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Mathematical Vocabulary Book INTRODUCTION Who is this book for? The purpose of this book is to identify the words and phrases that children need to understand and use if they are to make good progress in mathematics. It is designed to support the National Numeracy Strategy alongside the Framework for Teaching Mathematics. This booklet will be of particular interest to you if you are: a class teacher a member of staff supporting pupils learning English as an additional language a special needs teacher or assistant a classroom assistant working with pupils in mathematics lessons a parent or other adult supporting children in class or at home Why is the book needed? There are three main ways in which children’s failure to understand mathematical vocabulary may show itself: children do not respond to questions in lessons, they cannot do a task they are set and/or they do poorly in tests. Their lack of response may be because: they do not understand the spoken or written instructions, such as ‘draw a line between…’, ‘ring…’ or ‘find two different ways to…’ they are not familiar with the mathematical vocabulary, that is, words such as ‘difference’, ‘subtract’, ‘divide’ or ‘product’ they may be confused about mathematical terms, such as ‘odd’ or ‘table’, which have different meanings in everyday English they may be confused about other words, like ‘area’ or ‘divide’, which are used in everyday English and have similar, though more precise, meanings in mathematics There are, then, practical reasons why children need to acquire appropriate vocabulary so that they can participate in the activities, lessons and tests that are part of classroom life. There is, however, an even more important reason: mathematical language is crucial to children’s development of thinking. If children don’t have the vocabulary to talk about division, or perimeters, or numerical difference, they cannot make progress in understanding these areas of mathematical knowledge. 1 How is the book organised and how can it be used? To help you introduce appropriate mathematical language at the right time, this book provides four pages of vocabulary checklists for each year group. The first three pages for each year cover mathematical vocabulary relating to the Framework for Teaching Mathematics, organised according to its five strands: numbers and the number system calculations solving problems handling data measures, shape and space Using and Applying Mathematics is integrated throughout. The fourth page for each year group lists the language commonly used when giving instructions about mathematical problems, both in questions in national tests and in published resources. The words listed for each year include vocabulary from the previous year, with new words for the year printed in red from Year 1 onwards. Some words may appear under different strands in different years, as their meaning is expanded or made more specific. Class teachers can use these lists to identify the vocabulary relating to a series of lessons they are planning. They can make provision for the introduction of new vocabulary and the consolidation of familiar terms. They can ask support staff and parents to emphasise this vocabulary for an appropriate period. The checklists are not intended to be exhaustive; you can add more words if you would like to do so. How do children develop their understanding of mathematical vocabulary? Teachers often use informal, everyday language in mathematics lessons before or alongside technical mathematical vocabulary. Although this can help children to grasp the meaning of different words and phrases, you will find that a structured approach to the teaching and learning of vocabulary is essential if children are to move on and begin using the correct mathematical terminology as soon as possible. Some children may start school with a good understanding of mathematical words when used informally, either in English or their home language. Find out the extent of their mathematical vocabulary and the depth of their understanding, and build on this. You need to plan the introduction of new words in a suitable context, for example, with relevant real objects, mathematical apparatus, pictures and/or diagrams. Explain their meanings carefully and rehearse them several times. Referring to new words only once will do little to promote learning. Encourage their use in context in oral sessions, particularly through your questioning. You can help sort out any ambiguities or misconceptions your pupils may have through a range of open and closed questions. Use every opportunity to draw attention to new words or symbols with the whole class, in a group or when talking to individual pupils. The final stages are learning to read and write new mathematical vocabulary in a range of circumstances, ultimately spelling the relevant words correctly. 2 Regular, planned opportunities for development It is not just younger children who need regular, planned opportunities to develop their mathematical vocabulary. All children throughout Key Stages 1 and 2 need to experience a cycle of oral work, reading and writing as outlined below. oral work based on practical work so that they have visual images and tactile experience of what mathematical words mean in a variety of contexts other forms of oral work so that they have opportunities to: – listen to adults and other children using the words correctly – acquire confidence and fluency in speaking, using complete sentences that include the new words and phrases, sometimes in chorus with others and sometimes individually – describe, define and compare mathematical properties, positions, methods, patterns, relationships, rules – discuss ways of tackling a problem, collecting data, organising their work… – hypothesise or make predictions about possible results – present, explain and justify their methods, results, solutions or reasoning, to the whole class or to a group or partner – generalise, or describe examples that match a general statement reading aloud and silently, sometimes as a whole class and sometimes individually, for example, reading: – numbers, signs and symbols, expressions and equations in blackboard presentations – instructions and explanations in workbooks, textbooks, CD-ROMs… – texts with mathematical references in fiction and non-fiction books and books of rhymes during the literacy hour as well as mathematics lessons – labels and captions on classroom displays, in diagrams, graphs, charts and tables… – definitions in illustrated dictionaries, including dictionaries that they themselves have made, in order to discover synonyms, origins of words, words that start with the same group of letters (such as triangle, tricycle, triplet, trisect…) writing and recording in a variety of ways, progressing from words, phrases and short sentences to paragraphs and longer pieces of writing, for example: – writing prose in order to describe, compare, predict, interpret, explain, justify… – writing formulae, first using words, then symbols – sketching and labelling diagrams in order to clarify their meaning – drawing and labelling graphs, charts or tables, and interpreting and making predictions from the data in them, in mathematics and other subjects 3 ? The skill of questioning Children cannot learn the meanings of words in isolation. The use of questions is crucial in helping them to understand mathematical ideas and use mathematical terms correctly. It is important to ask questions in different ways so that children who do not understand the first time may pick up the meaning subsequently. Pupils for whom English is an additional language benefit and so will others who are not always familiar with the vocabulary and grammatical structures used in school. It is easy to use certain types of questions — those that ask the listener to recall and apply facts — more often than those that require a higher level of thinking. If you can use the full range of question types you will find that children begin to give more complex answers in which they explain their thinking. ? Types of question Recalling facts What is 3 add 7? How many days are there in a week? How