State parks contribute another by HC121103234649




• Phenomenon of outdoor recreation and
  the social and historical forces
  influencing its development in North

• Diverse forms of expression of outdoor

• Resources and services that emerge as
  outdoor recreation opportunities
     Statistics on Outdoor Usage
• 87% of Americans participated in an outdoor
  recreational activity in 2002. 32% in the same year
  visited a national park.
• 35% of Canadians visited a national park in Canada
  in 2001.
• The United States estimates 900 million outdoor
  recreation visits to national lands.
• State parks contribute another 800 million visitors.
• There are between 3 and 4 billion outdoor
  recreation visits annually in the United States and
• Most outdoor recreation occurs in local areas close
  to home.

• Outdoor recreation. Recreation behavior that
  depends to some degree on the natural
  environment or setting. It can vary considerably
  and still be considered outdoor recreation.
• Nature-based tourism. Depends to some
  degree on the natural environment. Takes place
  in national parks, national forests, historical
  sites, beaches, and other nature-based
         Definitions (continued)

• Ecotourism. Responsible travel to natural
  areas that conserves the environment and
  improves the well-being of local people.
• Environmental interpretation. Educational
  activity that aims to reveal meanings about our
  cultural and natural resources. Most is tied to
  the National Park Service.
• Adventure recreation. Outdoor recreation
  activities that are perceived by the participant to
  include elements of danger and adventure.
         Definitions (continued)

• Adventure tourism. Activities that include either
  organized or dispersed adventure recreation.
• Adventure programming. A broad base of
  philosophies, theories, and leadership techniques
  used in the fields of outdoor leadership,
  experiential education, and adventure education.
• Experiential education. A philosophy and
  methodology in which educators purposely engage
  with learners in direct experience and focused
  reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop
  skills, and clarify values.
           Meaning of Nature
           and Special Places
• American historian William Cronon argues
  that “nature is a human idea, with a long
  and complicated cultural history which has
  led different human beings to conceive of
  the natural world in very different ways”

• In North America, the meaning of nature is
  tied both to the frontier experience and the
  subsequent abuse of natural resources.
   History of Outdoor Recreation
   in North America (1500–1890)
• Early Native American tribes (before the
  first Europeans) engaged in activities such
  as fishing, hunting, canoeing, outdoor
  celebrations, and gathering of berries and
  medicinal plants.

• Early European explorers and colonists
  brought new ways of thinking about nature
  as well as new forms of technology and
    History of Outdoor Recreation
   in North America (1890–Present)
• By 1900, a growing urban population began to
  perceive and mourn the loss of what once was the
  infinite North American frontier.
• The following occurred early in the 20th century:
   – Protecting Banff, Yellowstone, Niagara Falls, Yosemite,
     and the Grand Canyon became popular.
   – Americans and Canadians flocked to lakes, forests, and
     the new national parks.
• In the late 1920s more visitors traveled to national
  parks by automobile than by train. The accessibility
  of the automobile led to the first “golden age of
  tourism” in North America.
   History of Outdoor Recreation
  in North America (1890–Present)
• The Depression years and World War II deflated
  the demand for outdoor recreation and nature-
  based tourism in Canada and the United States.
• War-based technology brought a whole new set of
  outdoor recreation toys: jeeps; aluminum trailers,
  boats, and canoes; inflatable rafts; and army
  surplus camping gear.
• In 1962 the U.S. Congress established the Outdoor
  Recreation Resource Review Commission
   History of Outdoor Recreation
  in North America (1890–Present)
• In the late 1960s and 1970s, political commitment to
  environmental movement in the United States and
  Canada was spurred on by baby boomers.
• The Wilderness Act was passed in 1964. The Land and
  Water Conservation Fund Act, 1965, led to
  establishment of the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation and
  funding for comprehensive national- and state-level
  outdoor recreation planning.
    Outdoor Recreation Demand

• Historical social forces: population,
  urbanization, technology
• Contemporary trends and lifestyles: ethnic
  and racial diversity
• Economic behavior: increase in leisure and
  income and affluence
• Technology: high-tech metals, plastics, and
  electronics; clothing and footwear made from
  new fabrics; many transportation options
 Outdoor Recreation Participation
 and Trends in the United States

