Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. His father
Clarence Edmonds Hemingway was a physician, and his mother, Grace was a musician.
Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School from 1913 until 1917 where he wrote for and
edited the school's newspaper for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen
name Ring Lardner, Jr.
Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before
becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a reporter.
Early in 1918 Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort and signed on to be an ambulance
driver in Italy which became the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. Where he was seriously wounded
by mortar fire.
Hemingway was seriously wounded by mortar fire and spent six months in the hospital, where he met and
fell in love with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse. Agnes and Hemingway planned to marry, but she
became engaged to an Italian officer in March 1919. Biographer Jeffrey Meyers claims Hemingway was
devastated by Agnes' rejection, and that he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned
him in future relationships.
In 1922 Hemingway married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives, and the couple moved to Paris,
where he worked as a foreign correspondent. During his time there he met and was influenced
by modernist writers and artists of the 1920s expatriate community known as the "Lost Generation". His first
novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926.
The couple were divorced in January 1927, and Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer in May.
Pfeiffer was from Arkansas—her family was wealthy and Catholic—and before the marriage Hemingway
converted to Catholicism.
They divorced following Hemingway's return from covering the Spanish Civil War, after which he wrote For
Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, but he left her for Mary Welsh
Hemingway after World War II.
Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952 Hemingway went on safari to Africa,
where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life.
The next day, attempting to reach medical care in Entebbe, they boarded a second plane that exploded at
take-off with Hemingway suffering burns and another concussion. After the plane crashes, Hemingway, who
had been "a thinly controlled alcoholic throughout much of his life, drank more heavily than usual to combat
the pain of his injuries.“
In October 1954 Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature. Because he was suffering pain from
the African accidents, he decided against traveling to Stockholm. Instead he sent a speech to be read,
defining the writer's life: "Writing, at its best, is a lonely life.
In 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where in the early morning hours of July 2, 1961,
Hemingway "quite deliberately" shot himself with his favorite shotgun.