many centimetres are there in a metre? Is 31 a prime number? Applying facts Tell me two numbers that have a difference of 12. What unit would you choose to measure the width of the table? What are the factors of 42? Hypothesising or predicting Estimate the number of marbles in this jar. If we did our survey again on Friday, how likely is it that our graph would be the same? Roughly, what is 51 times 47? How many rectangles in the next diagram? And the next? Designing and comparing procedures How might we count this pile of sticks? How could you subtract 37 from 82? How could we test a number to see if it is divisible by 6? How could we find the 20th triangular number? Are there other ways of doing it? Interpreting results So what does that tell us about numbers that end in 5 or 0? What does the graph tell us about the most common shoe size? So what can we say about the sum of the angles in a triangle? Applying reasoning The seven coins in my purse total 23p. What could they be? In how many different ways can four children sit at a round table? Why is the sum of two odd numbers always even? 4 ? On this and the following page are further examples of questions to help you promote good dialogue and interaction in mathematics lessons Below are examples of closed questions with just one correct answer and open questions which have a number of different correct answers. Open questions give more children a chance to respond and they often provide a greater challenge for higher attaining pupils, who can be asked to think of alternative answers and, in suitable cases, to count all the different possibilities. Closed questions Open questions Count these cubes. How could we count these cubes? A chew costs 3p. A lolly costs 7p. A chew and a lolly cost 10p altogether. What could What do they cost altogether? each sweet cost? What is 6 – 4? Tell me two numbers with a difference of 2. What is 2 + 6 – 3? What numbers can you make with 2, 3 and 6? Is 16 an even number? What even numbers lie between 10 and 20? Write a number in each box so 3 9 Write a number in each circle so 12 that it equals the sum of the two that the number in each box numbers on each side of it. equals the sum of the two numbers 10 13 7 4 on each side of it. Find different 11 ways of doing it. Copy and complete this addition table. + 4 7 Find different ways of completing 2 this table. 3 4 6 7 What are four threes? Tell me two numbers with a product of 12. What is 7 x 6? If 7 x 6 = 42, what else can you work out? How many centimetres are there in a metre? Tell me two lengths that together make 1 metre. Continue this sequence: 1, 2, 4… Find different ways of continuing this sequence: 1, 2, 4… What is one fifth add four fifths? Write eight different ways of adding two numbers to make 1. What is 10% of 300? Find ways of completing: …% of … = 30 What is this shape called? Sketch some different triangles. °C This graph shows °C This graph shows 19 19 room temperature room temperature 18 18 on 19 May. on 19 May. 17 17 16 16 What was the Can you explain it? 15 15 temperature at 10.00 am? 0900 1000 1100 1200 0900 1000 1100 1200 Time Time 5 ? Questions that can help to extend children’s thinking Ask children who are getting started with a piece of work: Ask children who are stuck: Can you describe the problem in your own How are you going to tackle this? words? What information do you have? What do you need Can you talk me through what you have done to find out or do? so far? What operation/s are you going to use? What did you do last time? What is different this time? Will you do it mentally, with pencil and paper, using a number line, with a calculator…? Why? Is there something that you already know that might help? What method are you going to use? Why? Could you try it with simpler numbers… fewer What equipment will you need? numbers… using a number line…? What questions will you need to ask? What about putting things in order? How are you going to record what you are doing? Would a table help, or a picture/diagram/graph? What do you think the answer or result will be? Why not make a guess and check if it works? Can you estimate or predict? Have you compared your work with anyone else’s? Make positive interventions to check progress while children are working, by asking: During the plenary session of a lesson ask: Can you explain what you have done so far? What else is there to do? How did you get your answer? Why did you decide to use this method or do it Can you describe your method/pattern/rule to us this way? all? Can you explain why it works? Can you think of another method that might have What could you try next? worked? Would it work with different numbers? Could there be a quicker way of doing this? What if you had started with… rather than…? What do you mean by…? What if you could only use…? What did you notice when…? Is it a reasonable answer/result? What makes Why did you decide to organise your results like you say so? that? How did you check it? Are you beginning to see a pattern or a rule? What have you learned or found out today? Do you think that this would work with other If you were doing it again, what would you do numbers? differently? Have you thought of all the possibilities? How can Having done this, when could you use this you be sure? method/information/idea again? Did you use any new words today? What do they mean? How do you spell them? What are the key points or ideas that you need to remember for the next lesson? 6 Mathematical Vocabulary Checklists RECEPTION to YEAR 6 7 RECEPTION Counting and recognising Adding and subtracting numbers add, more, and make, sum, total COUNTING altogether number score zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond double zero, ten, twenty… one hundred one more, two more, ten more… none how many more to make… ? how many…? how many more is… than…? count, count (up) to take (away), leave count on (from, to) how many are left/left over? count back (from, to) how many have gone? count in ones, twos… tens… one less, two less… ten less… more, less, many, few how many fewer is… than…? odd, even difference between every other is the same as how many times? pattern, pair guess how many, estimate nearly, close to, about the same as just over, just under too many, too few, enough, not enough COMPARING AND ORDERING NUMBERS the same number as, as many as Of two objects/amounts: greater, more, larger, bigger less, fewer, smaller Of three or more objects/amounts: greatest, most, biggest, largest least, fewest, smallest one more, ten more one less, ten less compare order size first, second, third… tenth last, last but one before, after next between above, below 8 RECEPTION Solving problems Measures, shape and space REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS OR SHAPES MEASURES (GENERAL) pattern measure puzzle size answer compare right, wrong guess, estimate what could we try next? enough, not enough how did you work it out? too much, too little count, sort too many, too few group, set nearly, close to, about the same as match just over, just under same, different list LENGTH length, width, height, depth PROBLEMS INVOLVING ‘REAL LIFE’ long, short, tall OR MONEY high, low compare wide, narrow double deep, shallow half, halve thick, thin pair longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on count out, share out longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on left, left over far, near, close money MASS coin weigh, weighs, balances penny, pence, pound heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest price balance, scales, weight cost buy CAPACITY sell spend, spent full pay half full change empty dear, costs more holds cheap, costs less, cheaper container costs the same as how much…? how many…? TIME total time days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… day, week birthday, holiday morning, afternoon, evening, night bedtime, dinnertime, playtime today, yesterday, tomorrow before, after next, last now, soon, early, late quick, quicker, quickest, quickly slow, slower, slowest, slowly old, older, oldest new, newer, newest takes longer, takes less time hour, o’clock clock, watch, hands 9 RECEPTION EXPLORING PATTERNS, SHAPE AND SPACE POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT shape, pattern position flat over, under curved, straight above, below round top, bottom, side hollow, solid on, in corner outside, inside face, side, edge, end around sort in front, behind make, build, draw front, back before, after 3D SHAPES beside, next to cube opposite pyramid apart sphere between cone middle, edge corner direction 2D SHAPES left, right circle up, down triangle forwards, backwards, sideways square across rectangle close, far, near star along through PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY to, from, towards, away from size movement bigger, larger, smaller slide symmetrical roll pattern turn repeating pattern stretch, bend match 10 RECEPTION Instructions tick, cross draw listen draw a line between join in join (up) say ring cost think count imagine work out remember answer check start from start with start at look at General point to same number/s show me different number/s put, place missing number/s fit number facts arrange number line, number track rearrange number square change, change over number cards split counters, cubes, blocks, rods separate die, dice carry on, continue dominoes repeat pegs, peg board what comes next? same way, different way find best way, another way choose in order, in a different order collect not use all, every, each make build tell me describe pick out talk about explain show me read write trace copy complete finish, end fill in shade colour 11 YEAR 1 Numbers Calculations and the number system ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS +, add, more, plus make, sum, total AND NUMBER SEQUENCES altogether number score zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond double, near double zero, ten, twenty… one hundred one more, two more… ten more none how many more to make…? how many…? how many more is… than…? count, count (up) to how much more is…? count on (from, to) −, subtract, take (away), minus count back (from, to) leave count in ones, twos… tens… how many are left/left over? more, less, many, few how many have gone? odd, even one less, two less, ten less… every other how many fewer is… than…? how many times? how much less is…? pattern, pair difference between half, halve PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING =, equals, sign, is the same as units, ones tens exchange digit ‘teens’ number the same number as, as many as equal to Of two objects/amounts: greater, more, larger, bigger less, fewer, smaller Of three or more objects/amounts: greatest, most, biggest, largest least, fewest, smallest one more, ten more one less, ten less compare order size first, second, third… tenth, eleventh… twentieth last, last but one before, after next between, half-way between above, below ESTIMATING guess how many, estimate nearly, roughly, close to about the same as just over, just under too many, too few, enough, not enough Words new to Year 1 are in red 12 YEAR 1 Solving problems Organising and using data MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING count, sort, vote pattern group, set puzzle list answer same, different right, wrong table what could we try next? how did you work it out? count out, share out, left, left over Measures, shape and space number sentence sign, operation MEASURES (GENERAL) measure MONEY size money compare coin guess, estimate penny, pence, pound enough, not enough price too much, too little cost too many, too few buy nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as sell just over, just under spend, spent pay LENGTH change length, width, height, depth dear, costs more long, short, tall cheap, costs less, cheaper high, low costs the same as wide, narrow how much…? how many…? deep, shallow total thick, thin longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on far, near, close metre ruler, metre stick MASS weigh, weighs, balances heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest balance, scales, weight CAPACITY full half full empty holds container 13 Words new to Year 1 are in red YEAR 1 TIME PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY time size days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… bigger, larger, smaller seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter symmetrical day, week, month, year pattern weekend, birthday, holiday repeating pattern morning, afternoon, evening match night, midnight bedtime, dinnertime, playtime POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT today, yesterday, tomorrow position before, after over, under, underneath next, last above, below now, soon, early, late top, bottom, side quick, quicker, quickest, quickly on, in fast, faster, fastest outside, inside slow, slower, slowest, slowly around old, older, oldest in front, behind new, newer, newest front, back takes longer, takes less time before, after hour, o’clock, half past beside, next to clock, watch, hands opposite how long ago? apart how long will it be to…? between how long will it take to…? middle, edge how often? centre always, never, often, sometimes, usually corner once, twice direction journey SHAPE AND SPACE left, right shape, pattern up, down flat forwards, backwards, sideways curved, straight across round close, far, near hollow, solid along corner through point, pointed to, from, towards, away from face, side, edge, end movement sort slide make, build, draw roll turn, whole turn, half turn 3D SHAPES stretch, bend cube cuboid pyramid sphere cone cylinder 2D SHAPES circle triangle square rectangle star Words new to Year 1 are in red 14 YEAR 1 Instructions cost count listen work out join in answer say check think imagine remember General start from same number/s start with different number/s start at missing number/s number facts look at point to number line, number track show me number square number cards put, place abacus fit counters, cubes, blocks, rods arrange die, dice rearrange dominoes change, change over pegs, peg board split separate same way, different way best way, another way carry on, continue in order, in a different order repeat what comes next? not all, every, each find choose collect use make build tell me describe pick out talk about explain show me read write record trace copy complete finish, end fill in shade colour tick, cross draw draw a line between join (up) ring arrow 15 Words new to Year 1 are in red YEAR 2 Numbers ESTIMATING guess how many, estimate and the number system nearly, roughly, close to about the same as COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS just over, just under AND NUMBER SEQUENCES exact, exactly number too many, too few, enough, not enough zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond round, nearest, round to the nearest ten zero, ten, twenty… one hundred zero, one hundred, two hundred… one thousand FRACTIONS none part, equal parts how many…? fraction count, count (up) to one whole count on (from, to) one half, two halves count back (from, to) one quarter, two… three… four quarters count in ones, twos, threes, fours, fives… count in tens more, less, many, few tally Calculations odd, even every other ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION how many times? +, add, addition, more, plus multiple of make, sum, total sequence altogether continue score predict double, near double pattern, pair, rule one more, two more... ten more... one hundred more how many more to make…? PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING how many more is… than…? units, ones how much more is…? tens, hundreds −, subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus digit leave, how many are left/left over? one-, two- or three-digit number one less, two less… ten less… one hundred less ‘teens’ number how many fewer is… than…? place, place value how much less is…? stands for, represents difference between exchange half, halve the same number as, as many as =, equals, sign, is the same as equal to tens boundary Of two objects/amounts: greater, more, larger, bigger MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION less, fewer, smaller lots of, groups of Of three or more objects/amounts: ×, times, multiply, multiplied by greatest, most, biggest, largest multiple of