• National Survey on Recreation and the
  Environment (NSRE) by the USDA Forest
  Service: user activity preferences

• Outdoor Industry Foundation Consumer
  Outreach Report, January 2004: human-
  powered outdoor recreation preferences
  Outdoor Recreation Participation
      and Trends in Canada
• In Alberta, 11 of top 16 favorite activities are
  outdoor recreation.
• Golf is ranked second.
• Growth activities are bicycling, fly-fishing and
  saltwater fishing, gardening, hiking, backpacking,
  and running and jogging.
• Decreased activities are fishing, hunting, downhill
  skiing, ice hockey, and curling.
• Outdoor recreation–related expenditures in all of
  North America is $300 to $400 billion annually.
   Outdoor Recreation Demand:
A Social Psychological Phenomenon
1. Demand for experiences: attraction, escape,
   achievement, and challenge
2. Human–environment interaction: preference for
   diverse natural settings and opportunities that
   increases the likelihood of people finding the type of
   environment they enjoy
3. Role of socialization and experience: childhood
   experience as a key factor in explaining adult outdoor
   recreation participation
          Outdoor Recreation
         Providers and Careers
• Public sector agencies have broader natural
  resource missions with understanding of
  other disciplines: ecology, forestry, wildlife
  management, hydrology, and fire
• Private sector career opportunities can be
  tourism based or guide and outfitter based.
• Nonprofit sector provides environmental
  advocacy for youth camps to adventure
   Outdoor Recreation Resources

• Parks, wilderness, and preserves: Recreation
  agencies interpret the natural, historical, and cultural
  stories that are connected with these special places.
• Forests, grasslands, deserts, and wetlands:
  Recreational use can be complicated and diverse,
  ranging from backcountry human-powered recreation to
  motorized recreational travel and enjoyment.
• Water-based resources: Oceans, bays, estuaries,
  lakes, rivers, streams, canals, wetlands, or a desert
  oasis all hold tremendous value as recreation and
  tourism resources.
       U.S. Federal Land Agencies

•   National Park Service (NPS)
•   USDA Forest Service
•   Bureau of Land Management
•   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
•   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
•   Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
•   Bureau of Reclamation
 Canadian and U.S. Land Agencies

• Local and county governments provide outdoor
  opportunities closest to where residents live.
• The private sector provides marinas, commercial
  recreation businesses, tour operators, rafting and
  river-running companies, equipment rentals,
  private camps, and outdoor instructors and
• Nonprofit organizations:
   – Boy Scouts, YMCA, Girl Scouts, Camp Fire
   – Environmental and conservation organizations
   – Church-related programming to youth, usually in the
     summer season
      Adventure Programming
     and Experiential Education

• Maturing subfield under broader umbrella of
  outdoor recreation
• Outdoor leadership and programs: teaching
  adventure recreation activities in a safe
  environment through qualified instruction
• Involves a leader or facilitator who designs
  an outdoor program with specific
  participant outcomes or benefits in mind
        Outdoor Leadership

Skills set includes technical outdoor skills,
safety skills, environmental skills, trip
planning, liability and risk management,
instructional and facilitation methods,
judgment, ethics, communication, and
leadership ability.
 Outdoor Adventure Associations

• Association for Experiential Education
• Wilderness Education Association (WEA)
• Outward Bound International (OBI)
Challenges and Trends for the Future
• Challenges:
  – Urbanization and development pressure on open space
    and natural areas
  – Continued growth in demand for outdoor recreation
  – New technologies and travel
  – Convergence of diverse social and cultural groups on
    limited resources
• Trends:
  – Adventure, ecotourism, and culture-based tourism are 3
    of the fastest growing areas of the tourism market.
  – Nonprofit organizations have been one of the fastest
    growing sectors related to environmental advocacy and
    to providing outdoor education and adventure recreation
                    Subject: Cronon

American historian William Cronon argued
  that “nature is a human idea, with a long
  and complicated cultural history which has
  led different human beings to conceive of
  the natural world in very different ways.”
  •   What is the intent and significance of this quote?

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