ERNEST HEMINGWAY Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, influenced 20th-century fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image. He produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Hemingway's fiction was successful because the characters he presented exhibited authenticity that resonated with his audience. Many of his works are classics of American literature. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works during his lifetime; a further three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Hemingway was born and raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After leaving high school he worked for a few months as a reporter for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to become an ambulance driver during World War I, which became the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. He was seriously wounded and returned home within the year. In 1922 Hemingway married the first of his four wives, and the couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent. During his time there he met and was influenced by modernist writers and artists of the 1920s expatriate community known as the "Lost Generation". His first novel, The Sun Also Rises, was written in 1924. After Hemingway's return from covering the Spanish Civil War, he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. During World War II he was present at D-Day and the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952 Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and '40s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961. Torrenti di primavera, Einaudi, Torino, 1951, trad. di B. Fonzi L'invincibile (cinque racconti), pref. di S. Surace, Jandi-Sapi, 1944 E il sole sorge ancora (noto anche con il titolo "Fiesta"), tr. di R. Dandolo, Jandi-Sapi, 1944; Fiesta, Einaudi, Torino 1946, trad. G. Trevisan Addio alle armi , tr. di B. Fonzi, Jandi-Sapi, 1945; tr. di Fernanda Pivano, Mondadori, 1949 Per chi suona la campana, tr. di M. Napolitano Martore, Mondadori, 1946 La quinta colonna, tr. di G. Trevisani, Einaudi, 1946 Verdi colline d'Africa, tr. di G. Carancini, Jandi-Sapi, 1946; Uomini senza donne, tr. di A. Salomone, Elios, 1946 Chi ha e chi non ha, Jandi-Sapi 1945, trad. B. Fonzi; Avere e non avere, Einaudi, Torino 1946, trad. G. Monicelli Morte nel pomeriggio, tr. di F. Pivano, Einaudi, 1947 I quarantanove racconti, tr. di G. Trevisani, Einaudi, 1947 Il vecchio e il mare, tr. di F. Pivano, Mondadori, 1952 Di là dal fiume e tra gli alberi, tr. di F. Pivano, Mondadori, 1965 Il giardino dell'Eden, tr. di M. D'Amico, Mondadori, 1987 A Moveable Feast, 1964; Festa mobile, tr. di V. Mantovani, Mondadori, 1964 Island in the Stream, 1970; Isole nella corrente, tr. di V. Mantovani, Mondadori, 1970 The Nick Adams Stories, 1972; I racconti di Nick Adams, tr. di G. Trevisani, Mondadori, 1973 Il leone buono, tr. di R. Mamoli Zorzi, illustrazioni di E. Agostinelli, Emme, 1978 Il toro fedele, tr. di R. Mamoli Zorzi, illustrazioni di M. Foreman, Emme, 1980 88 Poems, 1979; 88 Poesie, intr. e tr. di V. Mantovani, Mondadori, 1982 True at first light (Vero all'alba), Mondadori, Milano 1999, THE SUN ALSO RISES The title is taken from the first chapter of Ecclesiastes, Hemingway's favourite book of the Old Testament, and the tone of this novel also expresses the searching, questioning tone of world- weary king of Ecclesiastes. They all want to know if there is 'something new under the sun' that they have yet to experience. Set in the 1920's, a relatively well-off group of expatriate Americans enjoy life in Paris but need new thrills. Brett, the aristocratic femme fatale, and Jake, a man of the world, travel to Spain for the fiesta and the bull fighting (the book is also published under the title 'Fiesta'). Other men are inevitably attracted to Brett, and although she is aware that men will still fight over her, at thirty-four she does not have very much longer to settle down with just one man - if only she could bring herself to even contemplate it. She seems paralysed by fear of commitment, children, settling down and being left on the shelf. A FAREWELL TO ARMS Composto febbrilmente tra il 1928 e il 1929, "Addio alle armi" è la storia di amore e guerra che Hemingway aveva sempre meditato di scrivere ispirandosi alle sue esperienze del 1918 sul fronte italiano, e in particolare alla ferita riportata a Fossalta e alla passione per l'infermiera Agnes von Kurowsky. I temi della guerra, dell'amore e della morte, che per diversi aspetti sono alla base di tutta l'opera di Hemingway, trovano in questo romanzo uno spazio e un'articolazione particolari. È la vicenda stessa a stimolare emozioni e sentimenti collegati agli incanti, ma anche alle estreme precarietà dell'esistenza, alla rivolta contro la violenza e il sangue ingiustamente versato. La diserzione del giovane ufficiale americano durante la ritirata di Caporetto si rivela, col ricongiungimento tra il protagonista e la donna della quale è innamorato, una decisa condanna di quanto di inumano appartiene alla guerra. Ma anche l'amore, in questa vicenda segnata da una tragica sconfitta della felicità, rimane un'aspirazione che l'uomo insegue disperatamente, prigioniero di forze misteriose contro le quali sembra inutile lottare. FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS (*) Un episodio di guerriglia durante la guerra civile spagnola, un ponte che deve essere fatto saltare, un piccolo gruppo di partigiani uniti dall'unica speranza che "un giorno ogni pericolo sia vinto e il paese sia un posto dove si vive bene"; in mezzo a tutto questo, Robert Jordan, il dinamitardo, l'inglés giunto da Madrid per organizzare la distruzione del ponte. Robert è un irregolare nell'esercito repubblicano, un intellettuale votato a una causa che, tra mille dubbi, egli sente non meno sua degli altri: perché al di là di ogni errore e di ogni violenza ci sia pace e libertà per tutti. THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA Santiago is an old man, and many are starting to think that he can no longer fish. He has gone for many months without landing any kind of fish to speak of; and his apprentice, a young man named Manolin, has gone to work for a more prosperous boat. The fisherman sets out into the open sea and goes a little further out than he normally would in his desperation to catch a fish. At noon, a big Marlin takes hold of one of the lines, but the fish is far too big for him to handle. Hemingway pays great attention to the skill and dexterity that Santiago uses in coping with the fish. Santiago lets the fish have enough line, so that it won't break his pole; but he and his boat are dragged out to sea for three days. Finally, the fish--an enormous and worthy opponent--grows tired; and Santiago kills it. Even this final victory does not end the Santiago's journey; he is a still far, far out to sea. To make matters worse, Santiago drags the Marlin behind the boat (and the blood from the dead fish attracts sharks). Santiago does his best to beat the sharks away, but his efforts are not enough. The sharks eat the flesh off the Marlin, and Santiago is left with only the bones. Santiago gets back to shore--weary and tired--with nothing to show for his pains but the skeletal remains of a large Marlin. Even with just the bare remains of the fish, the experience has changed him, and altered the perception others have of him. Manolin wakes him the morning after his return and suggests that they once more fish together ISOLE NELLA CORRENTE Islands in the Stream was meant to encompass three stories to illustrate different stages in the life of its main character, Thomas Hudson. The three different parts of the novel were originally to be entitled "The Sea When Young", "The Sea When Absent" and "The Sea in Being". These titles were changed, however, into what are now its three acts: "Bimini", "Cuba", and "At Sea". (*) John Donne (1572-1631) “No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were: any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bells tolls; it tolls for thee."
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