Formative Assessment - DOC by KYSdIX0L

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									                Educating Students to be Successful in an Ever Changing Society



               A Catalogue of Instructional Strategies
                Used by Muskogee Public Schools


            APK – Accessing/Activating Prior Knowledge

Activity                   Description and Additional Resources

Zoom In        Teachers activate prior knowledge using a painting, photo, etc. of a
               new topic being discussed. Using Power Point, cut and paste pieces
               of the image into three or four individual slides, building on the image
               and understanding by asking students “Can you predict what this
               painting is about?” “Does this image remind of you anything?” “What
               do you think is going on in this picture?” etc. as you present each new
               piece of the puzzle. Finally show the whole image and present the
               topic of the day’s discussion. For example, The Spirit of ’76 by
               Archibald Willard (1875) would be a good way to introduce the
               Revolutionary War.
               Created by Ron Ritchhard, Project Zero, Harvard
               http://americanart.si.edu/calendar/lectures/archive/2011/ritchhart/
               From his book Making Thinking Visible.

The First      Have students make acronyms by giving them a word from the topic,
               ex. Solar System. Students make up a sentence beginning with each
Word           letter describing the topic. Example:

               Sun is the star at the center of the solar system

               Orbits are the paths that planets take around the Sun

               Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon gets blocked by the
               Earth

               Asteroids are big rocks that orbit the Sun
               Rings-- the planet Saturn has them

               Etc. From http://its.guilford.k12.nc.us/act/strategies/first_word.htm

ABC            Can be used as an activating or SIS activity. Put students in groups of
               5 or so. Tell them they need one piece of paper and one pen/pencil.
Summary        Write the ABCs down the left margin. The first person then writes an
               A word relating to the topic and passes the pen and paper to the next
               student, who then writes a B word, etc. until students have completed
               as much of the alphabet for the topic as possible. The first group calls
               out what they got for A – any other groups having the same answer
               have to mark it off their paper; the next group calls out their B word,
               etc.
Tic-Tac-Toe    Take a vocabulary word and place it in a “tic-tac-toe” type chart down
               the side. Across the top write categories. Students have to think of a
               word that fits in each category with the corresponding letter.
               Example: World History, topic Wars
                         England                  France          America
               W      War of the Roses            WWII              WWI
               A                                                    Allied Forces
               R       Royal Air Force                             Revolutionary War

Anticipation   Using their own thoughts and experiences, students respond to and
               discuss statements related to the topic to be studied. Using this
  Guide        strategy guides students into reading the text with greater focus
               because they are actively reading for evidence that supports the
               answers they anticipated.
                   1. Identify the major concepts and details in the reading/topic to
                       be studied.
                   2. Consider student misconceptions, beliefs, and experiences
                       concerning the information. Create a few statements that may
                       challenge or modify students’ understanding of the material
                       (some true and some false).
                   3. Present the statements to the students. Have them determine
                       whether the statements are true or false (on paper or response
                       boards).
                   4. Discuss statements with students justifying their opinions.
                   5. Students read material, listen to Teacher Input (whatever
                       strategy is used to present material) and revisit the
                       Anticipation Guide. Students should locate statements in the
                       test or notes that support their final decisions.
 What’s      Students fill in a thought bubble with words, phrases or pictures that
             come to mind when they think about the topic to be studied:
Already In
My Head?


             Chemical and Physical
                 Changes


Circle Map   Cirlce Maps are tools used to help define a thing or idea. It is used to
             brainstorm ideas and for showing prior knowledge about a topic. In
             the center of the circle, use words, numbers, pictures, or any other
             sign or symbol to represent the object, person, or idea needing to be
             defined and explored. In the outside circle, students will write or
             draw any information that they associate with the concept.