least, fewest, smallest once, twice, three times… ten times… one more, ten more times as (big, long, wide… and so on) one less, ten less repeated addition compare array order row, column size double, halve first, second, third… tenth… twentieth share, share equally twenty-first, twenty-second… one each, two each, three each… last, last but one group in pairs, threes… tens before, after equal groups of next ÷, divide, divided by, divided into between, half-way between left, left over above, below Words new to Year 2 are in red 16 YEAR 2 Solving problems LENGTH length, width, height, depth MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING long, short, tall, high, low wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin pattern, puzzle longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on calculate, calculation longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on mental calculation far, further, furthest, near, close jotting metre (m ), centimetre (c m ) answer ruler, metre stick, tape measure right, correct, wrong what could we try next? how did you work it out? MASS number sentence weigh, weighs, balances sign, operation, symbol heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g ) MONEY balance, scales, weight money coin CAPACITY penny, pence, pound (£) capacity price, cost full, half full buy, bought, sell, sold empty spend, spent holds, contains pay litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l ) change container dear, costs more cheap, costs less, cheaper TIME how much…? how many…? time total days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… months of the year: January, February… seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter Organising and using data day, week, fortnight, month, year weekend, birthday, holiday count, tally, sort, vote morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight graph, block graph, pictogram bedtime, dinnertime, playtime represent today, yesterday, tomorrow group, set before, after same, different next, last list, table now, soon, early, late label, title quick, quicker, quickest, quickly most popular, most common fast, faster, fastest least popular, least common slow, slower, slowest, slowly old, older, oldest new, newer, newest takes longer, takes less time Measures, shape and space how long ago? how long will it be to…? how long will it take to…? MEASURES (GENERAL) hour, minute, second measure o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past size clock, watch, hands compare digital/analogue clock/watch, timer measuring scale how often? guess, estimate always, never, often, sometimes, usually enough, not enough once, twice too much, too little too many, too few nearly, roughly, about, close to, about the same as just over, just under 17 Words new to Year 2 are in red YEAR 2 SHAPE AND SPACE POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT shape, pattern position flat, curved, straight over, under, underneath round above, below hollow, solid top, bottom, side corner on, in point, pointed outside, inside face, side, edge, end around sort in front, behind make, build, draw front, back surface before, after beside, next to 3D SHAPES opposite cube apart cuboid between pyramid middle, edge sphere centre cone corner cylinder direction journey, route left, right 2D SHAPES up, down circle, circular higher, lower triangle, triangular forwards, backwards, sideways square across rectangle, rectangular close, far, near star along pentagon through hexagon to, from, towards, away from octagon clockwise, anti-clockwise movement PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY slide size roll bigger, larger, smaller whole turn, half turn, quarter turn symmetrical right angle line of symmetry straight line fold stretch, bend match mirror line, reflection pattern repeating pattern Words new to Year 2 are in red 18 YEAR 2 Instructions read write listen record join in write in figures say present recite represent trace think copy imagine complete remember finish, end start from fill in start with shade, colour start at label look at tick, cross point to draw show me draw a line between join (up) put, place ring fit arrow arrange, rearrange change, change over cost, count, tally split separate calculate work out carry on, continue solve repeat answer what comes next? check predict describe the pattern describe the rule General find, find all, find different investigate same, different missing number/s choose number facts decide number pairs collect number bonds use make number line, number track build number square, hundred square number cards tell me number grid describe abacus name counters, cubes, blocks, rods pick out die, dice discuss dominoes talk about pegs, peg board explain geo-strips explain your method explain how you got your answer same way, different way give an example of… best way, another way show how you… in order, in a different order not all, every, each 19 Words new to Year 2 are in red YEAR 3 Numbers ESTIMATING guess how many, estimate and the number system nearly, roughly, close to approximate, approximately COUNTING, PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS about the same as AND NUMBER SEQUENCES just over, just under number exact, exactly zero, one, two, three… to twenty and beyond too many, too few, enough, not enough zero, ten, twenty… one hundred round (up or down) zero, one hundred, two hundred… one thousand nearest, round to the nearest ten none how many…? FRACTIONS count, count (up) to part, equal parts count on (from, to) fraction count back (from, to) one whole count in ones, twos, threes, fours, fives… one half, two halves count in tens, hundreds one quarter, two… three… four quarters more, less, many, few one third, two thirds, three thirds tally one tenth odd, even every other how many times? multiple of Calculations sequence continue ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION predict +, add, addition, more, plus pattern, pair, rule make, sum, total relationship altogether score PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING double, near double units, ones one more, two more... ten more... one hundred more tens, hundreds how many more to make…? digit how many more is… than…? one-, two- or three-digit number how much more is…? ‘teens’ number −, subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus place, place value leave, how many are left/left over? stands for, represents one less, two less… ten less… one hundred less exchange how many fewer is… than…? the same number as, as many as how much less is…? equal to difference between Of two objects/amounts: half, halve greater, more, larger, bigger =, equals, sign, is the same as less, fewer, smaller tens boundary, hundreds boundary Of three or more objects/amounts: greatest, most, biggest, largest MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION least, fewest, smallest lots of, groups of one more, ten more, one hundred more ×, times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by one less, ten less, one hundred less multiple of, product compare once, twice, three times… ten times… order times as (big, long, wide… and so on) size repeated addition first, second, third… tenth… twentieth array twenty-first, twenty-second… row, column last, last but one double, halve before, after share, share equally next one each, two each, three each… between, half-way between above, below Words new to Year 3 are in red 20 YEAR 3 group in pairs, threes… tens Measures, shape and space equal groups of ÷, divide, division, divided by, divided into MEASURES (GENERAL) left, left over, remainder measure size compare Solving problems measuring scale, division guess, estimate MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING enough, not enough pattern, puzzle too much, too little calculate, calculation too many, too few mental calculation nearly, roughly, about, close to, method about the same as, approximately jotting just over, just under answer right, correct, wrong LENGTH what could we try next? length, width, height, depth how did you work it out? long, short, tall, high, low number sentence wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin sign, operation, symbol, equation longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on MONEY far, further, furthest, near, close money distance apart/between, distance to… from… coin, note kilometre (k m ), metre (m ), centimetre (c m ) penny, pence, pound (£) mile price, cost ruler, metre stick, tape measure buy, bought, sell, sold spend, spent MASS pay weigh, weighs, balances change heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest dear, costs more, more/most expensive kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g ) cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive balance, scales, weight how much…? how many…? total, amount CAPACITY value, worth capacity full, half full empty Handling data holds, contains litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l ) count, tally, sort, vote container graph, block graph, pictogram represent TIME group, set list, chart, bar chart time table, frequency table days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… Carroll diagram, Venn diagram months of the year: January, February… label, title, axis, axes seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter diagram day, week, fortnight, month, year, century most popular, most common weekend, birthday, holiday least popular, least common calendar, date morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight am, pm bedtime, dinnertime, playtime today, yesterday, tomorrow 21 Words new to Year 3 are in red YEAR 3 before, after PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY next, last size now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest bigger, larger, smaller quick, quicker, quickest, quickly symmetrical fast, faster, fastest line of symmetry slow, slower, slowest, slowly fold old, older, oldest match new, newer, newest mirror line, reflection takes longer, takes less time pattern how long ago? how long will it be to…? repeating pattern how long will it take to…? hour, minute, second POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past clock, watch, hands position digital/analogue clock/watch, timer over, under, underneath how often? above, below always, never, often, sometimes, usually top, bottom, side once, twice on, in outside, inside around SHAPE AND SPACE in front, behind shape, pattern front, back flat, curved, straight before, after round beside, next to hollow, solid opposite corner apart point, pointed between face, side, edge, end middle, edge sort centre make, build, draw corner surface direction right-angled journey, route, map, plan vertex, vertices left, right layer, diagram up, down higher, lower 3D SHAPES forwards, backwards, sideways cube across cuboid close, far, near pyramid along sphere, hemi-sphere through cone to, from, towards, away from cylinder ascend, descend prism grid row, column 2D SHAPES clockwise, anti-clockwise compass point circle, circular, semi-circle north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W) triangle, triangular horizontal, vertical square diagonal rectangle, rectangular movement star slide pentagon, pentagonal roll hexagon, hexagonal whole turn, half turn, quarter turn octagon, octagonal angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than quadrilateral right angle straight line stretch, bend Words new to Year 3 are in red 22 YEAR 3 Instructions present represent listen interpret join in trace say copy recite complete finish, end think imagine fill in remember shade, colour label start from start with tick, cross start at draw, sketch draw a line between look at join (up) point to ring show me arrow put, place cost, count, tally fit arrange, rearrange calculate change, change over work out split solve separate investigate question carry on, continue answer repeat check what comes next? predict describe the pattern describe the rule General find, find all, find different same, different investigate missing number/s number facts, number pairs, number bonds choose greatest value, least value decide collect number line, number track number square, hundred square use number cards make number grid build abacus tell me counters, cubes, blocks, rods describe die, dice name dominoes pick out pegs, peg board discuss geo-strips talk about same way, different way explain best way, another way explain your method in order, in a different order explain how you got your answer give an example of… not show how you… all, every, each show your working read write record write in figures 23 Words new to Year 3 are in red YEAR 4 Numbers FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS part, equal parts and the number system fraction one whole PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING half, quarter, eighth units, ones third, sixth tens, hundreds, thousands fifth, tenth, twentieth ten thousand, hundred thousand, million proportion, in every, for every digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number decimal, decimal fraction numeral decimal point, decimal place ‘teens’ number place, place value stands for, represents exchange Calculations the same number as, as many as equal to ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION Of two objects/amounts: add, addition, more, plus, increase >, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than sum, total, altogether <, less than, fewer than, smaller than score Of three or more objects/amounts: double, near double greatest, most, largest, biggest how many more to make…? least, fewest, smallest subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less leave, how many are left/left over? compare, order, size difference between first… tenth… twentieth half, halve last, last but one how many more/fewer is… than…? before, after how much more/less is…? next equals, sign, is the same as between, half-way between tens boundary, hundreds boundary guess how many, estimate inverse nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as approximate, approximately MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION just over, just under lots of, groups of exact, exactly times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by too many, too few, enough, not enough multiple of, product round (up or down), nearest once, twice, three times… ten times… round to the nearest ten times as (big, long, wide… and so on) round to the nearest hundred repeated addition integer, positive, negative array above/below zero, minus row, column double, halve PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER share, share equally SEQUENCES one each, two each, three each… number, count, how many…? group in pairs, threes… tens odd, even equal groups of every other divide, division, divided by, divided into how many times? remainder multiple of factor, quotient, divisible by digit inverse next, consecutive sequence continue predict pattern, pair, rule relationship sort, classify, property Words new to Year 4 are in red 24 YEAR 4 Solving problems measuring scale, division guess, estimate enough, not enough MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING too much, too little pattern, puzzle too many, too few calculate, calculation nearly, roughly, about, close to mental calculation about the same as, approximately method just over, just under jotting answer LENGTH right, correct, wrong what could we try next? length, width, height, depth, breadth how did you work it out? long, short, tall, high, low number sentence wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin sign, operation, symbol, equation longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on far, further, furthest, near, close MONEY distance apart/between, distance to… from… money edge, perimeter coin, note kilometre (k m ), metre (m ) penny, pence, pound (£ ) centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m ) price, cost mile buy, bought, sell, sold ruler, metre stick, tape measure spend, spent pay MASS change dear, costs more, more/most expensive mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest how much…? how many…? weigh, weighs total, amount kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g ) value, worth balance, scales CAPACITY capacity Handling data full, half full count, tally, sort, vote empty