# Pest Management Concepts by HC121104002213

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```									Pest Management Concepts (2)
Bioeconomics
   Study of the relationships between pest
numbers, host responses, and resultant
economic losses

   Connects biology and ecology with
sampling and identification of the pest
Bioeconomics
Theoretical Natural Pest Population

Economic Losses
Economic Injury Level
Noneconomic Losses
Damage Boundary

No Loss
Time
The EIL concept
 Economic damage: amount of injury which
requires intervention
 Economic injury level: lowest population
density that will cause economic damage
 Economic threshold: density where an
intervention should occur to prevent the
population from reaching the EIL
Decision Making
   The Economic Injury level
– EIL = C/VIDK
– Where C = cost of the management tactic, V =
market value of the produce, I = injury per
insect, D = damage per unit of injury, K =
proportion reduction in pest injury or damage
Decision Making
   The Economic Threshold (the action
threshold)
– Based on:
» pest and host phenology
» Population growth and injury rates
» Time delays associated with intervention tactic
Types of ETs
   Subjective: based on experience, not
formulated from objective criteria

   Objective: based on calculated EILs, change
with the EIL
Types of ETs
 Fixed: ET is set at a fixed % of the EIL
 Descriptive: a description of population
growth is made and timing of the
intervention is based on expected future
growth
 Dichotomous: based on statistical
procedures for classifying the population as
economic or noneconomic. Based on a time
perspective rather than a space perspective.
Predictive Models
 Predictions are important because only
future losses can be prevented
 Rate of insect growth is determined by
temperature and moisture
 Could also simulate what may occur
without intervention
Cost-Benefit Calculations
   Intervention is cost effective only if the
value of the commodity minus the cost of
the intervention (+ sampling costs) is
greater than the value of the commodity
without intervention
Preventive vs. Responsive
Intervention
   Preventive: Prevent the development of the
population (exclusion, sanitation, impact
machines, and stock rotation)

   Responsive: based on estimated density
Intervention in Response to
Sampling
   Treat only the areas that need to be treated
–   Farm bins
–   Elevators
–   Food processing
–   Flour milling
Effectiveness of Intervention
   Sampling programs should evaluate the
effectiveness of the intervention

   Few interventions are 100% effective
IPM
   An approach to pest control that uses cost-
benefit analysis in making decisions

   Pest control is cost-effective when the cost
of control is less that the reduction in
market value due to the pest
IPM

Start of Intervention
Population Size

EIL
ET

Time

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