MEASURES (GENERAL)
sign, operation, symbol, equation                       measure, measurement
                                                        size
MONEY                                                   compare
money                                                   unit, standard unit
coin, note                                              metric unit, imperial unit
penny, pence, pound (£)                                 measuring scale, division
price, cost                                             guess, estimate
buy, bought, sell, sold                                 enough, not enough
spend, spent                                            too much, too little
pay                                                     too many, too few
change                                                  nearly, roughly, about, close to
dear, costs more, more/most expensive                   about the same as, approximately
cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive        just over, just under
how much…? how many…?
total, amount, value, worth                             LENGTH
discount, profit, loss                                  length, width, height, depth, breadth
currency                                                long, short, tall, high, low
                                                        wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin
                                                        longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on
                                                        longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on
Handling data                                           far, further, furthest, near, close
                                                        distance apart/between, distance to… from…
count, tally, sort, vote
                                                        edge, perimeter, circumference
survey, questionnaire
                                                        kilometre (k m ), metre (m )
data, database
                                                        centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m )
graph, block graph, line graph
                                                        mile, yard, feet, foot, inches, inch
pictogram,
                                                        ruler, metre stick, tape measure, compasses
represent
group, set


                                                   33                           Words new to Year 6 are in red
YEAR 6


MASS                                                                hollow, solid
mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances                         corner
weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest             point, pointed
weigh, weighs                                                       face, side, edge, end
tonne, kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g )                    sort
pound (l b ), ounce (o z )                                          make, build, construct, draw, sketch
balance, scales                                                     centre, radius, diameter
                                                                    circumference, concentric, arc
                                                                    net
CAPACITY
                                                                    surface
capacity                                                            angle, right-angled
full, half full, empty                                              congruent
holds, contains                                                     intersecting, intersection
litre (l ), half-litre, centilitre (c l ), millilitre (m l )        plane
pint, gallon                                                        base, square-based
container, measuring cylinder                                       vertex, vertices
                                                                    layer, diagram
AREA                                                                regular, irregular
area, covers, surface                                               concave, convex
square centimetre (c m 2 ), square metre (m 2 )                     open, closed
square millimetre (m m 2 )                                          tangram

TIME                                                                3D SHAPES
time                                                                3D, three-dimensional
days of the week: Monday, Tuesday…                                  cube, cuboid
months of the year: January, February…                              pyramid
seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter                             sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical
day, week, fortnight, month                                         cone
year, leap year, century, millennium                                cylinder, cylindrical
weekend, birthday, holiday                                          prism
calendar, date, date of birth                                       tetrahedron, polyhedron, octahedron, dodecahedron
morning, afternoon, evening, night
am, pm, noon, midnight                                              2D SHAPES
today, yesterday, tomorrow                                          2D, two-dimensional
before, after, next, last                                           circle, circular, semi-circle
now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest                            triangle, triangular
quick, quicker, quickest, quickly                                   equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle
fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly                square, rhombus
old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest                              rectangle, rectangular, oblong
takes longer, takes less time                                       pentagon, pentagonal
how long ago? how long will it be to…?                              hexagon, hexagonal
how long will it take to…?                                          heptagon
timetable, arrive, depart                                           octagon, octagonal
hour, minute, second                                                polygon
o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past                        quadrilateral
clock, watch, hands                                                 kite
digital/analogue clock/watch, timer                                 parallelogram, trapezium
24-hour clock, 12-hour clock
Greenwich Mean Time, British Summer Time
                                                                    PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY
International Date Line
how often?                                                          size
always, never, often, sometimes, usually                            bigger, larger, smaller
                                                                    symmetrical
                                                                    line of symmetry, axis of symmetry
SHAPE AND SPACE
                                                                    line symmetry, reflective symmetry
shape, pattern                                                      fold
flat, line                                                          match
curved, straight                                                    mirror line, reflection, reflect
round                                                               pattern, repeating pattern, translation

Words new to Year 6 are in red                                 34
                                                                                                     YEAR 6


POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT                             choose, decide
position                                                     collect
over, under, underneath                                      use, make, build, construct, bisect
above, below, top, bottom, side
on, in, outside, inside, around                              tell me, define, describe, name, pick out, identify
in front, behind, front, back                                discuss, talk about
before, after, beside, next to                               explain
opposite, apart                                              explain your method/answer/reasoning
between, middle, edge, centre                                give an example of…
corner                                                       show how you…
direction                                                    show your working
journey, route, map, plan                                    justify
left, right                                                  make a statement
up, down, higher, lower
                                                             read, write, record
forwards, backwards, sideways, across
                                                             write in figures
close, far, near
                                                             present, represent
along, through, to, from, towards, away from
                                                             interpret
ascend, descend
                                                             trace, copy
grid, row, column
                                                             complete, finish, end
origin, coordinates
clockwise, anti-clockwise                                    fill in, shade, colour
compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W)         label, plot
north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west
(NE, NW, SE, SW)                                             tick, cross
horizontal, vertical, diagonal                               draw, sketch
parallel, perpendicular                                      draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow
x-axis, y-axis                                               cost, count, tally
quadrant
movement                                                     calculate, work out, solve, convert
slide, roll                                                  investigate, interrogate (data), question, prove
whole turn, half turn, quarter turn, rotate, rotation        answer
angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than                      check
right angle, acute, obtuse, reflex
degree
straight line
stretch, bend                                                General
ruler, set square
angle measurer, compasses, protractor                        same, identical, different
                                                             missing number/s
                                                             number facts, number pairs, number bonds
                                                             greatest value, least value
Instructions
                                                             number line, number track
listen, join in, say, recite                                 number square, hundred square
think, imagine, remember                                     number cards, number grid
start from, start with, start at                             abacus
look at, point to, show me                                   counters, cubes, blocks, rods
                                                             die, dice, spinner
put, place                                                   dominoes
arrange, rearrange                                           pegs, peg board, pin board
change, change over                                          geo-strips
adjusting, adjust
split, separate                                              same way, different way
                                                             best way, another way
carry on, continue, repeat                                   in order, in a different order
what comes next? predict
describe the pattern, describe the rule                      not
                                                             all, every, each
find, find all, find different
investigate

                                                        35                             Words new to Year 6 are in red
Mathematical dictionaries
     Every classroom needs a mathematical dictionary, suited to the age of the children. This could either
     be a published version, or one which the children have made themselves. As well as being useful
     for children to look up the meanings of words, it will be on hand when the teacher needs to refer to
     a mathematical dictionary.




                                               36

								
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