survey, questionnaire, data holds, contains graph, block graph, pictogram litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l ) represent pint group, set container, measuring cylinder list, chart, bar chart, tally chart table, frequency table AREA Carroll diagram, Venn diagram area, covers, surface label, title, axis, axes square centimetre (c m 2 ) diagram most popular, most common TIME least popular, least common time days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… months of the year: January, February… Measures, shape and space seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter day, week, fortnight, month MEASURES (GENERAL) year, leap year, century, millennium measure, measurement weekend, birthday, holiday size calendar, date, date of birth compare morning, afternoon, evening, night unit, standard unit metric unit, imperial unit 25 Words new to Year 4 are in red YEAR 4 am, pm, noon, midnight square today, yesterday, tomorrow rectangle, rectangular, oblong before, after, next, last pentagon, pentagonal now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest hexagon, hexagonal quick, quicker, quickest, quickly heptagon fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly octagon, octagonal old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest polygon takes longer, takes less time quadrilateral how long ago? how long will it be to…? how long will it take to…? PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY timetable, arrive, depart size hour, minute, second bigger, larger, smaller o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past symmetrical clock, watch, hands line of symmetry, line symmetry digital/analogue clock/watch, timer fold how often? match always, never, often, sometimes, usually mirror line, reflection, reflect pattern, repeating pattern, translation SHAPE AND SPACE shape, pattern POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT flat, line position curved, straight over, under, underneath round above, below, top, bottom, side hollow, solid on, in, outside, inside, around corner in front, behind, front, back point, pointed before, after, beside, next to face, side, edge, end opposite, apart sort between, middle, edge, centre make, build, construct, draw, sketch corner centre, radius, diameter direction net journey, route, map, plan surface left, right angle, right-angled up, down, higher, lower base, square-based forwards, backwards, sideways, across vertex, vertices close, far, near layer, diagram along, through, to, from, towards, away from regular, irregular ascend, descend concave, convex grid open, closed row, column origin, coordinates 3D SHAPES clockwise, anti-clockwise 3D, three-dimensional compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W) cube north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west cuboid (NE, NW, SE, SW) pyramid horizontal, vertical, diagonal sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical movement cone slide, roll cylinder, cylindrical whole turn, half turn, quarter turn, rotate prism angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than tetrahedron, polyhedron right angle degree 2D SHAPES straight line 2D, two-dimensional stretch, bend circle, circular, semi-circle ruler, set square triangle, triangular angle measurer, compasses equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle Words new to Year 4 are in red 26 YEAR 4 Instructions General listen, join in, say, recite same, different think, imagine, remember missing number/s start from, start with, start at number facts, number pairs, number bonds look at, point to, show me greatest value, least value put, place number line, number track arrange, rearrange number square, hundred square change, change over number cards, number grid split, separate abacus counters, cubes, blocks, rods carry on, continue, repeat die, dice what comes next? predict dominoes describe the pattern, describe the rule pegs, peg board, pin board find, find all, find different geo-strips investigate same way, different way choose, decide best way, another way collect in order, in a different order use, make, build, construct not all, every, each tell me, describe, name, pick out discuss, talk about explain explain your method explain how you got your answer give an example of… show how you… show your working justify make a statement read, write, record write in figures present, represent interpret trace, copy complete, finish, end fill in, shade, colour label, plot tick, cross draw, sketch draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow cost, count, tally calculate, work out, solve investigate, question answer check 27 Words new to Year 4 are in red YEAR 5 Numbers pattern, pair, rule relationship and the number system sort, classify, property formula divisible (by), divisibility, factor PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING square number 2 2 units, ones one squared, two squared… (1 , 2 …) tens, hundreds, thousands ten thousand, hundred thousand, million FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, PERCENTAGES, digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number RATIO AND PROPORTION numeral ‘teens’ number part, equal parts place, place value fraction, proper/improper fraction stands for, represents mixed number exchange numerator, denominator the same number as, as many as equivalent, reduced to, cancel equal to one whole Of two objects/amounts: half, quarter, eighth >, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than third, sixth, ninth, twelfth <, less than, fewer than, smaller than fifth, tenth, twentieth, hundredth ≥, greater than or equal to proportion, ratio ≤, less than or equal to in every, for every Of three or more objects/amounts: to every, as many as greatest, most, largest, biggest decimal, decimal fraction least, fewest, smallest decimal point, decimal place one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less percentage, per cent, % compare, order, size ascending/descending order first… tenth… twentieth Calculations last, last but one before, after, next ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION between, half-way between guess how many, estimate add, addition, more, plus, increase nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as sum, total, altogether approximate, approximately score ≈, is approximately equal to double, near double just over, just under how many more to make…? exact, exactly subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease too many, too few, enough, not enough leave, how many are left/left over? round (up or down), nearest difference between round to the nearest ten/hundred half, halve round to the nearest thousand how many more/fewer is… than…? integer how much more/less is…? positive, negative equals, sign, is the same as above/below zero, minus tens boundary, hundreds boundary units boundary, tenths boundary inverse PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER SEQUENCES MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION number, count, how many…? lots of, groups of odd, even times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by every other multiple of, product how many times? once, twice, three times… ten times… multiple of times as (big, long, wide… and so on) digit repeated addition next, consecutive array sequence row, column continue double, halve predict share, share equally Words new to Year 5 are in red 28 YEAR 5 one each, two each, three each… table, frequency table group in pairs, threes… tens Carroll diagram, Venn diagram equal groups of label, title, axis, axes divide, division, divided by, divided into diagram remainder most popular, most common factor, quotient, divisible by least popular, least common inverse mode, range maximum/minimum value USING A CALCULATOR classify, outcome calculator display, key, enter, clear PROBABILITY constant fair, unfair likely, unlikely, likelihood certain, uncertain probable, possible, impossible Solving problems chance, good chance poor chance, no chance MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING risk, doubt pattern, puzzle calculate, calculation mental calculation method, strategy Measures, shape and