                                           Presidential
                                            Elections




Two Minute   During Two Minute Talks, students will share with a partner by
             brainstorming everything they already know about a topic, skill, or
  Talks      concept. In doing so, they are establishing a foundation of knowledge
             in preparation for learning new information about the topic, skill, or
             concept. Students should each talk for two minutes to their partner.
             The teacher will call time at the end of two minutes and ask students
             to switch roles from listener to talker. The teacher rotates around the
             room listening to student talk. Have pairs share some of their
             responses with the entire class..Having “listened in” on their
             conversations, teachers can select pairs with solid ideas to talk to the
             whole group.
   Find      Find Someone Who can be used as an activating strategy for material
             presented earlier or as a summarizating strategy at the end of an hour
 Someone     or unit of study. In this activity, students are given a prepared sheet
 Who . . .   with questions in boxes. Students walk around the room, locating
             students who can answer each question, give examples or explain the
             concept. The student located will give the answer to the student as
             they record it – the student giving the answer will then sign their
                 name in the box. Students cannot sign another student’s paper in
                 more than one box. After a specified amount of time, the teacher asks
                 everyone to return to their seats. Box by box, the answers are
                 processed, acknowledging who was able to sign in each box.
  In the Hot     In this activity, several students will be asked to sit in the “Hot Seat”
                 and answer questions related to the topic of study.
     Seat            1. Prior to the beginning of class, the teacher will prepare
                          questions related to the topic of study and write them on sticky
                          notes. Four to five questions are usually enough.
                     2. Place the sticky notes underneath student desks/chairs so that
                          they are hidden from view.
                     3. At the start of class, inform students that several of them are
                          sitting on “Hot Seats” and will be asked to answer questions.
                     4. Have students check their desks/chairs for the strategically
                          placed sticky notes.
                     5. Students who have questions on sticky notes will then take
                          turns reading the question and attempting to provide an
                          answer. Due to the nature of this motivational activity, these
                          should be questions that students are able to answer from
                          previous learning.
                     6. All students can use a specific signal to agree or disagree with
                          the answer given.



                TIP/SAP, Modeling, and Guided Practice

Accountable                   http://www.wordgeneration.org/atpd2.html
   Talk                               Michaels, O’Connor, Hall and Resnick, 2003
                                                 Say More About That
                                                   Agree or Disagree
Talk Moves→                                    Why Do You Think That?
                                            Do You Have an example of that
                                                  So are you saying….
Cornell Notes     http://lsc.sas.cornell.edu/Sidebars/Study_Skills_Resources/cornellsystem.pdf
                  Devised in the 1950’s by Cornell professor Peter Waulk. A 2008 study showed
                  the method enhanced applying, synthesizing and evaluating learned knowledge
                  (Jacobs, Wichita State University).
A-B Partners          • Partner A turn to Partner B.
                      • Tell your partner the two most important things you have learned so far
   Teach                   about…
                      • Switch
                  Works very well with Chris Biffle’s Whole Brain Teaching classroom
                  management:
                  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XroJtR9gQc8
 Inside/Outside   Inside/Outside Circles is a tactic that facilitates dialogue and builds community.
                  It involves placing students in two circles, one inside the other, with each student
     Circles      in one circle facing a student in the other. A facilitator asks students to discuss a
                  problem or a question. The student on the outside tells the students on the inside
                  how they would attempt to solve it, then the outside person extends the thinking.
                  The outside students then rotate one or more places to the left or right continuing
                  the discussion or starting a new discussion for a new problem. The facilitator
                  rounds off the discussion at an appropriate time by asking for volunteers from
                  the circles to share their new learning/ideas. You can add TPR-type activity by
                  having students count off by high fiving the number of spaces as they move to
                  the left or right.

 Core Thinking    What makes you say that?
                  Circle of Viewpoints
   Routines       Thinking Routines Matrix (see resources below)

                  http://monroenj.schoolwires.com/8537322382146/lib/8537322382146/_files/NCS_Graphic_Organizers.pdf
    Graphic       A catalogue of graphic organizers
Organizers/Mind   Secondary Teachers: Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning by Doug
     Maps         Buehl
 Trading Cards    This is an excellent strategy to review vocabulary. Every student is engaged in
                  listening to an explanation and viewing an illustration of each term AND
                  teaching that term to another student. You might break this activity up into parts
                  of two days. Students could make their trading cards the last ten minutes of class
                  on the first day, review them as an APK the next class period, and then rotate
                  through the inside-outside teaching circles.