space jotting answer MEASURES (GENERAL) right, correct, wrong measure, measurement what could we try next? size how did you work it out? compare number sentence unit, standard unit sign, operation, symbol, equation metric unit, imperial unit measuring scale, division MONEY guess, estimate money enough, not enough coin, note too much, too little penny, pence, pound (£) too many, too few price, cost nearly, roughly, about, close to buy, bought, sell, sold about the same as, approximately spend, spent just over, just under pay change LENGTH dear, costs more, more/most expensive length, width, height, depth, breadth cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive long, short, tall, high, low how much…? how many…? wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin total, amount, value, worth longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on discount longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on currency far, further, furthest, near, close distance apart/between, distance to… from… edge, perimeter kilometre (k m ), metre (m ) Handling data centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m ) mile count, tally, sort, vote ruler, metre stick, tape measure survey, questionnaire data, database graph, block graph, line graph MASS pictogram, mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances represent weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest group, set weigh, weighs list, chart, bar chart, bar line chart kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g ) tally chart balance, scales 29 Words new to Year 5 are in red YEAR 5 CAPACITY SHAPE AND SPACE capacity shape, pattern full, half full flat, line empty curved, straight holds, contains round litre (l ), half-litre, millilitre (m l ) hollow, solid pint, gallon corner container, measuring cylinder point, pointed face, side, edge, end AREA sort area, covers, surface make, build, construct, draw, sketch square centimetre (c m 2 ), square metre (m 2 ) centre, radius, diameter square millimetre (m m 2 ) net surface angle, right-angled TIME congruent time base, square-based days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… vertex, vertices months of the year: January, February… layer, diagram seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter regular, irregular day, week, fortnight, month concave, convex year, leap year, century, millennium open, closed weekend, birthday, holiday calendar, date, date of birth 3D SHAPES morning, afternoon, evening, night am, pm, noon, midnight 3D, three-dimensional today, yesterday, tomorrow cube, cuboid before, after, next, last pyramid now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical quick, quicker, quickest, quickly cone fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly cylinder, cylindrical old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest prism takes longer, takes less time tetrahedron, polyhedron, octahedron how long ago? how long will it be to…? how long will it take to…? 2D SHAPES timetable, arrive, depart 2D, two-dimensional hour, minute, second circle, circular, semi-circle o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past triangle, triangular clock, watch, hands equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle digital/analogue clock/watch, timer square 24-hour clock, 12-hour clock rectangle, rectangular, oblong how often? pentagon, pentagonal always, never, often, sometimes, usually hexagon, hexagonal heptagon octagon, octagonal polygon quadrilateral PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY size bigger, larger, smaller symmetrical line of symmetry, axis of symmetry line symmetry, reflective symmetry fold match mirror line, reflection, reflect pattern, repeating pattern, translation Words new to Year 5 are in red 30 YEAR 5 POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT choose, decide position collect over, under, underneath use, make, build, construct, bisect above, below, top, bottom, side on, in, outside, inside, around tell me, describe, name, pick out, identify in front, behind, front, back discuss, talk about before, after, beside, next to explain opposite, apart explain your method/answer/reasoning between, middle, edge, centre give an example of… corner show how you… direction show your working journey, route, map, plan justify left, right make a statement up, down, higher, lower read, write, record forwards, backwards, sideways, across write in figures close, far, near present, represent along, through, to, from, towards, away from interpret ascend, descend trace, copy grid, row, column complete, finish, end origin, coordinates clockwise, anti-clockwise fill in, shade, colour compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W) label, plot north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west (NE, NW, SE, SW) tick, cross horizontal, vertical, diagonal draw, sketch parallel, perpendicular draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow x-axis, y-axis cost, count, tally quadrant movement calculate, work out, solve, convert slide, roll investigate, question whole turn, half turn, quarter turn answer rotate, rotation check angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than right angle, acute, obtuse degree General straight line stretch, bend same, different ruler, set square missing number/s angle measurer, compasses, protractor number facts, number pairs, number bonds greatest value, least value number line, number track Instructions number square, hundred square number cards, number grid listen, join in, say, recite abacus think, imagine, remember counters, cubes, blocks, rods start from, start with, start at die, dice, spinner look at, point to, show me dominoes put, place pegs, peg board, pin board arrange, rearrange geo-strips change, change over same way, different way split, separate best way, another way carry on, continue, repeat in order, in a different order what comes next? predict not describe the pattern, describe the rule all, every, each find, find all, find different investigate 31 Words new to Year 5 are in red YEAR 6 Numbers relationship sort, classify, property and the number system formula divisible (by), divisibility, factor, factorise PLACE VALUE, ORDERING AND ROUNDING square number 2 2 units, ones one squared, two squared… (1 , 2 …) tens, hundreds, thousands prime, prime factor ten thousand, hundred thousand, million digit, one-, two-, three- or four-digit number FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, PERCENTAGES, numeral RATIO AND PROPORTION ‘teens’ number part, equal parts place, place value fraction, proper/improper fraction stands for, represents mixed number exchange numerator, denominator the same number as, as many as equivalent, reduced to, cancel equal to one whole Of two objects/amounts: half, quarter, eighth >, greater than, more than, larger than, bigger than third, sixth, ninth, twelfth <, less than, fewer than, smaller than fifth, tenth, twentieth ≥, greater than or equal to hundredth, thousandth ≤, less than or equal to proportion, ratio Of three or more objects/amounts: in every, for every greatest, most, largest, biggest to every, as many as least, fewest, smallest decimal, decimal fraction one… ten… one hundred… one thousand more/less decimal point, decimal place compare, order, size percentage, per cent, % ascending/descending order first… tenth… twentieth last, last but one before, after Calculations next between, half-way between ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION guess how many, estimate add, addition, more, plus, increase nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as sum, total, altogether approximate, approximately score ≈, is approximately equal to double, near double just over, just under how many more to make…? exact, exactly subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease too many, too few, enough, not enough leave, how many are left/left over? round (up or down), nearest difference between round to the nearest ten/hundred/thousand half, halve integer, positive, negative how many more/fewer is… than…? above/below zero, minus how much more/less is…? equals, sign, is the same as PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER tens boundary, hundreds boundary SEQUENCES units boundary, tenths boundary number, count, how many…? inverse odd, even every other MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION how many times? lots of, groups of multiple of times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by digit multiple of, product next, consecutive once, twice, three times… ten times… sequence times as (big, long, wide… and so on) continue repeated addition predict array, row, column pattern, pair, rule double, halve Words new to Year 6 are in red 32 YEAR 6 share, share equally list, chart, bar chart, bar line chart one each, two each, three each… tally chart group in pairs, threes… tens table, frequency table equal groups of Carroll diagram, Venn diagram divide, division, divided by, divided into label, title, axis, axes remainder diagram factor, quotient, divisible by most popular, most common inverse least popular, least common mode, range, mean, average, median USING A CALCULATOR statistics, distribution calculator, display, key maximum/minimum value enter, clear, sign change classify, outcome constant, recurring, memory, operation key PROBABILITY fair, unfair likely, unlikely, likelihood, equally likely Solving problems certain, uncertain probable, possible, impossible MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING chance, good chance, pattern, puzzle poor chance, no chance calculate, calculation equal chance, even chance, fifty-fifty chance mental calculation risk, doubt method, strategy biased, random jotting answer right, correct, wrong what could we try next? Measures, shape and space how did you work it out? number sentence MEASURES (GENERAL) sign, operation, symbol, equation measure, measurement size MONEY compare money unit, standard unit coin, note metric unit, imperial unit penny, pence, pound (£) measuring scale, division price, cost guess, estimate buy, bought, sell, sold enough, not enough spend, spent too much, too little pay too many, too few change nearly, roughly, about, close to dear, costs more, more/most expensive about the same as, approximately cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive just over, just under how much…? how many…? total, amount, value, worth LENGTH discount, profit, loss length, width, height, depth, breadth currency long, short, tall, high, low wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin longer, shorter, taller, higher… and so on longest, shortest, tallest, highest… and so on Handling data far, further, furthest, near, close distance apart/between, distance to… from… count, tally, sort, vote edge, perimeter, circumference survey, questionnaire kilometre (k m ), metre (m ) data, database centimetre (c m ), millimetre (m m ) graph, block graph, line graph mile, yard, feet, foot, inches, inch pictogram, ruler, metre stick, tape measure, compasses represent group, set 33 Words new to Year 6 are in red YEAR 6 MASS hollow, solid mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances corner weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest point, pointed weigh, weighs face, side, edge, end tonne, kilogram (k g ), half-kilogram, gram (g ) sort pound (l b ), ounce (o z ) make, build, construct, draw, sketch balance, scales centre, radius, diameter circumference, concentric, arc net CAPACITY surface capacity angle, right-angled full, half full, empty congruent holds, contains intersecting, intersection litre (l ), half-litre, centilitre (c l ), millilitre (m l ) plane pint, gallon base, square-based container, measuring cylinder vertex, vertices layer, diagram AREA regular, irregular area, covers, surface concave, convex square centimetre (c m 2 ), square metre (m 2 ) open, closed square millimetre (m m 2 ) tangram TIME 3D SHAPES time 3D, three-dimensional days of the week: Monday, Tuesday… cube, cuboid months of the year: January, February… pyramid seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical day, week, fortnight, month cone year, leap year, century, millennium cylinder, cylindrical weekend, birthday, holiday prism calendar, date, date of birth tetrahedron, polyhedron, octahedron, dodecahedron morning, afternoon, evening, night am, pm, noon, midnight 2D SHAPES today, yesterday, tomorrow 2D, two-dimensional before, after, next, last circle, circular, semi-circle now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest triangle, triangular quick, quicker, quickest, quickly equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly square, rhombus old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest rectangle, rectangular, oblong takes longer, takes less time pentagon, pentagonal how long ago? how long will it be to…? hexagon, hexagonal how long will it take to…? heptagon timetable, arrive, depart octagon, octagonal hour, minute, second polygon o’clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past quadrilateral clock, watch, hands kite digital/analogue clock/watch, timer parallelogram, trapezium 24-hour clock, 12-hour clock Greenwich Mean Time, British Summer Time PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY International Date Line how often? size always, never, often, sometimes, usually bigger, larger, smaller symmetrical line of symmetry, axis of symmetry SHAPE AND SPACE line symmetry, reflective symmetry shape, pattern fold flat, line match curved, straight mirror line, reflection, reflect round pattern, repeating pattern, translation Words new to Year 6 are in red 34 YEAR 6 POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT choose, decide position collect over, under, underneath use, make, build, construct, bisect above, below, top, bottom, side on, in, outside, inside, around tell me, define, describe, name, pick out, identify in front, behind, front, back discuss, talk about before, after, beside, next to explain opposite, apart explain your method/answer/reasoning between, middle, edge, centre give an example of… corner show how you… direction show your working journey, route, map, plan justify left, right make a statement up, down, higher, lower read, write, record forwards, backwards, sideways, across write in figures close, far, near present, represent along, through, to, from, towards, away from interpret ascend, descend trace, copy grid, row, column complete, finish, end origin, coordinates clockwise, anti-clockwise fill in, shade, colour compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W) label, plot north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west (NE, NW, SE, SW) tick, cross horizontal, vertical, diagonal draw, sketch parallel, perpendicular draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow x-axis, y-axis cost, count, tally quadrant movement calculate, work out, solve, convert slide, roll investigate, interrogate (data), question, prove whole turn, half turn, quarter turn, rotate, rotation answer angle, …is a greater/smaller angle than check right angle, acute, obtuse, reflex degree straight line stretch, bend General ruler, set square angle measurer, compasses, protractor same, identical, different missing number/s number facts, number pairs, number bonds greatest value, least value Instructions number line, number track listen, join in, say, recite number square, hundred square think, imagine, remember number cards, number grid start from, start with, start at abacus look at, point to, show me counters, cubes, blocks, rods die, dice, spinner put, place dominoes arrange, rearrange pegs, peg board, pin board change, change over geo-strips adjusting, adjust split, separate same way, different way best way, another way carry on, continue, repeat in order, in a different order what comes next? predict describe the pattern, describe the rule not all, every, each find, find all, find different investigate 35 Words new to Year 6 are in red Mathematical dictionaries Every classroom needs a mathematical dictionary, suited to the age of the children. This could either be a published version, or one which the children have made themselves. As well as being useful for children to look up the meanings of words, it will be on hand when the teacher needs to refer to a mathematical dictionary. 36