                  First have students create the cards:
                          1. Hand out index cards each with a different vocabulary term.
                          2. Students will draw an illustration of that term on the front of the
                              card.
                          3. Students will write their understanding of the word on the back and
                              use it in a sentence.
                          4. While this is going on, the teacher monitors to ensure correct
                              information is presented on both sides of the student made cards.
                  Next, students form Inside-Outside circles. This can be done by pre-arranging
                  desks into the two circles or by moving the desks out of the center of the room
                  and the students stand in the inside and outside circle.
                          1. The inside circle of students will each face a student in the outside
                              circle. Teachers stand in the middle to oversee.
                          2. Explain to students that inside circle students will always go first.
                              When time begins, the inside circle student will hold their
                              vocabulary trading card up where their outside circle student
                              partner can see the term and the illustration. Inside circle student
                           will then explain their vocabulary term to their partner, explain how
                           the picture illustrates the term, and read the sentence they wrote
                           using the term.
                      3.   Next, the outside circle partner will do the same with their term.
                           Showing it, explaining it, relating the explanation to the illustration
                           for their inside circle partner.
                      4.   Teacher will call time.
                      5.   Student partners will exchange cards. (so now everyone has a
                           different card than the one they made – they now have the one their
                           first partner made and explained to them)
                      6.   The outside circle then rotates one space over to the left. The inside
                           circle stays in place. Now, every student has a new trading card AND
                           a new partner. The process starts over.
                      7.   The inside circle partner explains the term they now have on the
                           card to the outside circle partner. And then the outside partner
                           does the same. Time is called, partners exchange cards, the outside
                           circle moves one space to the left – and it continues until the outside
                           circle has moved all the way around back to their original position.
                      8.   Teacher monitors student interaction the entire time to ensure
                           engagement and correct explanations.



 Call and      Engage students by using call and response (Technique 23 in Doug Lemov’s
               Teach Like a Champion K-12. Ask the class a question to which everyone
 Response      responds in unison. Provides academic review and reinforcement; high energy
               fun; provides checking for understanding; reinforces behavioral culture in
               classroom.
   Vegas       (Doug Lemov Technique 27) a 30 second interlude such as signing a reinforcing
               song, TPR, or Whole Brain Teaching techniques (“Class, Yes”).
               Whole Brain Teaching techniques: http://wholebrainteaching.com/Whole-Brain-
               Teching/First-Steps/Attention-Getter-Class-Yes.html

 Cold Call     Call on students even if they don’t have their hand up. Doug Lemov Technique
               22 on DVD clips 8 and 9.
The J Factor   Doug Lemov technique 46: bring joy to all your classroom activities through fun
               and games, creating a culture os “us”; drama, dance and song; humor; suspense
               and surprise. See DVD clips 20 and 21.


                     Formative Assessment
               Check Frequently for Comprehension

  Activity             Description and Additional Resource
Thumbs        After the learning component, ask students to check their
              understanding by rating it thumbs up for got it, thumb to the side for
Up!           need more info, and thumbs down for re-teach. Can also be used for
(Signaling)   true (thumbs up)/false (thumbs down) questioning. Students hold their
              thumbs in the middle of their chest where no one else can see their
              answer. See finger signals below.
Three         What I knew.
              What I know now.
Column        What I want to learn.
Chart         Anticipatory Chart
              KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned)
              http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2kwl.htm


Signal        Teacher can use whatever index cards desired, for example, red, green,
              and yellow cards – this way students can signal a variety of things –
Cards         lost (red), confused (yellow), fully understand (green); complete
              sentence, run-on, or fragments; animal, vegetable, mineral, etc. Can
              also be made out of cardstock or construction paper. Students can keep
              them in their desk or notebook.


One           This is a highly effective technique for checking student progress, both
              in understanding the material and in reacting to course material. Ask
Minute        students to take out a blank sheet of paper, pose a question (either
Paper         specific or open-ended), and give them one (or perhaps two - but not
              many more) minute(s) to respond. For example: How are John Locke’s
              propositions evidenced in the Declaration of Independence? What is
              "geographical determinism?" etc. Another good use of the minute
              paper is to ask questions like "What was the main point of today’s class
              material?" This tells you whether or not the students are viewing the
              material in the way you envisioned.
              http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/main.htm

Finger        Students are asked questions and instructed to signal their answers by
              holding up the appropriate number of fingers For example, the teacher
Signals       might say "one finger for 'yes', two for 'no'" and then ask questions
              such as Do all organic compounds contain carbon? Or, the instructor
              might put up multiple choice questions prepared on the Smart Board
              and have the answers numbered (1) through (5), asking students to
              answer with finger signals. Can also be done with Activotes, Dry erase
              boards, or Fist to Five activity – see below.
Sorting       Index cards, strips of paper, laminated pictures, or other objects can be
              moved and arranged to help teachers know who understands
Cards,        vocabulary terms, definitions, scientific terms, categorizing, etc.
Pictures,     Can also be used for critical thinking activities.
Etc.
I Have the         Pre-select your questions and make the number of cards you want each
                   student to have (example, 30 students, 10 questions, each student
Answer,            would need a mixture of 5 different answers paper clipped together –
who has the        they won’t all have the same answers or even the answer to every
question           question.) Have students lay their cards out in front of them on their
                   desk. Ask the question and only the students with the right answer
Response           should be holding up a card. Announce correct answer. You can
Cards              check general class comprehension.
                   A simpler version would be to use the Activslate or a white board and
                   dry erase marker and have children produce the answer themselves. An
                   easy “dry erase board” students can keep in their binders is made of a
                   clear report sleeve with a piece of white xerographic paper inserted into
                   it.

                   Can also be used for review or practice.

Hot Potato         Divide students into group with the number of responses to the
                   question equaling the number of students in the group. For example if
                   you are conjugating verbs, you would need 6 students for each of the 6
                   persons. Using a soft stuffed toy or Nerf ball, toss the toy out to the
                   first team. As you play music, the teams toss the toy around to each
                   group. When you stop the music, the team with the toy has to do the
                   task you assign out loud to the class, e.g. Conjugate run in the present
                   perfect tense. When they have completed the task, play the music and
                   go to the second round. This gives you a good idea of who in the
                   group cannot perform without help or of overall class comprehension
                   of the task.



            SIS – Summarizing Information Successfully
         Carousel          Use large sized Post It pads or butcher block paper –
                           write question at top of papers (determined by how
        Gallery Walk       many groups you will have), a different color of
                                       marker for each question/group. Give groups the
                                       corresponding marker and send them to the poster
Variation:                             with their color. They have 2 minutes to write as
Have students walk silently            many examples or answers to the question as they
around the room viewing the            can think of. After 2 minutes they move to the next
posters and taking notes. They         poster and add items not listed by the first group in 1
could make note of what they saw       minute. Rotate through all posters until students end
and use it for further discussion or   up at their original poster. Have them write their
ticket out the door.                   names of the back in their color of marker, so you
                                       know whose answers go with what color. You can
                                       total points and declare winners (mark out incorrect
                                       answers). Play music to signal rotations for added
                         liveliness and engagement.
      Headlines          Headlines can be used as both a formative and
                         summative activity. Put students in groups and ask
                         them to pretend they are journalists making a
                         headline for the topic you are studying. Post
                         headlines around the room. At the end of the lesson
                         ask students to revise their headline and explain
                         why.
                         From Making Thinking Visible, Ritchhart, 2011.
Core Thinking Routines   I used to think…Now I think… - use as ticket out
                         the door.

  3-2-1 Countdown        At the end of a class period, students record 3
                         things, 2 things and 1 thing. Teachers can change
                         these “things” to specifically meet the summarizing
                         needs of that particular lesson.
                         Example:

                                             3-2-1 Countdown

                              3 – List three new
                              things you learned
                              today:
                                                     2 – List two questions that
                                                     could be used for review
                                                     tomorrow:




                                                    1- One question you still
                                                    have, or one thing that might
                                                    still be unclear to you.
                                     Resources

Harvard Project Zero. Visible Thinking Project.
http://pzweb.harvard.edu/vt/VisibleThinking_html_files/01_VisibleThinkingInAction/01
a_VTInAction.html

Thinking Routines Matrix. Ron Ritchhart, Cultures of Thinking Project, Harvard.
http://www.ronritchhart.com/COT_Resources_files/Thinking%20Routines%20Matrix_V
2.doc
A copy of Making Thinking Visible will be placed in every school’s resource room.

NCREL. Authentic Instruction.
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le4auth.htm

Shasta County Schools. Active Engagement Strategies for Explicit Instruction. 2008-09.
http://www.shastacoe.org/uploaded/Dept/is/District_Support/Active_Engagement_Strate
gies.ppt




                                Ron Ritchhart, Harvard’s Cultures of Thinking Project

								
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